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Introduction
 The pragmatic principles people accept by in one
language are often different in another.
 Cross-linguisti...
Classical Pragmatics
Far-side Pragmatics: Beyond Saying
1- Austin, Searle, and Speech Acts
2-Grice and Conversational Impl...
Austin, Searle, and Speech Acts
We can use words to do different things such as the
meaning of anything is not only restri...
For Example:
I'll be there to pick you up at six
Is to promise to pick her listener up
at that time.
The ability to promis...
Grice and Conversational
Implicatures
Its main emphasize was on what the speaker literally says
when using them, and what ...
Bach, Harnish, and a Unified
Theory
 Like Austin, but unlike Searle, Bach and Harnish argue
for the concept of locutionar...
For Example:
Don't go into the water.
In this sentence there is a warning to the listener not to
go into the water. If the...
Near-side Pragmatics
 Kaplan on Indexical and Demonstratives
 Pragmatic Puzzles of Referentialism
 Stalnaker on Context...
Kaplan on Indexical and
Demonstratives
 Indexical means points to something and
Demonstratives means indicative or sugges...
Pragmatic Puzzles of
Referentialism
 Referentialism is a theory of language that claims that
the meaning of a word or exp...
For example
 Hesperus is visible in the eastern sky.
 Phosphorus is visible in the eastern sky.
Stalnaker on Context and Content
one will assume or presuppose from the context and
content.
For Example:
 Hiba knows the...
Contemporary pragmatic theory
 Two models of Linguistics Communication
 Relevance theory
Principles of relevance
Implica...
3 stages of development
 There are three stages in the development of
pragmatics.
 The 1st stage occurred in 1930s. The ...
Pragmatics
 In 1938, Carnap said that pragmatics should focus on
relationship between users, words and reference
relationship.
 In ...
 The 3rd Stage: in 1977, Jacob L. Mey published the 1st
Journal of Pragmatics in Holland.
 In 1983, Levinson wrote his b...
Schools of Pragmatics
 There are two schools of pragmatics: Br. And
Am.school and European School.
 British and American...
 The European school had a wider focus. It focused on
macro-pragmatics scope like conversational analysis,
cultural anthr...
The history-of-pragmatics
The history-of-pragmatics
The history-of-pragmatics
The history-of-pragmatics
The history-of-pragmatics
The history-of-pragmatics
The history-of-pragmatics
The history-of-pragmatics
The history-of-pragmatics
The history-of-pragmatics
The history-of-pragmatics
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The history-of-pragmatics

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The brief and authentic History of pragmatics.

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The history-of-pragmatics

  1. 1. Introduction  The pragmatic principles people accept by in one language are often different in another.  Cross-linguistics( relating to different languages) and cross-cultural studies reported what is considered polite in one language is sometimes not polite in another.  Pragmatics is a new branch of linguistics, research on it can be dated back to ancient Greece and Rome where the term ‘pragmaticus’ is found in late Latin and ‘pragmaticos’ in Greek, both meaning fit for an action.
  2. 2. Classical Pragmatics Far-side Pragmatics: Beyond Saying 1- Austin, Searle, and Speech Acts 2-Grice and Conversational Implicatures 3- Bach, Harnish, and a Unified Theory
  3. 3. Austin, Searle, and Speech Acts We can use words to do different things such as the meaning of anything is not only restricted to the literal meaning of word, but what one intends to do with them and the social setting in which the linguistic activity occurs.
  4. 4. For Example: I'll be there to pick you up at six Is to promise to pick her listener up at that time. The ability to promise and to fulfill that promise is possibly depended on the existence of a social practice or set of conventions about what a promise is . Austin especially emphasized the importance of social fact and conventions in doing things with words.
  5. 5. Grice and Conversational Implicatures Its main emphasize was on what the speaker literally says when using them, and what the speaker means or intends to communicate by using those words. For example:- I ask you to lunch and you reply, “I have a one o'clock class I'm not prepared for.” You have conveyed to me that you will not be coming to lunch, although you haven't literally said so but you intend for me to figure out that by indicating a reason for not coming to lunch.
  6. 6. Bach, Harnish, and a Unified Theory  Like Austin, but unlike Searle, Bach and Harnish argue for the concept of locutionary acts.  Locutionary act is a speech act (A speech act in linguistics is a statement that has performative function in language and communication).
  7. 7. For Example: Don't go into the water. In this sentence there is a warning to the listener not to go into the water. If the listener notices the warning the speech-act has been successful. I warn you to stop smoking.
  8. 8. Near-side Pragmatics  Kaplan on Indexical and Demonstratives  Pragmatic Puzzles of Referentialism  Stalnaker on Context and Content
  9. 9. Kaplan on Indexical and Demonstratives  Indexical means points to something and Demonstratives means indicative or suggested evidence.  Paradigmatic examples of indexicals are ‘I’, ‘here’, ‘today‘ he , there , yesterday’,  Both Ali and Aliha utter ‘I am hungry’, Aliha says that she is hungry, whereas Ali says that he is hungry.
  10. 10. Pragmatic Puzzles of Referentialism  Referentialism is a theory of language that claims that the meaning of a word or expression lies in what it points out in the world.  Widow’ denotes widows and means the attributes of being female, and of having been married to someone now dead.  Hespherus is visible in the eastern sky” and “Phosphorus is visible in the eastern sky.”
  11. 11. For example  Hesperus is visible in the eastern sky.  Phosphorus is visible in the eastern sky.
  12. 12. Stalnaker on Context and Content one will assume or presuppose from the context and content. For Example:  Hiba knows the sea is salty. One will assume or presuppose, that the sea is salty  The Queen of England has many necklaces. one will assume or presuppose that queen has many necklaces.
  13. 13. Contemporary pragmatic theory  Two models of Linguistics Communication  Relevance theory Principles of relevance Implicated evidences and conclusion  Levinson's theory of utterance-type meaning  Literalists, Minimalist, contextualists and other.
  14. 14. 3 stages of development  There are three stages in the development of pragmatics.  The 1st stage occurred in 1930s. The term “Pragmatics” was used at a the 1st time. It was the branch of Semiology/semiotics= the study of signs.
  15. 15. Pragmatics
  16. 16.  In 1938, Carnap said that pragmatics should focus on relationship between users, words and reference relationship.  In 1940, Charles Morris divided semiology into 3 parts: syntactics/syntax, semantics and pragmatics.  Then, the 2nd stage: From 1950 to 1960: 3 philosophers: Austin, Searle and Paul Grice established their theory of Speech act and implicature theory.
  17. 17.  The 3rd Stage: in 1977, Jacob L. Mey published the 1st Journal of Pragmatics in Holland.  In 1983, Levinson wrote his book “Pragmatics” whereas Geoffrey Leech wrote his “Principle of pragmatics”.  In 1988,the set up of International Pragmatics Association (IPrA). This was a year which noted as a year when pragmatics turned into an independent discipline.
  18. 18. Schools of Pragmatics  There are two schools of pragmatics: Br. And Am.school and European School.  British and American school had a focus on sentence structure and grammar: deictic expression, conversational implicature, presupposition, speech and conversational structure. It was called : Micro- pragmatics.
  19. 19.  The European school had a wider focus. It focused on macro-pragmatics scope like conversational analysis, cultural anthropology, social linguistics and psycholinguistics in the process of communication.

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