The pragmatic principles people accept by in one
language are often different in another.
Cross-linguistics( relating to different languages) and
cross-cultural studies reported what is considered
polite in one language is sometimes not polite in
Pragmatics is a new branch of linguistics, research on
it can be dated back to ancient Greece and Rome
where the term ‘pragmaticus’ is found in late Latin
and ‘pragmaticos’ in Greek, both meaning fit for an
Far-side Pragmatics: Beyond Saying
1- Austin, Searle, and Speech Acts
2-Grice and Conversational Implicatures
3- Bach, Harnish, and a Unified Theory
Austin, Searle, and Speech Acts
We can use words to do different things such as the
meaning of anything is not only restricted to the literal
meaning of word, but what one intends to do with them
and the social setting in which the linguistic activity
I'll be there to pick you up at six
Is to promise to pick her listener up
at that time.
The ability to promise and to fulfill that promise is
possibly depended on the existence of a social practice or
set of conventions about what a promise is .
Austin especially emphasized the importance of social
fact and conventions in doing things with words.
Grice and Conversational
Its main emphasize was on what the speaker literally says
when using them, and what the speaker means or
intends to communicate by using those words.
I ask you to lunch and you reply, “I have a one o'clock
class I'm not prepared for.”
You have conveyed to me that you will not be coming to
lunch, although you haven't literally said so but you
intend for me to figure out that by indicating a reason
for not coming to lunch.
Bach, Harnish, and a Unified
Like Austin, but unlike Searle, Bach and Harnish argue
for the concept of locutionary acts.
Locutionary act is a speech act (A speech act in
linguistics is a statement that has performative
function in language and communication).
Don't go into the water.
In this sentence there is a warning to the listener not to
go into the water. If the listener notices the warning the
speech-act has been successful.
I warn you to stop smoking.
Kaplan on Indexical and Demonstratives
Pragmatic Puzzles of Referentialism
Stalnaker on Context and Content
Kaplan on Indexical and
Indexical means points to something and
Demonstratives means indicative or suggested
Paradigmatic examples of indexicals are ‘I’, ‘here’,
‘today‘ he , there , yesterday’,
Both Ali and Aliha utter ‘I am hungry’,
Aliha says that she is hungry, whereas Ali says that he
Pragmatic Puzzles of
Referentialism is a theory of language that claims that
the meaning of a word or expression lies in what it
points out in the world.
Widow’ denotes widows and means the attributes of
being female, and of having been married to someone
Hespherus is visible in the eastern sky” and
“Phosphorus is visible in the eastern sky.”
Hesperus is visible in the eastern sky.
Phosphorus is visible in the eastern sky.
Stalnaker on Context and Content
one will assume or presuppose from the context and
Hiba knows the sea is salty.
One will assume or presuppose, that the sea is salty
The Queen of England has many necklaces.
one will assume or presuppose that queen has many
Contemporary pragmatic theory
Two models of Linguistics Communication
Principles of relevance
Implicated evidences and conclusion
Levinson's theory of utterance-type meaning
Literalists, Minimalist, contextualists and other.
3 stages of development
There are three stages in the development of
The 1st stage occurred in 1930s. The term “Pragmatics”
was used at a the 1st time. It was the branch of
Semiology/semiotics= the study of signs.
In 1938, Carnap said that pragmatics should focus on
relationship between users, words and reference
In 1940, Charles Morris divided semiology into 3 parts:
syntactics/syntax, semantics and pragmatics.
Then, the 2nd stage: From 1950 to 1960: 3 philosophers:
Austin, Searle and Paul Grice established their theory
of Speech act and implicature theory.
The 3rd Stage: in 1977, Jacob L. Mey published the 1st
Journal of Pragmatics in Holland.
In 1983, Levinson wrote his book “Pragmatics” whereas
Geoffrey Leech wrote his “Principle of pragmatics”.
In 1988,the set up of International Pragmatics
Association (IPrA). This was a year which noted as a
year when pragmatics turned into an independent
Schools of Pragmatics
There are two schools of pragmatics: Br. And
Am.school and European School.
British and American school had a focus on sentence
structure and grammar: deictic expression,
conversational implicature, presupposition, speech and
conversational structure. It was called : Micro-
The European school had a wider focus. It focused on
macro-pragmatics scope like conversational analysis,
cultural anthropology, social linguistics and
psycholinguistics in the process of communication.