Decolonization of education through islamization and dewesternization
DECOLONIZATION OF EDUCATION THROUGH ISLAMIZATION AND DEWESTERNIZATION BY S. MANURUNGThe International Seminar on Decolonization of Education, 10 - 11 Apr 2012 Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara (UMSU) & Center for Islamic Development Management Studies (ISDEV), Universiti Sains Malaysia., (International)
FRAMEWORK1. INTODUCTION2. HISTORY OF DECOLONIZATION3. THE PHILOSOPHY OF ISLAMIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE4. THE WESTERN CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE5. DECOLONIZATION OF EDUCATION6. DECOLONIZATION OF EDUCATION WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF DEWESTERNIZATION AND ISLAMIZATION
INTRODUCTIONKnowledge -----Development--------CivilizationGreek /Yunani EraIslamic CivilizationDark age (Jahiliyyah) ----- Islam ------- TheGolden age of Islamic Civilization ------declineWestern CivilizationChurch Hegemony ----- Dark age ----- Decline ofthe Church Hegemony ------ Western CivilizationEra
• In understanding of Knowledge/Science: Worldview ----- Western IslamOnly Hereafter Word and Hereafter Colonialism & Decolonization Imperialism
• Colonialism: - Injuctice Oppresion Establish, new territory….. Decline --- Cultural & Intellectual
HISTORY OF DECOLONIZATION • Colonialism -----destroyed : , social, cultural, economic, political, religious, and others • Economic motif & Missionaries • Colonialism : Dichotomy education ---- Science to Motif, essence of the welfare of mankind • Methodology – reality – paradigm ---- open window---- • Epistemology --------Knowledge
• Second World War• Decolonization: – Elemenation – Returning power to the people – A subordinated territory becomes a sovereign and independent state – Removing the heavy burden of empire colonization: Culturallly & Naturally.
• Decolonization of education -- Authenticate of knowledge about problem and phenomena• Decolonization of education ----the first steps toward the decolonization is to equation the legitimacy of colonization
THE PHILOSOPHY OFISLAMIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE• Rosenthal : about 750 words “i-l-m” in the Qur‘an.• Knowledge as sine qua non of humanity--- Adam --- ―the names of all things‖ by Allah• Al-Ghazali : Knowledge as ‗acquisition of that information through which one can successfully attain the true goal of life• To fulfill religious and spiritual responsibilities
• Islamization of knowledge: first: expanding, upgrading and modernizing Islamic disciplines second: connecting all other disciplines to Islamic faith and values
THE WESTERN CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE• Plato, knowledge is sensible perception; true opinion; and true opinion with reasoned explanation (Fowler: 1929, p. 3). A knowledge of the nature of the original; a knowledge of the correctness of the copy; and a knowledge of the excellence with which the copy is executed? (Burry: 1926, p. 145). For Plato (ca. 429–347 B.C.) said that knowledge can only be of what is real. Protagoras said that "man is the measure of all things".
While Heracleitus said that all things are always inmotion. Here Plato distinguishes two kinds ofmotion—movement in space and change of qualityand asserts that constant motion of the first kindmust be accompanied by change, because otherwisethe same things would be at the same time both inmotion and at rest. This obvious fallacy Platoappears to ascribe to Heracleitus and his school. Theresult of this discussion is that if nothing is at rest,every answer on whatever subject is equally correct.Read more in the book of H. N. Fowler. (tr.). (1929).Plato: Theaetetus – Sophist. Volume II. London:William Heinemann.
• Aristotle (384–322 B.C.) use common sensible, Epicurus (341–270 B.C.) see all knowledge is rooted in experience, the contact between the soul and the external world. St. Augustine (354–430) said that all knowledge involves the individual‘s awareness of God. Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) view that knowledge is something that is empirical— which can be acquired through experience. René Descartes (1596–1650) said that the mind is everything in getting science---with the famous statement ―cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am)‖
• Nicolas Malebranche (1638–1715) likened the human mind with the mind of God, the argument that ―the human mind perceives ideas that are in the mind of God‖. Benedict Spinoza (1632–1677) argues that there is only one substance, God or Nature, of which both ideas and physical objects, Spinoza concluded that ideas are true or false only from the perspective of an individual human mind. Tweedledum and Tweedledee, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) said that individual substances each of which reflects the entire cosmos from its own point of view
John Locke(1632–1704) argues that all ourknowledge rests ultimately on simple ideas ofsense. He says, consists in one‘s recognition ofrelationships of agreement or disagreementamong ideas. George Berkeley (1685–1753), argues that physical objects arepreserved, but only as clusters of ideas inminds. He declaring that only minds and ideasin the mind existed
David Hume (1711–1776) built conceptknowledge that began with the skepticaltheory. He argued, there is no sure thing fromthe experience of our senses, whether visibleor not visible. Nothing in our experiencejustifies our confidence in the uniformity ofnature; it may be that unobserved instances arequite unlike the observed ones. Immanuel Kant(1724–1804) uses a priori syntheticpropositions in explaining that we know thatfor any two events, either they occursimultaneously or one occurs before the other.
DECOLONIZATION OF EDUCATIONWhen science is built by western scholars withphilosophical speculation is based on the ideaof secular life, and focuses on human rationality.Islamic scholars as well as anti-colonialists tryingto fight through the decolonization of knowledgeor education, such as: Jalal Al-e Ahmad, in TheOccidentosis: Plague from the West (1952) and TheSchool Principles (1978); Muhammad Naquib Al-attas, in Islam and Secularism (1993); Wan Mohd.Nor Wan Daud, in
• Dewesternisation and Islamisation: Their Epistemic Framework and Final Purpose (2010); Chinua Achebe, in No Longer at Ease (1960) and Things Fall Apart (1958); Frantz Fanon, in Black Skins White Mask (1952) and A Dying Colonialism (1959); Julius Nyerere, in Freedom and unity: Uhuru na Umoja (1966); Aimé Cesaire, in Discours sur le colonialisme (1955); Edward Said, in Orientalism (1977) and A Legacy of Emancipation and Representation (2010); Ngugi wa Thiongo, in Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of language in Africa Literature (1986), Albert Memmi, in The Colonizer and the Colonized (1957)
DECOLONIZATION OF EDUCATION WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF DEWESTERNIZATION AND ISLAMIZATION • Dichotomy • Tawhid • Adab • historical split
CONCLUSION• Decolonization of education refers to the process education use to authenticate the knowledge about problem and phenomena that occur within the framework of the decolonization of education• religious and cultural approaches• to clear the mind and soul of the elements of colonization