UNIVERSITY OF CARABOBO
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
MODERN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
ENGLISH LINGUISTICS AND GRAMMAR
Barbula, January 21st, 2012
All the languages comes from Romans and Greeks.
The Traditional Grammar has a long tradition with it.
There are ideas about:
• New genders (Protagoras)
• Sentence structure ( Aristotle and Plato)
• The parts of speech ( The Stoic grammarians)
• Scholastic study of Latin Grammar (Middle Ages)
• Discovery of Sanskrit grammar (XVIII Century)
• Inner and outer form (Humboldt)
It is credited with the distinction of the three genders in Greek.
(Masculine, feminine and things).
PLATO (c.429-437 B.C.)
His contribution was the distinction between nouns and verbs.
Onoma: noun, it can mean subject, nominal name.
Rhema: verb, it can mean verb, predicate. This includes verbs
and also adjectives, but Plato did not call it adjectives.
Onoma and Rhema are the constituents of the logos (sentence)
His contributions were :
He kept the Platonic distinction between nouns and verbs.
He added a further distinctic class ( The conjunctions)
Recognition of the category of tense in the Greek verb. ( The
systematic variations in forms of the verb could be correlated
with such temporal notions (present and past).
Stoics gave the most attention to the language.
Stoics: distinction between form and meaning.
They contributed with four parts of speech:
DIONYSIUS THRAX (late second century B.C)
To Dionysius deal with the language of the previous era was
something that he thought was important.
His method has two steps:
•Morphology (no syntax)
He contributed with four more parts of speech to the list of four
of the Stoic:
The first Latin Grammar was written by VARRO (1166- 27 B.C.)
His distinctions between derivation and inflection.
Varro set up the following system of our inflectionally contrasting
• Those with case inflection (nouns including adjectives)
• Those with tense inflection (verbs)
• Those with case and tense inflection (participles)
• Those with neither (adverb)
PRISCIAN (C. A.D.500)
His contribution was to transfer as far as he could the
grammatical system of Thrax’s grammar, as well as the writings of
Apollonius, to Latin.
The omission of the article and the inclusion of the interjection.
Sanskrit is the ancient sacred language of India. It is believed to
be the oldest language of the world.
William Jones, a British judge and Orientals, noted that Sanskrit
possessed vocabulary and grammatical structures very similar to
many other languages, including Greek, Latin, and even English.
Sanskrit is a member of the Indo-European language family.
A Hindu Indian grammarian by the name of Pāṇini recorded rules
of Sanskrit grammar.
Inner form: The inner form of a word would be more precisely
defined as the semantic or structural correlation of the lexical or
grammatical morpheme of a word with other morphemes of the
particular language that may occur in the mind of a speaker when
analyzing the structure of that word.
Outer form: (“the expression that language creates for
Taken together, the inner and outer forms constitute the form of
To establish for the language a position
To establish rules
To devise methods
To perpetuate a historical model
Based on theoretical and Philosophical issues
Traditional grammar is prescriptive
The study is for pedagogical purposes
One term conclusion
and all Greeks
then all Greeks are mortals.
The square of opposition.
The divine comedy.
The Arabian nights.
During the Trojan War
king Agamemnon and
The warrior Achiles
Major ancient Greek
a sequel of the Iliad
The Hero Oddysseus
Penelope and son
The Mnesteres or Proci
(Reflected in presciptive
• Written language was purer than
Derives from philosophical
The task of interpreting
Reflect ancient and medieval attempts.
Grammar, logic and metaphysics.
• Morphology (art of cambining)
• Sintax ( art of ordening)
• Prosody ( art of pronouncing)
• Orthography ( art of writing)
THE BOOK THAT JOHN LENT ME IS INTERESTING.
1.- Grammatical Analysis
2.- Logical Analysis
Based on rules & principles.
Inductive approach (example rule exercise).
Written language prior to spoken language.
Synchronic (the study of language at a given point
The parts of speech (verb, noun, pronoun, adjective,
adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection).
Description of grammatical rules.
Historical linguistics (how language changes).
Metalanguage (use of italics, symbols; !” &¿?, words in bold
in order to describe or analyze language).
Prescriptivism (what is socially & politically correct).
Classical fallacy (error in reasoning, vagueness).
Exercises out of context.
Focus on written language, not the spoken one.
focus on orthography, not in sentence constructions.
Predominance of morphology rather than syntax.
Mary who is my sister is a teacher
Mary: proper noun, feminine, subject of the verb “be”
Who: relative pronoun
Is: verb to be, 3rd person singular
My: possessive, 1st person
Sister: common noun, singular
Is: verb to be, 3rd person
A: indefinite article
Teacher: common noun, singular
Mary is a teacher: main clause
Who is my sister: subordinate clause