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Thesis Defense for the Degree of Master of Science




                                                              2010
...
Presentation Outline
2
    1.         Motivation
    2.         Adsorption Cycle Descriptions
         i.        Simple cy...
1. Motivation
3

       Electricity demand exceed supply in Turkey in
        2016-2017 (TEIAS, 2009)
       Increasing ...
2. Adsorption Cycle Descriptions
4

       Simple Cycle




                            Baker and Kaftanoglu (2007)
     ...
2. Adsorption Cycle Descriptions
5

       Cycle Enhancements
         Heat recovery cycle
         Mass recovery cycle...
2. Adsorption Cycle Descriptions
6

       Heat Recovery Cycle
                                      Two  adsorbent beds...
2. Adsorption Cycle Descriptions
7

       Thermal Wave Cycle




                                                  Tayla...
3. Scope of the Study
8

             What was available           What was needed

       Thermodynamic models         ...
3. Scope of the Study
9

                           What has been added

       TRNSYS-compatible MATLAB model of thermal...
3. Scope of the Study
10

                        What has been added (cont’d)

        Modeling five commonly-used adsor...
4. Models
11

        Solar Thermal System Model




                        TRNSYS Model   MATLAB Model
                ...
4. Models
12

        Normalized Cooling Load
                              To  ti   Trfrc
         q load,N  ti  =
...
4. Models
13

        Storage (qStorage,N and qStorage,max)
        Loss (qLoss,N) if qStorage,N = qStorage,max and qclg...
4. Models
14

        Normalized Collector Area
                                q clg,N  ti 
          Acoll , N =
    ...
5. Conditions Analyzed
15
        Adsorption cycle types
            Reversible (Rev)
            Simple
            H...
5. Conditions Analyzed
16
        Collector types
          Flat plate collector (FP)
          Evacuated tube collecto...
6. Results
17

                Comparison of different adsorption cycles
          5.0
          4.5
          4.0       ...
6. Results
18

                 Comparison of working pairs
          1.4
          1.2
          1.0
                   ...
6. Results
19

            Comparison of collectors and solar radiation levels
          0.14
          0.12
          0....
6. Results
20

                    Comparison of cooling towers and Tevap
              0.16
              0.14
         ...
6. Results
21

                    Comparison of Texcess and R
              0.30

              0.25
                  ...
6. Results
22

            Comparison of investigated operating conditions
      9.0
      8.0
      7.0                 ...
6. Results
23

        Normalized Results (Solar and Loss Fractions)
         f and l not affected by cycle type
       ...
6. Results
24

                                        Normalized Results (Required Collector Area)
                     ...
6. Results
25

                             Normalized Results (Required Adsorbent Mass)
                        2.5
Norm...
7. Conclusions
26

        Suggested configuration
          Thermal  wave cycle
          Evacuated tube collector
   ...
7. Conclusions
27

        Working pair selection depends on the available
         maximum bed temperature
        Impl...
8. Future Work
28

        Implementing heat and mass transfer and diffusion
         equations based on the specific the...
References
29
        Baker, D. K., and Kaftanoglu, B., "Limits to the Thermodynamic Performance of a
         Thermal Wa...
Thank you!


                                Onur TAYLAN
                               M.Sc. Candidate
Department of Mech...
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My Thesis Defense Presentation

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My Thesis Defense Presentation
May 3, 2010
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Middle East Technical University

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

My Thesis Defense Presentation

  1. 1. Thesis Defense for the Degree of Master of Science 2010 MAY 3, ANKARA NUMERICAL MODELING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SOLAR-POWERED IDEAL ADSORPTION COOLING SYSTEMS Department of Mechanical Engineering Middle East Technical University
  2. 2. Presentation Outline 2 1. Motivation 2. Adsorption Cycle Descriptions i. Simple cycle ii. Cycle enhancements 3. Scope of the Study 4. Models 5. Conditions Analyzed 6. Results 7. Conclusions 8. Future Work Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  3. 3. 1. Motivation 3  Electricity demand exceed supply in Turkey in 2016-2017 (TEIAS, 2009)  Increasing cooling loads  Increase in electricity demand especially on Mediterranean coast  Many hotels use conventional AC systems in Antalya  Need to decrease the electricity demand for cooling in Antalya  Need for sustainable and renewable solutions Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  4. 4. 2. Adsorption Cycle Descriptions 4  Simple Cycle Baker and Kaftanoglu (2007) Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  5. 5. 2. Adsorption Cycle Descriptions 5  Cycle Enhancements  Heat recovery cycle  Mass recovery cycle  Heat and mass recovery cycle  Thermal regeneration  Thermal wave  Thermal wave cycle with mass recovery  Convectivethermal wave  Rotary beds Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  6. 6. 2. Adsorption Cycle Descriptions 6  Heat Recovery Cycle  Two adsorbent beds operating out of phase  Heat transferred from bed being cooled to bed being heated  Increase in COP Wang (2001) Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  7. 7. 2. Adsorption Cycle Descriptions 7  Thermal Wave Cycle Taylan et al. (2009)  Two beds connected via HTF  HTF between Thot and To  Sorption processes create dT1 and dT2 Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  8. 8. 3. Scope of the Study 8 What was available What was needed  Thermodynamic models  Assess the feasibility of of using solar energy for adsorption cooling  Simple systems  Heat recovery  Develop fast models to  Thermal wave perform a large number of parametric studies  MATLAB models of  Obtain basic  Simple performance trends as  Heat recovery operating conditions vary Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  9. 9. 3. Scope of the Study 9 What has been added  TRNSYS-compatible MATLAB model of thermal wave cycle  Thermodynamic models of  Thermal wave with adiabatic mass recovery (AMR)  Thermal wave with isothermal mass recovery (IMR)  TRNSYS model of solar-thermal system  Three commercial collector models (two flat plate and one evacuated tube) integrated with the solar-thermal system Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  10. 10. 3. Scope of the Study 10 What has been added (cont’d)  Modeling five commonly-used adsorbent – refrigerant (working) pairs using MATLAB  Developing a normalized seasonal model  Running steady and seasonal-transient simulations with the integrated model  Investigating basic trends in the cycle and system performances as some design parameters are varied Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  11. 11. 4. Models 11  Solar Thermal System Model TRNSYS Model MATLAB Model Taylan et al. (2010) Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  12. 12. 4. Models 12  Normalized Cooling Load To  ti   Trfrc q load,N  ti  = Max To  Trfrc   Normalized Cooling Capacity q F  ti × COPads  ti  q clg,N  ti  = S× Max  qF ×COPads   Normalized Match Factor qMatch,N  ti  = qclg,N  ti   qload,N  ti  Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  13. 13. 4. Models 13  Storage (qStorage,N and qStorage,max)  Loss (qLoss,N) if qStorage,N = qStorage,max and qclg,N > qload,N  Backup (qBackup,N) if qStorage,N = 0 and qclg,N < qload,N  Solar Fraction ( f ) & Loss Fraction ( l ) qclg,tot q i clg,N  ti  qLoss,tot q i Loss,N  ti  f= = l= = qload,tot q i load,N  ti  qload,tot q i load,N  ti  Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  14. 14. 4. Models 14  Normalized Collector Area q clg,N  ti  Acoll , N = G  ti  × COPsys  ti  Grfrc  Normalized Mass of Adsorbent  Max  X   -1 mads,N =   X base  Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  15. 15. 5. Conditions Analyzed 15  Adsorption cycle types  Reversible (Rev)  Simple  Heat recovery with two spatially isothermal beds (HRec)  Thermal wave with no mass recovery (NMR)  Thermal wave with adiabatic mass recovery (AMR)  Thermal wave with isothermal mass recovery (IMR)  Adsorbent – Refrigerant (working) pairs  Zeolite NaX – Water (Z1)  Zeolite X13 – Water (ZW)  Silica Gel – Water (SG)  Activated Carbon – Ammonia (CA)  Activated Carbon – Methanol (CM) Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  16. 16. 5. Conditions Analyzed 16  Collector types  Flat plate collector (FP)  Evacuated tube collector (ET)  Cooling tower types or condensation temperature Tcond  Dry cooling tower  Wet cooling tower  Evaporation temperature Tevap  Excess bed temperature Texcess  To  Tcond  Heat capacity ratio R   mshell cshell  mHTF cHTF  mads cads  1  Maximum bed temperature Thot Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  17. 17. 6. Results 17  Comparison of different adsorption cycles 5.0 4.5 4.0 Reversible 3.5 NMR with bypass 3.0 NMR without bypass COPads 2.5 AMR with bypass 2.0 AMR without bypass 1.5 IMR with bypass 1.0 IMR without bypass 0.5 Heat Recovery 0.0 Simple 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 Maximum Bed Temperature, Thot (oC) Base Case: Z1 pair, Tcond = 30oC, Tevap = 10oC, R = 10 and Texcess = 0oC Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  18. 18. 6. Results 18  Comparison of working pairs 1.4 1.2 1.0 Rev COPsys,clg 0.8 Z1 ZW 0.6 SG 0.4 CA 0.2 CM 0.0 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 Maximum Bed Temperature, Thot (oC) Base Case: NMR, Tcond = 30oC, Tevap = 10oC, R = 10 and Texcess = 0oC Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  19. 19. 6. Results 19  Comparison of collectors and solar radiation levels 0.14 0.12 0.10 FP,500 COPsys 0.08 FP,750 0.06 FP,1000 ET,500 0.04 ET,750 0.02 ET,1000 0.00 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Maximum Bed Temperature, Thot (oC) Base Case: Z1 pair, Tcond = 20oC, Tamb = 35oC, Tevap = 10oC, R = 10 and Texcess = 10oC Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  20. 20. 6. Results 20  Comparison of cooling towers and Tevap 0.16 0.14 0.12 Simple,Dry 0.10 HRec,Dry COPsys,clg Simple,Wet 0.08 HRec,Wet 0.06 Simple,5 0.04 Simple,15 0.02 HRec,5 HRec,15 0.00 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 Maximum Bed Temperature, Thot (oC) Base Case: Z1 pair, Tcond = 30oC, Tevap = 10oC, R = 10 and Texcess = 10oC Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  21. 21. 6. Results 21  Comparison of Texcess and R 0.30 0.25 Simple,DTexcess=0 COPsys,clg 0.20 Simple,DTexcess=10 HRec,DTexcess=0 0.15 HRec,DTexcess=10 Simple,R=0 0.10 Simple,R=3 HRec,R=0 0.05 HRec,R=3 0.00 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Maximum Bed Temperature, Thot (oC) Base Case: CA pair, Tcond = 30oC, Tevap = 10oC, R = 10 and Texcess = 10oC Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  22. 22. 6. Results 22  Comparison of investigated operating conditions 9.0 8.0 7.0 base Tcond=20 6.0 Tcond=40 COPads 5.0 Tevap=5 4.0 Tevap=15 3.0 DTexcess=0 2.0 DTexcess=10 1.0 Tcond=20, R=0 0.0 Tcond=20, R=10 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 Maximum Bed Temperature, Thot (oC) Base Case: IMR with Z1 pair, Tcond = 30oC, Tevap = 10oC, R = 3 and Texcess = 5oC Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  23. 23. 6. Results 23  Normalized Results (Solar and Loss Fractions) f and l not affected by cycle type  Using ET increases both f and l  Using wet cooling tower increases f and l for FP and decreases l for ET  Decreasing Texcess or R or increasing S increases f and decreases l  As Thot increases f and l decrease  1 – f proportional to qBackup Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  24. 24. 6. Results 24  Normalized Results (Required Collector Area) 1000 Normalized Collector Area, Acoll,N FP,Simple,Dry,R=10 100 FP,Simple,Wet,R=10 FP,HRec,Dry,R=10 FP,HRec,Wet,R=10 FP,Simple,Dry,R=0 10 FP,HRec,Wet,R=0 ET,Simple,Dry,R=10 ET,HRec,Dry,R=10 1 90 120 150 180 Maximum Bed Temperature, Thot (oC) Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  25. 25. 6. Results 25  Normalized Results (Required Adsorbent Mass) 2.5 Normalized Adsorbent Mass 2.0 Dry+10degC 1.5 Dry+5degC mads,N Dry 1.0 Wet+10degC Wet+5degC 0.5 Wet 0.0 90 120 150 180 Maximum Bed Temperature, Thot (oC) Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  26. 26. 7. Conclusions 26  Suggested configuration  Thermal wave cycle  Evacuated tube collector  Wet cooling tower  High evaporation temperature  Low excess bed temperature  Low heat capacity ratio for simple and heat recovery cycles  High storage capacity  Other parameters vary between analyzed cases Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  27. 27. 7. Conclusions 27  Working pair selection depends on the available maximum bed temperature  Implementing heat recovery increases the performance of simple cycle  Implementing mass recovery to thermal wave cycles does not increase the performance significantly, although it increases the complexity of the system  Backup power needed for Antalya Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  28. 28. 8. Future Work 28  Implementing heat and mass transfer and diffusion equations based on the specific thermal design of the adsorbent bed  Extending the current analysis with exergy analysis  Modeling some other kinds of thermal wave  Modeling heat recovery cycle with infinite number of beds and comparing with thermal wave cycle  Introducing new adsorbent – refrigerant pairs  Verifying the results of the present study experimentally, especially the thermal wave cycle Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  29. 29. References 29  Baker, D. K., and Kaftanoglu, B., "Limits to the Thermodynamic Performance of a Thermal Wave Adsorption Cooling Cycle," Proceedings of HEFAT 2007, pp. 6, Sun City, South Africa, 2007.  Taylan, O., Baker, D. K., and Kaftanoglu, B., "Parametric Study and Seasonal Simulations of a Solar Powered Adsorption Cooling System," Proceedings of ECOS 2009, pp. 833 - 842, Foz do Iguacu, Parana, Brazil, 2009.  Taylan, O., Baker, D. K., and Kaftanoglu, B., "COP Trends for Ideal Thermal Wave Adsorption Cooling Cycles with Enhancements," Int. J. of Refrigeration: Under Review, 2009.  Taylan, O., Baker, D. K., and Kaftanoglu, B., "Adsorbent – Refrigerant Comparison for a Solar Powered Adsorption Cooling System Using Seasonal Simulations," Proceedings of 10th REHVA World Congress, Antalya, Turkey, 2010.  "Turkish Electrical Energy 10-Year Generation Capacity Projection," Turkish Electricity Transmission Co. (TEIAS), Ankara, 2009.  Wang, R. Z., "Performance Improvement of Adsorption Cooling by Heat and Mass Recovery Operation," Int. J. of Refrigeration, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 602-611, 2001. Onur TAYLAN Thesis Defense METU May 3, 2010
  30. 30. Thank you! Onur TAYLAN M.Sc. Candidate Department of Mechanical Engineering Thesis Defense Middle East Technical University May 3, 2010

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