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Historical Linguistics


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Historical Linguistics

  1. 1. Historical linguistics Language change & Semantic change
  2. 2. Language change <ul><li>Speakers constantly need to communicate with each other in different circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>For this purpose they have to adapt language to changing communicative needs in a changing environment. </li></ul><ul><li>These changes occur in the sound, grammar. And modifications also occur in vocabulary and in the meaning of the words. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Language change <ul><li>Through the basic process of word formation of word formation all people are capable of producing words. </li></ul><ul><li>Such words result from the combination of morphemes. </li></ul><ul><li>speaker is seldom aware that he or she has used language creatively. </li></ul><ul><li>Language is, by its nature, productive. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>there are also the cases when truly new words appear, words that no speaker of the language has ever produced before. </li></ul><ul><li>Words may be added or lost in conjunction with cultural changes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Vocabulary changes <ul><li>Vocabulary changes occur through three main factors. </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary change </li></ul>Coinage Compounding & affixation Conversion
  6. 6. Coinage <ul><li>Languages also make or coin new words, entirely original creation, utilizing neither words from another language nor morphemes nor words already in use in one’s own language. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are jazz, quiz, fun, and snob. </li></ul>Morphemes are the smallest meaningful unit of a language.
  7. 7. coinage <ul><li>New words are also formed by combining existing words and morphemes into new, complex words. For example teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Onomatopoeia is a modified type of coining words . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Compounding and affixation <ul><li>Compounds are the combination of two independent words, i.e. free morphemes. For example 'guesthouse‘. </li></ul><ul><li>In affixation a bound morpheme is added to a base as a prefix or as a suffix. For example unlike, likeness. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conversion <ul><li>This is the change of word class without the addition of a formal suffix, for example from verb 'to cheat' to noun 'a cheat‘ . </li></ul><ul><li>A word changes its class i.e. undergoes a functional change such as adv or adj to v e.g. up > to up </li></ul>
  10. 10. shortening BBC, RP Initialism Ms, Mr. Abbreviations Prof, phone Clipping Smoke + fog > smog Motor + hotel > motel Blends Radar, unesco, tevta Acronym Example Process
  11. 11. Back formations or reanalysis <ul><li>A process where by which a word is formed by cutting off an imagined suffix from an existing word, owing to the morphological reinterpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>In back formation, a short word is created from a larger word on the basis of similarities between the longer word and other words in the language. For example , the word editor existed in lexicon of English long before the word edit . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Semantic changes <ul><li>Words and morphemes change their meanings in various ways, which shows the social context. </li></ul><ul><li>As we have example of the word pen . </li></ul><ul><li>Words have their individual history. </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic change is classified in two main types. </li></ul><ul><li>Extension and narrowing of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Grammaticalization </li></ul>