gramática tradicional


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gramática tradicional

  2. 2. All the languages comes from Romans and Greeks. The Traditional Grammar has a long tradition with it. There are ideas about: • New genders (Protagoras) • Sentence structure ( Aristotle and Plato) • The parts of speech ( The Stoic grammarians) • Scholastic study of Latin Grammar (Middle Ages) • Discovery of Sanskrit grammar (XVIII Century) • Inner and outer form (Humboldt)
  3. 3. PROTAGORAS (fifth-century) It is credited with the distinction of the three genders in Greek. (Masculine, feminine and things). PLATO (c.429-437 B.C.) His contribution was the distinction between nouns and verbs. Onoma: noun, it can mean subject, nominal name. Rhema: verb, it can mean verb, predicate. This includes verbs and also adjectives, but Plato did not call it adjectives. Onoma and Rhema are the constituents of the logos (sentence)
  4. 4. ARISTOTLE (322-384) His contributions were : He kept the Platonic distinction between nouns and verbs. He added a further distinctic class ( The conjunctions) Recognition of the category of tense in the Greek verb. ( The systematic variations in forms of the verb could be correlated with such temporal notions (present and past). Stoics gave the most attention to the language. Stoics: distinction between form and meaning. They contributed with four parts of speech: •Noun •Verb •Conjunction •Article
  5. 5. DIONYSIUS THRAX (late second century B.C) To Dionysius deal with the language of the previous era was something that he thought was important. His method has two steps: •Phonology •Morphology (no syntax) He contributed with four more parts of speech to the list of four of the Stoic: •Adverbs •Participle •Pronoun •Preposition
  6. 6. The first Latin Grammar was written by VARRO (1166- 27 B.C.) His distinctions between derivation and inflection. Varro set up the following system of our inflectionally contrasting classes: • Those with case inflection (nouns including adjectives) • Those with tense inflection (verbs) • Those with case and tense inflection (participles) • Those with neither (adverb) PRISCIAN (C. A.D.500) His contribution was to transfer as far as he could the grammatical system of Thrax’s grammar, as well as the writings of Apollonius, to Latin. The omission of the article and the inclusion of the interjection.
  7. 7. Sanskrit is the ancient sacred language of India. It is believed to be the oldest language of the world. William Jones, a British judge and Orientals, noted that Sanskrit possessed vocabulary and grammatical structures very similar to many other languages, including Greek, Latin, and even English. Sanskrit is a member of the Indo-European language family. A Hindu Indian grammarian by the name of Pāṇini recorded rules of Sanskrit grammar.
  8. 8. (HUMBOLT 1767-1835) Inner form: The inner form of a word would be more precisely defined as the semantic or structural correlation of the lexical or grammatical morpheme of a word with other morphemes of the particular language that may occur in the mind of a speaker when analyzing the structure of that word. Outer form: (“the expression that language creates for thinking”) Taken together, the inner and outer forms constitute the form of language.
  9. 9. To establish for the language a position To establish rules To devise methods To organize To perpetuate a historical model
  10. 10. Based on theoretical and Philosophical issues Traditional grammar is prescriptive The study is for pedagogical purposes
  11. 11. Aristotelian logic Formal based dealing relations form propositions The syllogistic theory inferences premise premise Categorical sentence Categorical sentence One term conclusion
  12. 12. middleterm  major premise All men Majorterm are mortals minorterm  minor premise and all Greeks are men middleterm  conclusion then all Greeks are mortals.
  13. 13.  Propositions.  The square of opposition.  Conversion.
  14. 14.  The divine comedy.  The Arabian nights.  Poetics.  The Iliad.  The Odyssey.
  15. 15. Epic poem During the Trojan War quarrel between king Agamemnon and The warrior Achiles The siege
  16. 16. Major ancient Greek a sequel of the Iliad The Hero Oddysseus Journey Penelope and son The Mnesteres or Proci
  17. 17. AUTHORITY CRITERION (Reflected in presciptive feature) Prescription Judgmnent Speech community Witter or proffessor Dictionary makers Prescriptive authority Community Large
  18. 18. Clasical Fallacy Idea languages Golden period evolve degenerate grammarians speech Arresting
  19. 19. • Written language was purer than spoken one. Derives from philosophical speculations. The task of interpreting written texts.
  20. 20.  Reflect ancient and medieval attempts.  Grammar, logic and metaphysics.  Eight categories.
  21. 21. MAJOR PARTS Nouns Proper Common Count Non-count Verbs Transitive Ditransitive Intransitive Adjectives Descriptive Demontratives Possesives Adverb Place Time Manner
  22. 22. MINOR PARTS Articles Preposition Conjuction Indefinite Definite Spatial relations Syntactic functios Semantic roles Conects: Two words Sentences Phrases Clauses One syllable Word Exclamation
  23. 23. • Morphology (art of cambining) • Sintax ( art of ordening) • Prosody ( art of pronouncing) • Orthography ( art of writing)
  24. 24. Subject Grammatical Sentence Predicate Simple Sentences Compound Complex Clauses Independent Subordinate
  25. 25. THE BOOK THAT JOHN LENT ME IS INTERESTING. 1.- Grammatical Analysis 2.- Logical Analysis
  26. 26.  Based on rules & principles.  Inductive approach (example rule exercise).  Written language prior to spoken language.  Synchronic (the study of language at a given point in time).
  27. 27.  The parts of speech (verb, noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection).  Description of grammatical rules.  Historical linguistics (how language changes).  Metalanguage (use of italics, symbols; !” &¿?, words in bold in order to describe or analyze language).
  28. 28. Prescriptivism (what is socially & politically correct). Classical fallacy (error in reasoning, vagueness). Exercises out of context. Focus on written language, not the spoken one. focus on orthography, not in sentence constructions. Predominance of morphology rather than syntax.
  29. 29. Mary who is my sister is a teacher •Grammatical Analysis: Mary: proper noun, feminine, subject of the verb “be” Who: relative pronoun Is: verb to be, 3rd person singular My: possessive, 1st person Sister: common noun, singular Is: verb to be, 3rd person A: indefinite article Teacher: common noun, singular •Logical analysis: Mary is a teacher: main clause Who is my sister: subordinate clause