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HISTORY OF EXISTENTIALISMTHE
It is not a set of doctrines or a
philosophical system.
It is a philosophical & cultural move...
HISTORY OF EXISTENTIALISMTHE
the slaughter at Verdun or the Somme or the Marne
What happened between 1914 and 1945?
What t...
Battle of VerdunBattle of Verdun
Battle of SommeBattle of Somme
Battle of MarneBattle of Marne
Bolshevik TerrorBolshevik T...
Nazi’s Concentration CampNazi’s Concentration Camp
Destruction of CoventryDestruction of Coventry
Destruction of DresdenDe...
HUMAN CONDITION
violence and uncertaintyterror and inhumanity
civilization failed,
its values
meaningless
Reason failed,
S...
HISTORY OF EXISTENTIALISMTHE
Something -- some system of values -- was necessary
for modern man. Man had to believe in som...
HISTORY OF EXISTENTIALISMTHE
The considered founding figures or original giants of
Existentialism were:
Søren Kierkegaard
...
HISTORY OF EXISTENTIALISMTHE
What tied all the existentialists thinker all
together?
“The problem of life as a human being...
EXISTENTIALISM
Existentialists reject systems which propose to have
definitive answers to the questions of meaning and
pur...
EXISTENTIALISM as PHILOSOPHY
The Existentialists sees something more in nature
of relationship between man and world. This...
THETHE TAXONOMYTAXONOMY OFOF
EXISTENTIALISMEXISTENTIALISMMETAPHYSICAL/ONTOLOGY
Pluralistic worlds caused by experiencing o...
EPISTEMOLOGY
Truth a function of man’s choice of
alternatives he experienced.
The world is what each man makes it.
Truth –...
ETHICS
AESTHETICS
Judged by individual forced into
existential choice.
Judged by individual independent of public
prescrip...
EXISTENTIALISM’S BELIEFS
Meaninglessness. There is no inherent essence to
things, there is not an inherent morality to the...
EXISTENTIALISM’S BELIEFS
Living an authentic life: This happens by making
independent choices and assuming responsibility ...
EXISTENTIALISM’S BELIEFS
Absurdity stems from attempts to assert purpose and
reason upon a universe that is meaningless. R...
SSøren Kierkegaardren Kierkegaard
May 5, 1813 – Nov. 11, 1855
““Father ofFather of
Existentialism”Existentialism”
a Danish...
Søren Kierkegaard “Father of
Existentialism”
Søren was worried that philosophy lost its way.
During the 18th century, reas...
Søren Kierkegaard “Father of
Existentialism”
His existential theology saw the birth of existentialism as
a philosophy beca...
Søren Kierkegaard “Father of
Existentialism”
Kierkegaard stressed the absurdity the human
situation and came up with the f...
Søren Kierkegaard “Father of
Existentialism”
His philosophy can be seen in his doctrine that
there are three stages of lif...
Søren Kierkegaard “Father of
Existentialism”
His philosophy can be seen in his doctrine that
there are three stages of lif...
Søren Kierkegaard “Father of
Existentialism”
His philosophy can be seen in his doctrine that
there are three stages of lif...
Søren Kierkegaard “Father of
Existentialism”
He brought about the ideas that people
should have morals.
He believed that e...
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Nov. 11, 1821 – Feb. 9, 1881
born in Moscow, Russia
a Russian novelist, essayist,
short story writer, jo...
Fyodor Dostoevsky
What is permitted and what is not permitted is a
question that he dramatizes again and again,
and the de...
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Themes of his Book:
“Life is in ourselves and not in the external”.1
2Man is limited by society, economi...
4
6
“To be a human being among human beings,
and remain one forever, no matter what
misfortunes befall, not to become depr...
Friedrich Nietzsche
Oct. 15, 1844 – Aug. 25, 1900
“Atheist Existentialism”
born near Leipzig, Germany
one of the 19th cent...
Friedrich Nietzsche Atheist
Existentialist
He agreed with Schopenhauer that there is no
God and life is filled with pain a...
Friedrich Nietzsche Atheist
Existentialist
3 Superhuman - "Übermensch" refers to the person
who lives above and beyond ple...
Friedrich Nietzsche Atheist
Existentialist
5 God is Dead
modern science and the increasing secularization of
European soci...
FriedrichFriedrich
NietzscheNietzsche
AtheistAtheist
ExistentialistExistentialist
In order to harvest great happiness in l...
Martin Heidegger
German philosopher whose views on
human existence in a world of objects
He studied Catholic Theology howe...
In 1927, he published Being and Time which
established him as the leading philosopher in the
German Language as far as fas...
Does God (being)
exists?
Does this thing
exists?
Do we (beings)exist?
What is the meaning of
being ????
BEING AND TIME
BEING AND TIME
Human being (Dasein) stands out among other things
because they alone were able to encounter the question
o...
Just jump
off the
bridge pal.
BEING AND TIME
You
should
become a
slave! You’re
weak!
I am weak. I will
not succeed. I
don’...
BEING AND TIME
You’re
weak!
Screw you all! I’m
gonna die one
day so I’m not
gonna live my life
according to your
opinions ...
Jean-Paul Sartre
““AtheistAtheist
Existentialism”Existentialism”
the most widely known existentialist and
wrote Being and ...
AtheistAtheist
ExistentialistExistentialist
Sartre’s Philosophy
The first philosopher who attempted to make
Existentialism...
Sartre’s Philosophy: Being and Nothingness
Humans are Being-in-itself
-we are conscious of our existence
Things are Being-...
Sartre’s Philosophy: Being and Nothingness
NOTHINGNESS
A hole inside the
consciousness.
actions
ideas
perceptions
The empt...
Sartre’s Philosophy: Being and Nothingness
BAD FAITH
Man is free.
He can do anything.
Knowing that you have UNLIMITED
FREE...
Sartre’s Philosophy:
Being and Nothingness
“Existence precedes essence”. Man has no innate or
eternal 'nature.' Man must t...
EXISTENTIALISM IN EDUCATION
Existentialism in education is significant
in a number of ways. Some argue that
existentialism...
CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONCONCEPT OF EDUCATION
Education should be designed to create in us a
sense of self-awareness and to con...
CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONCONCEPT OF EDUCATION
4
Child – Centered Education. It gives full freedom
to the child. The teacher sho...
CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONCONCEPT OF EDUCATION
5
The curriculum would avoid systematic
knowledge or structured disciplines, and ...
CONCEPT OF STUDENTS
For Existentialists, the classroom is a free market of
ideas and as such, it must guarantee complete f...
A student thrives better when relieved from intense
competition, harsh discipline, and fear of failure.
Thus each child ca...
AT A TEACHER LEVEL:
The teacher’s role is to help students define their
own essence by exposing them to various paths they...
3
A teacher should learn what each child’s needs are
and where the child is academically. The set of
curriculum should be ...
•An Existentialist Approach to Teaching
•Heiddegerr, Martin. (1927). Being and Time.
•Chapter7A EXISTENTIALISM
•Macquarrie...
Existentialism: Its History, Proponents, and Classroom Implications
Existentialism: Its History, Proponents, and Classroom Implications
Existentialism: Its History, Proponents, and Classroom Implications
Existentialism: Its History, Proponents, and Classroom Implications
Existentialism: Its History, Proponents, and Classroom Implications
Existentialism: Its History, Proponents, and Classroom Implications
Existentialism: Its History, Proponents, and Classroom Implications
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Existentialism: Its History, Proponents, and Classroom Implications

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Its History, Proponents, and Classroom Implications

Existentialism: Its History, Proponents, and Classroom Implications

  1. 1. HISTORY OF EXISTENTIALISMTHE It is not a set of doctrines or a philosophical system. It is a philosophical & cultural movement that arose in the 19th century Europe and rose to fame in 1945 after the WW II A movement that is primarily concerned with the “Human Condition” which aims to reassert the importance of individuality and freedom.
  2. 2. HISTORY OF EXISTENTIALISMTHE the slaughter at Verdun or the Somme or the Marne What happened between 1914 and 1945? What triggered the movement? Destruction of Cities of Coventry or Dresden or Nagasaki Hitler’s Nazi concentration camp Spanish Civil War families fell victim to Stalin's purges Great Depression of 1929-1935 the black-shirted and brown-shirted hysteria in Italy and Germany the Bolshevik terror in Russia
  3. 3. Battle of VerdunBattle of Verdun Battle of SommeBattle of Somme Battle of MarneBattle of Marne Bolshevik TerrorBolshevik Terror Black Shirts March onBlack Shirts March on RomeRome Stalin’s PurgesStalin’s Purges
  4. 4. Nazi’s Concentration CampNazi’s Concentration Camp Destruction of CoventryDestruction of Coventry Destruction of DresdenDestruction of Dresden Destruction of NagasakiDestruction of Nagasaki
  5. 5. HUMAN CONDITION violence and uncertaintyterror and inhumanity civilization failed, its values meaningless Reason failed, Science failed, “God is nowhere/ is dead”. Man lived in irrational impulse and will to power. Technology was advancing yet, we were but a “Lost Generation”.
  6. 6. HISTORY OF EXISTENTIALISMTHE Something -- some system of values -- was necessary for modern man. Man had to believe in something. That something was an ordering principle. And this was necessary, it seemed, because the scientific temperament seemed not to satisfy man but to cause him to wander even more aimlessly. Mankind needed a new book of lessons. A teacher as well. Humanity demanded it.
  7. 7. HISTORY OF EXISTENTIALISMTHE The considered founding figures or original giants of Existentialism were: Søren Kierkegaard Fyodor Dostoyevsky Friedrich Nietzsche It became more prominent and widely known after WW II due to the ff. figures: Martin Heidegger Jean-Paul Sartre
  8. 8. HISTORY OF EXISTENTIALISMTHE What tied all the existentialists thinker all together? “The problem of life as a human being.” They take seriously the questions: “Why Am I here?” “What does it mean to be human?” “How should I live my life?”
  9. 9. EXISTENTIALISM Existentialists reject systems which propose to have definitive answers to the questions of meaning and purpose of life like Science and Reason. The individual should figure out his own way of answering these questions without generalizing the solution to other individuals. What mankind need is not a divine perspective but a human perspective about life. Existentialism is a philosophy premised on the individual. as PHILOSOPHY
  10. 10. EXISTENTIALISM as PHILOSOPHY The Existentialists sees something more in nature of relationship between man and world. This has little to do with the question of the world’s finiteness or infiniteness; it has much to do with the fact that existence is as man knows it; it is specifically finite. philosophical systems and religion doesn’t really know what it is like to be human – to live in the world that we’re living in – to experience all the fears and pain, hopes and disappointments, and joy of life.
  11. 11. THETHE TAXONOMYTAXONOMY OFOF EXISTENTIALISMEXISTENTIALISMMETAPHYSICAL/ONTOLOGY Pluralistic worlds caused by experiencing one’s own existing. The Existentialist understands only his own existence and struggle for essence. He is good as no other alternative exists in the confrontation of self and an end to self. The world of mankind may have no meaning at all except in the individual presence.
  12. 12. EPISTEMOLOGY Truth a function of man’s choice of alternatives he experienced. The world is what each man makes it. Truth – if there is a concern for truth getting – is obtained in confronting dilemma of finite existence with some kind of choice required. Truth is in the act of choosing, not necessarily in the particular choice.
  13. 13. ETHICS AESTHETICS Judged by individual forced into existential choice. Judged by individual independent of public prescription. In Axiological matters, the Existentialist must choose what is beautiful and ethical in terms relevant to his own existence/essence
  14. 14. EXISTENTIALISM’S BELIEFS Meaninglessness. There is no inherent essence to things, there is not an inherent morality to the universe, and so each person and society must establish and assert its own moral system. A person as an individual is important simply because he or she exists, and his or her "essence" develops over time through life, rather than as a preexisting condition inherent to his or her existence. Moral Individualism where a person seek the greatest good for themselves as opposed to the greatest good for the universe or other people. It is subject to NO external value judgment.
  15. 15. EXISTENTIALISM’S BELIEFS Living an authentic life: This happens by making independent choices and assuming responsibility for its consequences. Inauthentic life – when one’s freedom and anxiety, values are just accepted from others because ‘that is what everybody does’. How could a collective form of existence ever be anything other than inauthentic? We live in angst. We have no one to blame for our choices but ourselves. This responsibility can lead to dread and anxiety over choosing.
  16. 16. EXISTENTIALISM’S BELIEFS Absurdity stems from attempts to assert purpose and reason upon a universe that is meaningless. Rather than all of this being seen as a purely negative concept, however, it is important to acknowledge that people move through and beyond this absurdity and do create positive meaning for themselves. The most important kind of knowledge is about human condition and the choices that each person has to make.
  17. 17. SSøren Kierkegaardren Kierkegaard May 5, 1813 – Nov. 11, 1855 ““Father ofFather of Existentialism”Existentialism” a Danish minister, philosopher, theologian, and a religious author Søren drifted into the study of theology at the University of Copenhagen, but soon broadened his study to include philosophy and literature. Felt individual was responsible for giving life meaning and living that life passionately a Christian existentialist
  18. 18. Søren Kierkegaard “Father of Existentialism” Søren was worried that philosophy lost its way. During the 18th century, reason and nature were given more importance, objectivity was very much emphasized, leading to industrial and technological developments and Science was given utmost importance. From the scientific viewpoint, man was also regarded as an object. Man became a slave to machines in developing industrial society. He felt the need to seek out answers regarding uncertain things in life like our existence and spiritual things.
  19. 19. Søren Kierkegaard “Father of Existentialism” His existential theology saw the birth of existentialism as a philosophy because he wanted to see the individual person as achieving the fullness of his own human existence. When people realize that they are alive and will one day die--and there is no meaning to cling to– the person is in an existential crisis and would feel a sense of dread or angst.
  20. 20. Søren Kierkegaard “Father of Existentialism” Kierkegaard stressed the absurdity the human situation and came up with the ff. principles: An individual must live a totally committed life, which is only understood by the individual He advocated the leap of faith into Christianity Although Christianity is incomprehensible it is the only commitment that will save an individual from complete and utter despair. Once the person experienced existential crisis, he would completely and without reservation commit himself to God, even if it seems irrational to do so.
  21. 21. Søren Kierkegaard “Father of Existentialism” His philosophy can be seen in his doctrine that there are three stages of life experience: 1 2 3 Aesthetic Ethical Religious
  22. 22. Søren Kierkegaard “Father of Existentialism” His philosophy can be seen in his doctrine that there are three stages of life experience: Aesthetic – the individual may just be interested in pleasure or romance or in intellect pursuits that are non-committal. The person merely observes the world in a detached and objective manner with no involvement whatsoever. Here, Kierkegaard stressed that the aesthetic mode of life remains futile and is characterized by boredom. 1
  23. 23. Søren Kierkegaard “Father of Existentialism” His philosophy can be seen in his doctrine that there are three stages of life experience: Ethical – Man makes for himself a decision coupled with resolute injunction ‘know thy self’ must be changed to ‘choose thyself’. This stage is characterized by regard for duty. 2 3Religious – Obedience and commitment to God manifest on this stage.
  24. 24. Søren Kierkegaard “Father of Existentialism” He brought about the ideas that people should have morals. He believed that each person has a history of his own and that people’s spirit/soul should be nurtured. He also believed that children learn by watching others. It is important for students and educators to be morally sound. Other beliefs:
  25. 25. Fyodor Dostoevsky Nov. 11, 1821 – Feb. 9, 1881 born in Moscow, Russia a Russian novelist, essayist, short story writer, journalist and philosopher Wrote widely acclaimed books Crime and Punishment, The Idiot , Notes from the Underground, and The Brothers Karamazov
  26. 26. Fyodor Dostoevsky What is permitted and what is not permitted is a question that he dramatizes again and again, and the development of his work as a dramatic testing of the limits of freedom and a progressive refinement of what he meant by the concept of freedom. At the center of all Dostoevsky's writing is the problem of freedom. Crime and Punishment, The Brothers Karamazov, and Notes to the Underground were viewed with Existentialist philosophy.
  27. 27. Fyodor Dostoevsky Themes of his Book: “Life is in ourselves and not in the external”.1 2Man is limited by society, economic conditions, laws, history, the church, and especially by God. Man, however, does not want to be defined and limited -- he wants to be free and he wants to be totally and completely free. 3Man is right in wanting to be free, for freedom is the essential attribute of his identity.
  28. 28. 4 6 “To be a human being among human beings, and remain one forever, no matter what misfortunes befall, not to become depressed, and not to falter--this is what life is, herein lies its task.” Although consciousness arises from suffering, allows for suffering, and necessitates suffering, it also makes possible free will and individuality. With consciousness, man must suffer, but without it, man will never be free. 5Suffering leads to the redemption of the soul. Themes of his Book:
  29. 29. Friedrich Nietzsche Oct. 15, 1844 – Aug. 25, 1900 “Atheist Existentialism” born near Leipzig, Germany one of the 19th century's most influential philosophers, and his work continues to influence modern existential and postmodern philosophy. known for his writings on good and evil, the end of religion in modern society and the concept of a “Superhuman".
  30. 30. Friedrich Nietzsche Atheist Existentialist He agreed with Schopenhauer that there is no God and life is filled with pain and suffering, but Nietzsche came to his own conclusion that humans must get everything out of life and set out to find out how to best do that. in order to achieve anything worthwhile, whether it be scaling a mountain to take in the views or living a good life, hardship and effort are necessary. “no pain, no gain” 1 2
  31. 31. Friedrich Nietzsche Atheist Existentialist 3 Superhuman - "Übermensch" refers to the person who lives above and beyond pleasure and suffering, treating both circumstances equally, because joy and suffering are, in his view, inseparable. Be in total freedom and without the need for God. 4Will to Power - a source of strength and a positive thing; people and animals willingly risk their lives in order to promote their power. He suggested that the struggle to survive is a secondary drive in the evolution of animals and humans.
  32. 32. Friedrich Nietzsche Atheist Existentialist 5 God is Dead modern science and the increasing secularization of European society had effectively "killed" the Christian God that an individual will become who they are if they reject outer dogmas, religion and philosophy and live their lives according to the values and principles they themselves created. sorrows and troubles were not to be denied or escaped (he particularly despised people who turned to drink or to religion), but to be welcomed and cultivated and thereby turned to one's advantage.
  33. 33. FriedrichFriedrich NietzscheNietzsche AtheistAtheist ExistentialistExistentialist In order to harvest great happiness in life, it was necessary to live dangerously and take risks. 7 The only way in which life can be justified is as an aesthetic phenomenon. His point was that, if there is nothing outside this world (no God, no transcendental realm of any sort), then any justification or meaning that life has must be derived from within itself. 8 “The Scientific assumption of an orderly universe is a useful fiction that hides the meaninglessness of existence.” 6
  34. 34. Martin Heidegger German philosopher whose views on human existence in a world of objects He studied Catholic Theology however, Nietzsche’s God is dead and Christ’s “My God why have you forsaken me?” echoed through the words of Heidegger himself and on Angst influenced the existential philosophers. September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976 Messkirch, in South-West Germany His interest in philosophy began upon reading Franz Brentano’s book entitled On the Manifold Meaning of Being according to Aristotle.
  35. 35. In 1927, he published Being and Time which established him as the leading philosopher in the German Language as far as fashion and influence were concerned. Martin Heidegger in his book Being and Time, gave a very impressive analysis of human existence, the prominence of the important themes of existentialism like care, anxiety, guilt and above all death is brought out here. Heidegger's original treatment of such themes as human finitude, death, nothingness, and authenticity led many to associate him with existentialism. Martin Heidegger
  36. 36. Does God (being) exists? Does this thing exists? Do we (beings)exist? What is the meaning of being ???? BEING AND TIME
  37. 37. BEING AND TIME Human being (Dasein) stands out among other things because they alone were able to encounter the question of what it means to be and lead their own lives. He introduced the concept of human being as DASEIN. Dasein – is the “being” that stands back from everyday consciousness and recognizes its own being. Dasein asks the question: what does it mean to be? Existence proceeds through understanding’s constant projection of possibilities. Living authentically involves Dasein’s understanding of itself as something that exists and potentially doesn’t exist (death).
  38. 38. Just jump off the bridge pal. BEING AND TIME You should become a slave! You’re weak! I am weak. I will not succeed. I don’t think I can be something else except for a slave. Where’s the nearest bridge??? INAUTHENTIC LIFE!!! Pray that the Lord have mercy on you. You will not succeed in life!
  39. 39. BEING AND TIME You’re weak! Screw you all! I’m gonna die one day so I’m not gonna live my life according to your opinions or views. I’ll do as I wish. AUTHENTIC LIFE!!! Pray that the Lord have mercy on you. Just jump off the bridge pal. You will not succeed in life! You should become a slave!
  40. 40. Jean-Paul Sartre ““AtheistAtheist Existentialism”Existentialism” the most widely known existentialist and wrote Being and Nothingness. Born in Paris on June 21, 1905 In 1944 during liberation he became a central figure in the cultural life of Paris and the word he used to describe his philosophy “existentialism” became the main slogan of the day.
  41. 41. AtheistAtheist ExistentialistExistentialist Sartre’s Philosophy The first philosopher who attempted to make Existentialism into a coherent philosophy in 1943 in response to the absurdity of WW II. “Existentialism is Humanism”, in a sense that Existentialists start from nothing but humanity itself. Wrote Being and Nothingness; was considered the “bible of the existentialists”.
  42. 42. Sartre’s Philosophy: Being and Nothingness Humans are Being-in-itself -we are conscious of our existence Things are Being-for-itself - unconscious - unable to notice things - existence is predetermined BEING -we perceive ourselves perceiving
  43. 43. Sartre’s Philosophy: Being and Nothingness NOTHINGNESS A hole inside the consciousness. actions ideas perceptions The emptiness gives human potential for multiple different future and possibilities.
  44. 44. Sartre’s Philosophy: Being and Nothingness BAD FAITH Man is free. He can do anything. Knowing that you have UNLIMITED FREEDOM can cause fear. You decide to ignore the realization that you had and live as if you’re not as free as you truly are.
  45. 45. Sartre’s Philosophy: Being and Nothingness “Existence precedes essence”. Man has no innate or eternal 'nature.' Man must therefore create himself. He must create his own nature or 'essence,' because it is not fixed in advance." existential moment arises when young people realize for the first time that choice is theirs, that they are responsible for themselves. Their question becomes "Who am I and what should I do? We are condemned to be free. Like actors dragged onto the stage without having learned our lines, with no script and no prompter to whisper stage directions to us. We must decide for ourselves how to live."
  46. 46. EXISTENTIALISM IN EDUCATION Existentialism in education is significant in a number of ways. Some argue that existentialism should be taught to students of all levels. Others feel that the role of existentialism in education should be reserved for higher education. Existentialism and Søren Kierkegaard had a very important impact on education.
  47. 47. CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONCONCEPT OF EDUCATION Education should be designed to create in us a sense of self-awareness and to contribute to our authenticity as human beings. It is extremely important that schools get back to the three R’s of education. Children need to be taught how to succeed in life no matter what career they choose and schools need to prepare them for that life. 1 2 3 Concerning the curriculum content, an existentialist experiences and subjects will create room for dialogue. The subjects should be the one that vividly portray individual men and women in the act of making choices. READING wRITING aRITHMETIC
  48. 48. CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONCONCEPT OF EDUCATION 4 Child – Centered Education. It gives full freedom to the child. The teacher should help the child to know himself and recognize his being. Freedom is required for natural development. Education should convert imperfection into perfection. Education should be according to the individual’s needs and abilities of the child. The relation of the child to himself should be strengthened by education.
  49. 49. CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONCONCEPT OF EDUCATION 5 The curriculum would avoid systematic knowledge or structured disciplines, and the students would be free to select from many available learning situations. The learners would choose the knowledge they wish to possess. The humanities are commonly given tremendous emphasis. They are explored as a means of providing students with vicarious experiences that will help unleash their own creativity and self – expression.
  50. 50. CONCEPT OF STUDENTS For Existentialists, the classroom is a free market of ideas and as such, it must guarantee complete freedom of thought for the individual. Existentialists give students complete freedom, and complete responsibility, with regard to their education. The only authority is one’s self. Students are encouraged to understand and appreciate their uniqueness and to assume responsibility for their actions. Students are not expected to live up to anyone’s expectations besides the expectations that they have for themselves. 1 2 3
  51. 51. A student thrives better when relieved from intense competition, harsh discipline, and fear of failure. Thus each child can grow to understand his own needs and values and take charge of the experiences for changing him. 4The student accepts the discipline prescribed by the teacher and does not become irresponsible. The purpose of freedom given to him should be to enable him to effect the full development of his individuality. 5Career-oriented education is seen as a means for students to become aware of their individual talents and potential, with “success” as a concept that’s open to interpretation by the student. “I’d rather see my educational efforts produce a “happy street cleaner than a neurotic scholar.” - Alexander Sutherland Neill 6
  52. 52. AT A TEACHER LEVEL: The teacher’s role is to help students define their own essence by exposing them to various paths they may take in life and creating an environment in which they may freely choose their preferred way. 1 2 The function of the teacher is to act only as a referee in the intellectual play-field, but also a source person or facilitator of the learning process and he must not interfere with the students’ choices or decisions. “Teach a student what to think and you make him a slave of knowledge; but teach the student how to think and you make knowledge his slave.” CONCEPT OF TEACHERSCONCEPT OF TEACHERS
  53. 53. 3 A teacher should learn what each child’s needs are and where the child is academically. The set of curriculum should be modeled to fit each individual students needs or at least come close. 4 The teacher’s characteristic of being ‘open’ to possibilities includes a willingness to allow others to re-evaluate those aspects of one’s understandings that can be articulated. If one chooses to ‘close’ oneself off from the criticisms of others, one is no longer teacher. The teacher must build positive relationships between himself and his students. He should avoid applying labels to children (such as ‘lazy’, ‘slow learner’ etc.) 5
  54. 54. •An Existentialist Approach to Teaching •Heiddegerr, Martin. (1927). Being and Time. •Chapter7A EXISTENTIALISM •Macquarrie, J. (1968) : Existenatialism, Pelican Book. •Chaube S.P. & Chaube A. (1996) : Foundations of Education, Publishing House, New Delhi. •Chandra S.S. & Sharma R.K. (2004) : Philosophy of Education, Atlantic Publishers. •Ekanem, Dr. Francis E. (2012). Educational Existentialism. Journal of Humanities and Social Science. •Maheshwari, Dr. V.K. (2011). Existentialism – As an Educational Philosophy. College, Roorkee, India. •Miller, Kim. (2013). Existentialism-A Great Philosophy of Education. Retrieved from: http://blog.enroll.com/view-post/Existentialism-A-Great-Philosophy-of-Education •Goserud, Erik J.J. (2014). Applications of Existentialism in Education. •(2005). Philosophy of Education. McGraw-Hill Higher Education •Ivers, Gene. (2011). Existentialism. •McGourty, M. Burwell, Don. (2000). Existentialism. Albertson College of Idaho.

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