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PURSUING WISDOM
AND FACING
CHALLENGES IN THE
TWENTY- FIRST
CENTURY
GROUP 1
OBJECTIVES
TO DISTINGUISH A HOLISTIC
PERSPECTIVE FROM A PARTIAL POINT
OF VIEW
01
TO RECOGNIZE HUMAN ACTIVITIES
THAT EMANATED FROM DELIBERATE
REFLECTION
02
TO REALIZE THE VALUE OF DOING
PHILOSOPHY IN OBTAINING A BROAD
PERSPECTIVE ON LIFE.
03
TO DO A PHILOSOPHICAL REFLECTION
ON A CONCRETE SITUATION FROM A
HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE.
04
TO APPRECIATE FILIPINO INDIGENOUS
THOUGHTS.
05
One of the key elements in many
educational reforms is diversity.
Diversity is the difference that makes
each person unique. ( biology, ethnicity,
and culture, family life, beliefs,
geography ,experiences, and religion)
INTRODUCTION OF
PHILOSOPHY
THE MEANING OF
PHILOSOPHY
The word philosophy comes
from the greek words,
Philo- meaning to LOVE and
Sophia- m.eaning WISDOM
Philosophy originally meant, love
of wisdom, and in a broad sense,
wisdom is still the goal of
philosophy.
Philosophy is also defined as the
science that by natural light of
reason studies the first causes
and highest principle of all things.
FOUR THINGS TO
CONSIDER
A. SCIENCE B. NATURAL LIGHT OF
REASON
C. STUDY OF ALL
THINGS
D. FIRST CAUSES OR
HIGHEST PRINCIPLE
SCIENCE
IT IS CALLED SCIENCE
BECAUSE THE
INVESTIGATION IS
SYSTEMATIC, IT
FOLLOWS CERTAIN
STEPS, OR IT EMPLOYS
CERTAIN PROCEDURES.
NATURAL
LIGHT OF
REASON
PHILOSOPHY INVESTIGATES
THINGS, NOT BY USING ANY
OTHER LABORATORY
INSTRUMENTS OR
INVESTIGATIVE TOOLS.
NEITHER ON THE BASIS OF
SUPERNATURAL. INSTEAD
THE PHILOSOPHER USES HIS
NATURAL CAPACITY TO
THINK OR SIMPLY HUMAN
REASON ALONE CALLED
UNAIDED REASON.
STUDY
OF ALL
THINGS
A PHILOSOPHER STUDIES
HUMAN BEINGS, SOCIETY,
RELIGION, LANGUAGE,
GOD AND PLANTS. THE
REASON IS THE
PHILOSOPHY NOT
DIMENSIONAL OR
PARTIAL.
THE PHILOSOPHER THAT
NOT LIMIT HIMSELF TO A
PARTICULAR OF OBJECT
FIRST
CAUSES
OR
HIGHEST
PRINCIPLE
A. PRINCIPLE OF IDENTITY –WHAT
EVER IT IS; AND WHAT EVER IS
NOT. EVERYTHING IS WHAT IS.
B. PRINCIPLE OF NON-
CONTRADICTION- ITIS
IMPOSSIBLEFOR A THING TO BE
AND NOT TO BE AT THE SAME
TIME,AND AT THE SAME RESPECT.
C. PRINCIPLE OF EXCLUDED
MIDDLE- THE THING IS EITHER IS
OR IS NOT.
D. PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT
REASON- NOTHING EXIST
WITHOUT A SUFFICIENT REASON.
Early greek philosophers study aspects or natural sciences and human
world that later become separate sciences-astronomy, physics,
psychology, and sociology. On the other hand, certain basic problems-
the nature of the universe, the standard of justice, the validity of
knowledge, the correct application of reason and the criteria of
beauty have been the domain of philosophy from its beginning s to the
present.
Special branches of Philosophy---philosophy of science,philosophy of
state,philosophy of politics, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of
education, philosophy of law, philosophy of language and others.
·In attaining wisdom, there is a need for emptying. Emptying can be
intellectual, spiritual and also physical.
SPECIAL BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY---
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE,PHILOSOPHY OF
STATE,PHILOSOPHY OF POLITICS, PHILOSOPHY
OF MATHEMATICS, PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION,
PHILOSOPHY OF LAW, PHILOSOPHY OF
LANGUAGE AND OTHERS.
·IN ATTAINING WISDOM, THERE IS A NEED FOR
EMPTYING. EMPTYING CAN BE INTELLECTUAL,
SPIRITUAL AND ALSO PHYSICAL.
1.1 RECOGNIZE HUMAN
ACTIVITES THAT EMANATED
FROM DELIBERATE
REFLECTION
HOLISTICPERSPECTIVE-Oneofthegreatestneedsofanyone
seeking“wisdom”isagenuinesympathyandanunderstandingofall
themostdiversepointsofview
PARTIALPERSPECTIVE–Anarrowprovincialismofmind,limitedto
theideasandoutlookofasinglepartyorasingleage.
1.2.1 THE BRANCHES OF
PHILOSOPHY
METHAPHYSICS
ETHICS
EPISTEMOLOGY
LOGIC
AESTHETICS
METHAPHYSICS
-Metaphysics is really only and extension of a fundamental
and necessary drive in every human being to know what is
real.
-the metaphysician’s task is to explain that part of our
experience, which we call unreal in terms of what we call real.
- for instance, for Thales, a greek philosopher, everything is
water. He claims that everything we experience is water---
which we call “reality”
METHAPHYSICS
-both the idealist and the materialist metaphysical theories are
similarly based on unobservable entities: mind and matter
- Plato, Socrates` most famous student, (is a good example of a
metaphysician who draws the sharpest possible contrast between
reality and appearance.) Nothing we experience in the physical
world with our five senses is real, according to Plato.
(REFLECTIONS,MEDITATIONS AND CONVERSATIONS THAT
ROCKED THE WORLD: By What Values Shall I Live In The World?
By Plato)
ETHICS
·Is the branch of philosophy that explores the nature or moral
virtue and evaluates human actions
·Ethics is generally a study of the nature of moral judgements.
·Philosophy insist that obedience to moral law be given a rational
foundation
(REFLECTIONS, MEDITIATIONS, AND CONVERSATIONS THAT
ROCKED THE WORLD: What Constitutes A Human Person?
PLATO, SOCRATES, ARISTOTLE)
(REFLECTIONS,MEDITIATIONS, AND CONVERSATIONS THAT
ROCKED THE WORLD: How Much Freedom Should We Have?
Who Should Decide?)
·Specifically, epistemology deals with nature,
sources, limitations and validity of knowledge
(Soccio 2001
·Epistemology explains:
(1) how we know;what we claim to know
(2) how we can find out what we wish to know; and
(3) how we can differentiate truth from falsehood.
EPISTEMOLOGY
1. On the one hand, he sees,hears, and touches; on the other hand, he organize in his
mind what he learns through the senses.Some philosophers think that the particular
thing seen, heard and touched are more important . They believe that general ideas are
formed from the examination of particular facts. This method is called induction, and
philosphers who feel that knowledge is acquired in this way are called empiricists. (e.g,.
John Locke). Empiricsm is the view that knowledge can be attained through sense
experience.
2. Other philosphers think that it is more important to find a general law according to
which particular facts can be understood or judged. This method is called deduction; its
advocates are called rationalists (e.g,, Rene Descartes)
HOW DO WE ACQUIRE RELIABLE KNOWLEDGE?
HUMAN KNOWLEDGE MAY BE REGARDED AS
HAVING TWO PARTS?
LOGIC
·The term “logic” comes from the greek word logike and was
coined by Zeno, the Stoic (c.340-265BC)
·Etymologically, it means a treatise on matters pertaining to
the human thought.
·Aristotle was the first philosopher to devise a logical
method.
·Logical reasoning makes us certain thatb our conclusions
are true, and this provides us with accepted scientific
proofs or universally valid proposiitons or statements.
LOGIC
·
·Since the time of Aristotle the study of lies and fallacies has been
considered an integral part of logic.
·Zeno of Citium is one of the successors of Aristotle. He is also the founder
of the movement known as stoicism, derived from the greek stoa poikile
(painted porch
·Other more influential authors of logic then are Cierco, Porphyry, and
Boethius, in the later Roman Empire.; the Byzantine Scholar--- Philoponus
and Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes in the arab world.
(REFLECTION, MEDITATIONS, AND CONVERSATIONS THAT ROCKED THE
WORLD: Artificial Intelligence)
AESTHETICS
·The establishment of criteria of beauty is the
function of aesthetics.
·Aesthetic is the science of the beautiful in its
various manifestations—including sublime,
comic, tragic, pathetic, and ugly.
·It vitalizes our knowledge.
·It helps us more deeply and richly
·It brings us in touch with our culture
-Hans-Georg Gadamer, a german philosopher, argues that our taste
and judgements regarding beauty, work in connection with ones own
personal experience nad culture. That is why a “dialog” or conversation
is important in interpreting works or art. ( white 1991)
According to Gadamer, interpretative and isofar as all interpretation,
involves the exchange between the familiar and thr alien, so all
interpretation is also translative.


Asbranchofphilosophystudentsshouldconsidertheimportanceof
philosophybecauseofthefollowing:
·Educational challenge in 21st century entails
appropriate acceptance of cultural and racial
multiplicity. One does not engage in
harassment of any from. This section
introduces the various viewpoints of
philosophy: the western and non-western, with
emphasis on our very own Filipino indigenous
beliefs and going beyond the logical and
technological imperatives of existence.
1.1WHY BECOME A PHILOSPHER? ON
ATTAINING A COMPREHENSIVE OUTLOOK IN
LIFE
A. Expanding Our Philosphical
Frames: Western And Non- Western
Traditions
* ·Many philosopher hold that there are three great original centers of philosophy in
the world----Greek (or western), Indian, and Chinese.
·Historically, Indians and Chinese predate the oldest of Western classics. Inidan and
Chinese philosphers of note alos lived earlier than their greek counterparts (Quito
1991)
·During the first centuries, there was mre philosophical activity in the East than in the
West. Before the greek period, there was hardly an activity in the West. Greeks
before Thales did not have philosophy (Velasquez 1999)
·From the time of the Greek triumvirate (Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle), there was a
reversal between the Western thinker and Asian thinker. In our present century,
almost all the major philosophical ideas emanate from western thinkers (Quito 1991)
* ·One size does not fit all. There are multiple cultures and there
are different types of states in terms of modern economic
modernization (Nye 2013). Certainly the culture of the “East” is
very different from that of “ West” ( primarily Europe and North
America), but does not mean each culture is incapable of
understanding certain features of the other.
·It is important to develop an understanding of culture centers
around the glove that are very different from our own.
·Each society or culture can be said to have its own philosophy
(Quito 1991)
*For Quito, there are three attitudinal imperatives that we
must bear in mind if we are to appreciate the Oriental or
Eastern thought vis-à-vis the Occidental or Western
mindset and to situate them in their proper perspective:
·In contrast to the propensity of the West to think in a
linear manner, that is, in terms of beginning and ending in a
straight line, Oriental thought runs in a circular manner in
which the end conjoins the beginning in a cyclic style. In a
manner of speaking, nothing actually begins absoulutely or
end absolutely.
*
·The attitudinal imperative is the assumption that the East does
not make a rigorous distinction between religion and philosophy.
In the East, Philosophy is religion and religion is philosophy. The
Oriental does not cut off philosophy that is thought, from
religion that is life in action.
Life for Oriental thinkers is a translation of thought; it is
philosophy I action. Orientals believe that life must be the
extension of thought, its fruit, and its application.


·The third attitudinal imperative is the acceptance of the validity
of intuition and mysticism. The readiness to revert to extra
logical, if not iloogical modes of thinking.
The West has but to theorize and speculate;
no application to life is necessary. Such are
the Platonic, Hegelian, Kantian, and
Fichtean theories to which the Western
philosophers render lip service; their
application to practice is still being
contested by other Western philosopher
(Mitchell 2011)
As Quito (1991) remarked: The concept of all-at-once-ness
which is the hallmark of the mind of Asia is annoying to the
Western mind which cannot shake off its structural mode of
thinking in terms of beginning and end, of before and after,
of then and now and later. This is no doubt applicable to
individual things and events which the Asian mind does not
reject, but when the line of reasoning and understanding is
raised from the fragmentary to the total, from the
piecemeal to the whole, from the part to that all of the
world of things, the Asian mind balks at the "illogic" of
applying the same principles pertaining only to the
fragments to that of the Whole. The Knower and the
Known: East
If logic is no longer able to solve life problem,
the Asian mind resorts to intuition. One should
not be surprised at its propensity to mysticism,
at its use of super-consciousness or of the
existence of a third eye or a sixth sense. When
the situation demands, it reverse the logical
patterns (Mitchell 2011)
A Filipino
Thinking:
From
Local to
Global
·“Filipino Thought”
·Like any other people, the Filipino must eventually take
consciousness of his own particular life and his world, his
society and his gods in the light of Truth, and thereby realize
his proper being (Reyes 1990)
·The lack of refined tools and the lack of
predecessors upon whom to stand(Mercado
1992)
·The three dimensions of Filipino thought are:
Loob, Filipino Philosophy of Time, and Bahala
Na.
1.Loob: Holistic and
Interior Dimensions
·Kagandahang-loob, and kabutihang-loob and kalooban are terms
that show sharing one`s self to others.
·For Mercado (1999), interiority manifest itself in freedom.
·Great Philippine values, in fact, are essentially interpersonal.
· The use of intermediaries or go-betweens, the values of loyalty,
hospitality, pakikisama (camaraderie, conformism), and respect to
authority are such values that relate to persons.
1.Loob: Holistic and
Interior Dimensions
·
·The Filipino, who stresses duties over rights, has plenty in
common with his Oriental neighbors such as the Chinese and
the Indian.
·The Filipino looks at himself as a self, as a total whole---as a
“person,” conscious of his freedom, proud of his human
dignity and sensitive to the violation of these two (Mercado
2000
1.Filipino Philosophy
of Time
Moreover, the Filipino---wether Ilokano, or Kapampangan proves
htat he believs in the gulong ng palad (literally “whell of fortune”)
and hence, looks at life as a series of ups and downs (Timbreza
1992). This philosophy of life makes flipino an unmitigated optimist.
·Life may be sorrowful, but precisely because suffering is ultimately
salutary, there is hope beyond suffering (Timbreza 1996).
·Gulong ng palad nonetheless blends well with foreign philosophical
ideas in the Asiana region. It approaches karma of the Indians and
yang and yin thought of Chinese.
·
1.Filipino
Philosophy of
Time
·Pakikisama, on the other hand is close to the Chinese and Japanese
philosophy of “living in harmony with nature.”
·Often, Filipino Time is mistakenly interpreted as lawyas delayed in
the committed time of arrival. This notion can be misleading since
the Filipino farmers are early risers to go to their field and waste no
time for work.
·The concept of “siesta time” or “power naps” is also important for
Filipino culture that must not be necessarily considered negative.
·
1.Bahala na
·The pre- Spanish Filipino people believed in Supreme Being, Batula or Bathala.
However, in this regard , the originality of Filipino thought will probably be
precisely in his personalistic view of the universe (Timbreza 2002)
·In his personalistic view of the world, the Filipino seems to signify that ultimately
in life, we have reckon ot only with nature and human nature, but also cosmic
presences or spirits, seen to be the ultimate origin to the problem evil.
·Bathala is not an impersonal entity but rather a personal being that keeps the
balance in the universe. The Filipino put his entire trust in this Bathala who has
evolved into the Christian God (Mercado 2000)
·
1.Bahala na
·The Filipino subconsciously accepts the bahala na attitude as
part of life which literally means to leave everything to God
who is Bathala in the vernacular.
·The bahala na philosophy puts complete trust in Divine
Providence; it contain the element of resignation. Thus the
Filipino accepts beforehand whatever the outcome of his
problem might be (Mercado 2000)
·Bahala na (come what may) is one of the most outstanding
Filipino virtues. It isonw aspect perceived as courage to take
risk.
·
1.Bahala na
·Bahala na, on the other hand , is seen as
fatalistic; sort of leaving everything to God or
to chance---such is the uncertainty of life.
·Fatalism is universal. The will of God/Allah, tao
to the chinese, rta to te Indians and fate in
Buddhism---all signify, in one way or another,
fatalism.
·
4. Filipino
Thought
And Values;
Positive And
Negative
Aspects
·Reciprocating debts of gratitude between
coordinates and subordinates holds the
whole group together--- superordinate
and subordinate (utang na loob)
·However, as we xonsider our duty, it
should not be bounded by utang na loob
(indebtedness to patrons) but to help to
uplift the life not only of one`s own family
(micro perspective) but of others as well
(macro perspective).
·Bayanihan is another moving spirit of the
Filipino people.
·
4. Filipino
Thought And
Values;
Positive And
Negative
Aspects
·Deep down in Filipino psyche, there exists
the belief that whatever good one has done
will redound to one`s benefit because a
Supreme Judge will dispense just
compensation wehter in this life or in the
enxt (Mercado 2000)
·Wether an indigenous philosophy or mere
sociological values, it depends on one`s
definition of philosophy.
·Indigenous philosophy may be said to be
an elan or a spirit that permeate sthe
Filipinos as Filipino, and without which, he
feels certain dissatisfaction.
·
4. Filipino
Thought And
Values;
Positive And
Negative
Aspects
·Reciprocating debts of gratitude between
coordinates and subordinates holds the
whole group together--- superordinate
and subordinate (utang na loob)
·However, as we xonsider our duty, it
should not be bounded by utang na loob
(indebtedness to patrons) but to help to
uplift the life not only of one`s own family
(micro perspective) but of others as well
(macro perspective).
·Bayanihan is another moving spirit of the
Filipino people.
·
There was a consensus that Asia, being the
seat of the world's oldest civilization, does
have a philosophical character all on its own
but it will not surface unless local
philosophers dig to the roots of their own
indigenous culture (Gripaldo 2000). The
nationalist challenge is still relevant today.
In this vein, Gripaldo (2000) believes four
important items to be considered
·“Replacing colonial consciousness with a
nationalist consciousness thereby doing
away with colonialand crab mentality
creation of super industrial society;
·utilization of education as the means
of realizing the image of the future as
super industrial society and;
·choosing not just for one's self but
for all humanity, for the nation as a
whole
ABUNDANCE IS
A CHOICE
Negative thoughts, emotions. and people should
be avoided.
When we look down, we only see our
misfortunes but when we look up, we realize
that we are fortunate than others.
Abundance is more of an effort of the heart
than mind alone ( Aguilar 2010)
ABUNDANCE IS
A CHOICE
However, Aguilar theorizes that only the heart can
commit. Abundance, therefore, is a choice which
translates to commitment, determination, and
perseverance.
We have our dreams, and regardless of who we are,
the universe will answer our wishes.
According to "The Secret", our dreams come true
because we attract them.
The concept of Abundance Covers both
external and internal life.
·Thus, to live in abundance means evolving to
a higher being in following one's mission; a
deliberate or conscious desire to act upon
what can make us and others happy..
ABUNDANCE IS TO EVOLVE INTO
A HIGHER BEING

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philosophy.pdf

  • 1. PURSUING WISDOM AND FACING CHALLENGES IN THE TWENTY- FIRST CENTURY GROUP 1
  • 2. OBJECTIVES TO DISTINGUISH A HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE FROM A PARTIAL POINT OF VIEW 01 TO RECOGNIZE HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT EMANATED FROM DELIBERATE REFLECTION 02 TO REALIZE THE VALUE OF DOING PHILOSOPHY IN OBTAINING A BROAD PERSPECTIVE ON LIFE. 03 TO DO A PHILOSOPHICAL REFLECTION ON A CONCRETE SITUATION FROM A HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE. 04 TO APPRECIATE FILIPINO INDIGENOUS THOUGHTS. 05
  • 3. One of the key elements in many educational reforms is diversity. Diversity is the difference that makes each person unique. ( biology, ethnicity, and culture, family life, beliefs, geography ,experiences, and religion) INTRODUCTION OF PHILOSOPHY
  • 4. THE MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY The word philosophy comes from the greek words, Philo- meaning to LOVE and Sophia- m.eaning WISDOM Philosophy originally meant, love of wisdom, and in a broad sense, wisdom is still the goal of philosophy. Philosophy is also defined as the science that by natural light of reason studies the first causes and highest principle of all things.
  • 5. FOUR THINGS TO CONSIDER A. SCIENCE B. NATURAL LIGHT OF REASON C. STUDY OF ALL THINGS D. FIRST CAUSES OR HIGHEST PRINCIPLE
  • 6. SCIENCE IT IS CALLED SCIENCE BECAUSE THE INVESTIGATION IS SYSTEMATIC, IT FOLLOWS CERTAIN STEPS, OR IT EMPLOYS CERTAIN PROCEDURES.
  • 7. NATURAL LIGHT OF REASON PHILOSOPHY INVESTIGATES THINGS, NOT BY USING ANY OTHER LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS OR INVESTIGATIVE TOOLS. NEITHER ON THE BASIS OF SUPERNATURAL. INSTEAD THE PHILOSOPHER USES HIS NATURAL CAPACITY TO THINK OR SIMPLY HUMAN REASON ALONE CALLED UNAIDED REASON.
  • 8. STUDY OF ALL THINGS A PHILOSOPHER STUDIES HUMAN BEINGS, SOCIETY, RELIGION, LANGUAGE, GOD AND PLANTS. THE REASON IS THE PHILOSOPHY NOT DIMENSIONAL OR PARTIAL. THE PHILOSOPHER THAT NOT LIMIT HIMSELF TO A PARTICULAR OF OBJECT
  • 9. FIRST CAUSES OR HIGHEST PRINCIPLE A. PRINCIPLE OF IDENTITY –WHAT EVER IT IS; AND WHAT EVER IS NOT. EVERYTHING IS WHAT IS. B. PRINCIPLE OF NON- CONTRADICTION- ITIS IMPOSSIBLEFOR A THING TO BE AND NOT TO BE AT THE SAME TIME,AND AT THE SAME RESPECT. C. PRINCIPLE OF EXCLUDED MIDDLE- THE THING IS EITHER IS OR IS NOT. D. PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON- NOTHING EXIST WITHOUT A SUFFICIENT REASON.
  • 10. Early greek philosophers study aspects or natural sciences and human world that later become separate sciences-astronomy, physics, psychology, and sociology. On the other hand, certain basic problems- the nature of the universe, the standard of justice, the validity of knowledge, the correct application of reason and the criteria of beauty have been the domain of philosophy from its beginning s to the present. Special branches of Philosophy---philosophy of science,philosophy of state,philosophy of politics, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of education, philosophy of law, philosophy of language and others. ·In attaining wisdom, there is a need for emptying. Emptying can be intellectual, spiritual and also physical.
  • 11. SPECIAL BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY--- PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE,PHILOSOPHY OF STATE,PHILOSOPHY OF POLITICS, PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS, PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY OF LAW, PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE AND OTHERS. ·IN ATTAINING WISDOM, THERE IS A NEED FOR EMPTYING. EMPTYING CAN BE INTELLECTUAL, SPIRITUAL AND ALSO PHYSICAL.
  • 12. 1.1 RECOGNIZE HUMAN ACTIVITES THAT EMANATED FROM DELIBERATE REFLECTION HOLISTICPERSPECTIVE-Oneofthegreatestneedsofanyone seeking“wisdom”isagenuinesympathyandanunderstandingofall themostdiversepointsofview PARTIALPERSPECTIVE–Anarrowprovincialismofmind,limitedto theideasandoutlookofasinglepartyorasingleage.
  • 13. 1.2.1 THE BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY METHAPHYSICS ETHICS EPISTEMOLOGY LOGIC AESTHETICS
  • 14. METHAPHYSICS -Metaphysics is really only and extension of a fundamental and necessary drive in every human being to know what is real. -the metaphysician’s task is to explain that part of our experience, which we call unreal in terms of what we call real. - for instance, for Thales, a greek philosopher, everything is water. He claims that everything we experience is water--- which we call “reality”
  • 15. METHAPHYSICS -both the idealist and the materialist metaphysical theories are similarly based on unobservable entities: mind and matter - Plato, Socrates` most famous student, (is a good example of a metaphysician who draws the sharpest possible contrast between reality and appearance.) Nothing we experience in the physical world with our five senses is real, according to Plato. (REFLECTIONS,MEDITATIONS AND CONVERSATIONS THAT ROCKED THE WORLD: By What Values Shall I Live In The World? By Plato)
  • 16. ETHICS ·Is the branch of philosophy that explores the nature or moral virtue and evaluates human actions ·Ethics is generally a study of the nature of moral judgements. ·Philosophy insist that obedience to moral law be given a rational foundation (REFLECTIONS, MEDITIATIONS, AND CONVERSATIONS THAT ROCKED THE WORLD: What Constitutes A Human Person? PLATO, SOCRATES, ARISTOTLE) (REFLECTIONS,MEDITIATIONS, AND CONVERSATIONS THAT ROCKED THE WORLD: How Much Freedom Should We Have? Who Should Decide?)
  • 17. ·Specifically, epistemology deals with nature, sources, limitations and validity of knowledge (Soccio 2001 ·Epistemology explains: (1) how we know;what we claim to know (2) how we can find out what we wish to know; and (3) how we can differentiate truth from falsehood. EPISTEMOLOGY
  • 18. 1. On the one hand, he sees,hears, and touches; on the other hand, he organize in his mind what he learns through the senses.Some philosophers think that the particular thing seen, heard and touched are more important . They believe that general ideas are formed from the examination of particular facts. This method is called induction, and philosphers who feel that knowledge is acquired in this way are called empiricists. (e.g,. John Locke). Empiricsm is the view that knowledge can be attained through sense experience. 2. Other philosphers think that it is more important to find a general law according to which particular facts can be understood or judged. This method is called deduction; its advocates are called rationalists (e.g,, Rene Descartes) HOW DO WE ACQUIRE RELIABLE KNOWLEDGE? HUMAN KNOWLEDGE MAY BE REGARDED AS HAVING TWO PARTS?
  • 19. LOGIC ·The term “logic” comes from the greek word logike and was coined by Zeno, the Stoic (c.340-265BC) ·Etymologically, it means a treatise on matters pertaining to the human thought. ·Aristotle was the first philosopher to devise a logical method. ·Logical reasoning makes us certain thatb our conclusions are true, and this provides us with accepted scientific proofs or universally valid proposiitons or statements.
  • 20. LOGIC · ·Since the time of Aristotle the study of lies and fallacies has been considered an integral part of logic. ·Zeno of Citium is one of the successors of Aristotle. He is also the founder of the movement known as stoicism, derived from the greek stoa poikile (painted porch ·Other more influential authors of logic then are Cierco, Porphyry, and Boethius, in the later Roman Empire.; the Byzantine Scholar--- Philoponus and Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes in the arab world. (REFLECTION, MEDITATIONS, AND CONVERSATIONS THAT ROCKED THE WORLD: Artificial Intelligence)
  • 21. AESTHETICS ·The establishment of criteria of beauty is the function of aesthetics. ·Aesthetic is the science of the beautiful in its various manifestations—including sublime, comic, tragic, pathetic, and ugly.
  • 22. ·It vitalizes our knowledge. ·It helps us more deeply and richly ·It brings us in touch with our culture -Hans-Georg Gadamer, a german philosopher, argues that our taste and judgements regarding beauty, work in connection with ones own personal experience nad culture. That is why a “dialog” or conversation is important in interpreting works or art. ( white 1991) According to Gadamer, interpretative and isofar as all interpretation, involves the exchange between the familiar and thr alien, so all interpretation is also translative. Asbranchofphilosophystudentsshouldconsidertheimportanceof philosophybecauseofthefollowing:
  • 23. ·Educational challenge in 21st century entails appropriate acceptance of cultural and racial multiplicity. One does not engage in harassment of any from. This section introduces the various viewpoints of philosophy: the western and non-western, with emphasis on our very own Filipino indigenous beliefs and going beyond the logical and technological imperatives of existence. 1.1WHY BECOME A PHILOSPHER? ON ATTAINING A COMPREHENSIVE OUTLOOK IN LIFE
  • 24. A. Expanding Our Philosphical Frames: Western And Non- Western Traditions
  • 25. * ·Many philosopher hold that there are three great original centers of philosophy in the world----Greek (or western), Indian, and Chinese. ·Historically, Indians and Chinese predate the oldest of Western classics. Inidan and Chinese philosphers of note alos lived earlier than their greek counterparts (Quito 1991) ·During the first centuries, there was mre philosophical activity in the East than in the West. Before the greek period, there was hardly an activity in the West. Greeks before Thales did not have philosophy (Velasquez 1999) ·From the time of the Greek triumvirate (Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle), there was a reversal between the Western thinker and Asian thinker. In our present century, almost all the major philosophical ideas emanate from western thinkers (Quito 1991)
  • 26. * ·One size does not fit all. There are multiple cultures and there are different types of states in terms of modern economic modernization (Nye 2013). Certainly the culture of the “East” is very different from that of “ West” ( primarily Europe and North America), but does not mean each culture is incapable of understanding certain features of the other. ·It is important to develop an understanding of culture centers around the glove that are very different from our own. ·Each society or culture can be said to have its own philosophy (Quito 1991)
  • 27. *For Quito, there are three attitudinal imperatives that we must bear in mind if we are to appreciate the Oriental or Eastern thought vis-à-vis the Occidental or Western mindset and to situate them in their proper perspective: ·In contrast to the propensity of the West to think in a linear manner, that is, in terms of beginning and ending in a straight line, Oriental thought runs in a circular manner in which the end conjoins the beginning in a cyclic style. In a manner of speaking, nothing actually begins absoulutely or end absolutely.
  • 28. * ·The attitudinal imperative is the assumption that the East does not make a rigorous distinction between religion and philosophy. In the East, Philosophy is religion and religion is philosophy. The Oriental does not cut off philosophy that is thought, from religion that is life in action. Life for Oriental thinkers is a translation of thought; it is philosophy I action. Orientals believe that life must be the extension of thought, its fruit, and its application. ·The third attitudinal imperative is the acceptance of the validity of intuition and mysticism. The readiness to revert to extra logical, if not iloogical modes of thinking.
  • 29. The West has but to theorize and speculate; no application to life is necessary. Such are the Platonic, Hegelian, Kantian, and Fichtean theories to which the Western philosophers render lip service; their application to practice is still being contested by other Western philosopher (Mitchell 2011)
  • 30. As Quito (1991) remarked: The concept of all-at-once-ness which is the hallmark of the mind of Asia is annoying to the Western mind which cannot shake off its structural mode of thinking in terms of beginning and end, of before and after, of then and now and later. This is no doubt applicable to individual things and events which the Asian mind does not reject, but when the line of reasoning and understanding is raised from the fragmentary to the total, from the piecemeal to the whole, from the part to that all of the world of things, the Asian mind balks at the "illogic" of applying the same principles pertaining only to the fragments to that of the Whole. The Knower and the Known: East
  • 31.
  • 32. If logic is no longer able to solve life problem, the Asian mind resorts to intuition. One should not be surprised at its propensity to mysticism, at its use of super-consciousness or of the existence of a third eye or a sixth sense. When the situation demands, it reverse the logical patterns (Mitchell 2011)
  • 34. ·“Filipino Thought” ·Like any other people, the Filipino must eventually take consciousness of his own particular life and his world, his society and his gods in the light of Truth, and thereby realize his proper being (Reyes 1990) ·The lack of refined tools and the lack of predecessors upon whom to stand(Mercado 1992) ·The three dimensions of Filipino thought are: Loob, Filipino Philosophy of Time, and Bahala Na.
  • 35. 1.Loob: Holistic and Interior Dimensions ·Kagandahang-loob, and kabutihang-loob and kalooban are terms that show sharing one`s self to others. ·For Mercado (1999), interiority manifest itself in freedom. ·Great Philippine values, in fact, are essentially interpersonal. · The use of intermediaries or go-betweens, the values of loyalty, hospitality, pakikisama (camaraderie, conformism), and respect to authority are such values that relate to persons.
  • 36. 1.Loob: Holistic and Interior Dimensions · ·The Filipino, who stresses duties over rights, has plenty in common with his Oriental neighbors such as the Chinese and the Indian. ·The Filipino looks at himself as a self, as a total whole---as a “person,” conscious of his freedom, proud of his human dignity and sensitive to the violation of these two (Mercado 2000
  • 37. 1.Filipino Philosophy of Time Moreover, the Filipino---wether Ilokano, or Kapampangan proves htat he believs in the gulong ng palad (literally “whell of fortune”) and hence, looks at life as a series of ups and downs (Timbreza 1992). This philosophy of life makes flipino an unmitigated optimist. ·Life may be sorrowful, but precisely because suffering is ultimately salutary, there is hope beyond suffering (Timbreza 1996). ·Gulong ng palad nonetheless blends well with foreign philosophical ideas in the Asiana region. It approaches karma of the Indians and yang and yin thought of Chinese. ·
  • 38. 1.Filipino Philosophy of Time ·Pakikisama, on the other hand is close to the Chinese and Japanese philosophy of “living in harmony with nature.” ·Often, Filipino Time is mistakenly interpreted as lawyas delayed in the committed time of arrival. This notion can be misleading since the Filipino farmers are early risers to go to their field and waste no time for work. ·The concept of “siesta time” or “power naps” is also important for Filipino culture that must not be necessarily considered negative. ·
  • 39. 1.Bahala na ·The pre- Spanish Filipino people believed in Supreme Being, Batula or Bathala. However, in this regard , the originality of Filipino thought will probably be precisely in his personalistic view of the universe (Timbreza 2002) ·In his personalistic view of the world, the Filipino seems to signify that ultimately in life, we have reckon ot only with nature and human nature, but also cosmic presences or spirits, seen to be the ultimate origin to the problem evil. ·Bathala is not an impersonal entity but rather a personal being that keeps the balance in the universe. The Filipino put his entire trust in this Bathala who has evolved into the Christian God (Mercado 2000) ·
  • 40. 1.Bahala na ·The Filipino subconsciously accepts the bahala na attitude as part of life which literally means to leave everything to God who is Bathala in the vernacular. ·The bahala na philosophy puts complete trust in Divine Providence; it contain the element of resignation. Thus the Filipino accepts beforehand whatever the outcome of his problem might be (Mercado 2000) ·Bahala na (come what may) is one of the most outstanding Filipino virtues. It isonw aspect perceived as courage to take risk. ·
  • 41. 1.Bahala na ·Bahala na, on the other hand , is seen as fatalistic; sort of leaving everything to God or to chance---such is the uncertainty of life. ·Fatalism is universal. The will of God/Allah, tao to the chinese, rta to te Indians and fate in Buddhism---all signify, in one way or another, fatalism. ·
  • 42. 4. Filipino Thought And Values; Positive And Negative Aspects ·Reciprocating debts of gratitude between coordinates and subordinates holds the whole group together--- superordinate and subordinate (utang na loob) ·However, as we xonsider our duty, it should not be bounded by utang na loob (indebtedness to patrons) but to help to uplift the life not only of one`s own family (micro perspective) but of others as well (macro perspective). ·Bayanihan is another moving spirit of the Filipino people. ·
  • 43. 4. Filipino Thought And Values; Positive And Negative Aspects ·Deep down in Filipino psyche, there exists the belief that whatever good one has done will redound to one`s benefit because a Supreme Judge will dispense just compensation wehter in this life or in the enxt (Mercado 2000) ·Wether an indigenous philosophy or mere sociological values, it depends on one`s definition of philosophy. ·Indigenous philosophy may be said to be an elan or a spirit that permeate sthe Filipinos as Filipino, and without which, he feels certain dissatisfaction. ·
  • 44. 4. Filipino Thought And Values; Positive And Negative Aspects ·Reciprocating debts of gratitude between coordinates and subordinates holds the whole group together--- superordinate and subordinate (utang na loob) ·However, as we xonsider our duty, it should not be bounded by utang na loob (indebtedness to patrons) but to help to uplift the life not only of one`s own family (micro perspective) but of others as well (macro perspective). ·Bayanihan is another moving spirit of the Filipino people. ·
  • 45. There was a consensus that Asia, being the seat of the world's oldest civilization, does have a philosophical character all on its own but it will not surface unless local philosophers dig to the roots of their own indigenous culture (Gripaldo 2000). The nationalist challenge is still relevant today. In this vein, Gripaldo (2000) believes four important items to be considered
  • 46. ·“Replacing colonial consciousness with a nationalist consciousness thereby doing away with colonialand crab mentality creation of super industrial society; ·utilization of education as the means of realizing the image of the future as super industrial society and; ·choosing not just for one's self but for all humanity, for the nation as a whole
  • 47. ABUNDANCE IS A CHOICE Negative thoughts, emotions. and people should be avoided. When we look down, we only see our misfortunes but when we look up, we realize that we are fortunate than others. Abundance is more of an effort of the heart than mind alone ( Aguilar 2010)
  • 48. ABUNDANCE IS A CHOICE However, Aguilar theorizes that only the heart can commit. Abundance, therefore, is a choice which translates to commitment, determination, and perseverance. We have our dreams, and regardless of who we are, the universe will answer our wishes. According to "The Secret", our dreams come true because we attract them.
  • 49. The concept of Abundance Covers both external and internal life. ·Thus, to live in abundance means evolving to a higher being in following one's mission; a deliberate or conscious desire to act upon what can make us and others happy.. ABUNDANCE IS TO EVOLVE INTO A HIGHER BEING