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History of linguistics 1


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History of Linguistics in ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Ancient India.

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History of linguistics 1

  1. 1. History of Linguistics Theme 1. Ancient Greece. Ancient Rome. Ancient India. Arabic Linguistics.
  2. 2. Ancient Greece • The most general, philosophical questions of language, such as the origin of human speech; • Questions concerning structural categories in language, including phonetics; • Questions concerning usage (from the point of correctness) • Linguistic questions connected with the study of literary forms and rhetoric.
  3. 3.  The central philosophical problem of language in ancient Greece was the problem of the relation between the words and the things they signify.
  4. 4. Heraclitus (ab. 544- ab. 483 B.C.)  Language is inherent in nature (physei)
  5. 5. Democritus (ab.460-370 B.C.)  Language is created by the people (thesei)
  6. 6. Plato (427-347 B.C.) Cratylus, or about the Correctness of Names - Usage in people’s community
  7. 7. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) The theory of word classes  The theory of the sentence 
  8. 8. Alexandria (2 c. B.C. – 2 c. A.D.)    Aristarchus (ab.217-145 B.C.) Dionysius Thrix (ab. 170-90 B.C.) Apollonius Dyscolus (the 2 nd c. A.D.)
  9. 9. Alexandria Parts of speech:  Inflected (name, verb, particle, article, pronoun)  Uninflected (preposition, adverb, conjunction)
  10. 10. Alexandria The sentence is “a combination of words expressing a complete thought”
  11. 11. Alexandria The word is “an articulate sound with a certain meaning out of which the sentence is composed, and into which it is decomposed”
  12. 12. Alexandria phonetic structure Speech sounds (“letters”):  Vowels  Semi-vowels  Non-vowels The principle of the classification is the syllable-forming function of sounds.
  13. 13. Ancient Rome  Varro (116-27 B. C)  Donatus (4th century A. D.)  Priscian (6th century A.D.)
  14. 14. Ancient Rome Etymology luna  lu-na,  lucere- (shine)  nox – (night) Luna is a celestial body which shines at night. The connection between luna and lucere is obvious but luna has nothing in common with nox.
  15. 15. Ancient India Factors for rise to grammatical teaching:  Interpretation (“knowledge”) Panini of the Vedas
  16. 16. Panini discovered the morphological structure of the word: the root, the stem, the suffix;  classified the words of the language according to formative characteristics;  investigated all the types of declination and conjugation. 
  17. 17. Phonetics study      Organs of speech; Description of sounds in accord with their articulation; Active organs of speech: (lips, three parts of the tongue (front, middle, and back), larynx); Phonetic changes on the borders of words and affixes Division of sounds into vowels, consonants and semi-vowels.
  18. 18. Morphology Four parts of speech: name (denoting substance), verb (denoting action), particles and prepositions. Pronouns and adverbs are distributed among nouns and verbs.
  19. 19. Arabic Linguistics Abu 'Abd Ar-Rahman Khalīl ibn Ahmad Al Farāhīdi (More commonly known as Al Farāhīdi) (ab. 718–ab. 791) Kitab al-'Ayn
  20. 20. Lexicography Dictionaries:  Explanatory  thematic  of synonyms  of rare words  of borrowings  translation
  21. 21. Grammar     parts of speech (name, verb and particles); three-consonant roots, flexions and affixes; three types of sentences(nominal, verbal and adverbial); syntactic relations(agreement, government and adjoinment).