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Open Access, open research data and open science


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This presentation covers open access (OA) and OA theses & dissertations: why you should take action now; impact & metrics; copyright; open research data; open science; and new skills & competencies for librarians. Target audience: PhD students and librarians

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Open Access, open research data and open science

  1. 1. Facilitate Open Science Training for European Research Iryna Kuchma EIFL Open Access Programme Manager Presentation at the Open Access meeting, University of Belgrade, October 29, 2014, Belgrade, Serbia Attribution 4.0 International
  2. 2. Open access (OA) OA thesis & dissertations: Why you should take action now Impact & metrics Copyright Open research data, open science New skills & competencies
  3. 3. PhD students Librarians
  4. 4.
  5. 5. Open access
  6. 6. Technology enabled networking & collaboration Over 35% of articles published in journals are based on international collaboration (compared with 25% 15 years ago) Science is increasingly interdisciplinary Novel communication technologies permit modes of interaction that exploit the collective intelligence of the scientific community
  7. 7. “It felt like the difference between driving a car and pushing it” (Tim Gowers)
  8. 8. Open access (OA) is free, immediate, online access to the results of research, coupled with the right to use those results in new and innovative ways
  9. 9. OA for researchers increased visibility usage and impact for their work new contacts and research partnerships
  10. 10. OA for research institutions publicises institution's research strengths complete record of the research output in easily accessible form new tools to manage institution's impact
  11. 11. OA for publishers increased readership and citations increased visibility and impact the best possible dissemination service for research
  12. 12. Strategies to achieve OA
  13. 13. OA journals
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  15. 15.
  16. 16. 800+ scholarly societies embraced OA (Peter Suber & Caroline Sutton)
  17. 17. OA monographs
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  19. 19. OA repositories
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  24. 24. European Commission As of April 2014, more than 50% of the scientific papers published in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012 can be downloaded for free on the Internet. (Proportion of Open Access Papers Published in Peer- Reviewed Journals at the European and World Levels— 1996–2013: /en/publications/reports#/en/ publications/reports/proporti on-of-open-access-papers-publ ished-in-peer-reviewed-journa
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  27. 27. OA policies
  28. 28. ensures open access via the repository within six months of publication (12 months for publications in the social sciences & humanities) deposits a machine-readable e-copy of the published version/a final peer-reviewed publication in institutional/subject-based/ possible and at the latest on publication or in journals that sell subscriptions and also offer the possibility of making individual articles openly accessible (hybrid journals) publishes in OA journals manuscript accepted for Zenodo repository as soon as publishes in subscriptions journals deposits as soon as possible and at the latest on publication, if an electronic version is available for free via the publisher
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  30. 30. OA benefits for researchers Distribution and usage ● Immediate access to your research output for everyone upon official publication ● More visibility and usage ● Immediate impact of your work ● Intensification of research through fast dissemination and use of research; ● Possibly a citation advantage as well
  31. 31. OA benefits for researchers (2) Plus: ●Monitoring of your research output ● Preservation of your research output by your library ● Keeping your rights instead of signing them away
  32. 32. Impact and metrics
  33. 33.
  34. 34. It has become more important where to publish than what to publish
  35. 35. The Journal Impact Factor (IF) is frequently used as the primary parameter with which to compare the scientific output of individuals and institutions. The IF, as calculated by Thomson Reuters, was originally created as a tool to help librarians identify journals to purchase, not as a measure of the scientific quality of research in an article. The IF has a number of well-documented deficiencies as a tool for research assessment.
  36. 36. 1. Do not use journal-based metrics, such as Journal Impact Factors, as a surrogate measure of the quality of individual research articles, to assess an individual scientist's contributions, or in hiring, promotion, or funding decisions. The San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA)
  37. 37. Copyright
  38. 38. Legal basis: Two options 1. Seek permission from publishers, and only distribute OA copies when succeed in obtaining it. 2. Ask faculty to retain the right to provide OA on the university's terms (and grant the university non-exclusive permission to provide that OA), even if faculty transfer all their other rights to publishers.
  39. 39. Practical guidance when submitting journal articles In order to maximize the value of the research you produce in digital environment, it is important for you to take an active role in managing the copyrights to your work. Copyright protection is automatic (at the moment the copyrighted work has been “fixed in a tangible medium,” such as when a written work has been saved on a computer's hard drive or printed). (From SPARC Introduction to Copyright Resources:
  40. 40. Practical guidance (2) When you publish in a journal you are typically asked by the publisher to sign a copyright transfer agreement, or contract, that describes the assignment of various rights to the publisher. Assigning your rights matters. The copyright holder controls the work. Transferring copyright doesn’t have to be all or nothing. (From Author Rights: Using the SPARC Author Addendum to secure your rights as the author of a journal article
  41. 41. A balanced approach Authors: Retain the rights you want. Use and develop your own work without restriction. Increase access for education and research. Receive proper attribution when your work is used. If you choose, deposit your work in an open online archive where it will be permanently and openly accessible. (From
  42. 42. A balanced approach (2) Publishers: Obtain a non-exclusive right to publish and distribute a work and receive a financial return. Receive proper attribution and citation as journal of first publication. Migrate the work to future formats and include it in collections. (From
  43. 43. Securing your rights 1. The SPARC Author's Addendum preserves rights for broader use of your research: 2. If your research is funded by the donor with an open access mandate, the donor usually offers language that modifies a publisher's copyright agreement to give you the rights to follow donor's open access policy. (From SPARC Introduction to Copyright Resources:
  44. 44. Creative Commons licenses
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  46. 46.
  47. 47. My thesis is in OA, what about yours?
  48. 48. DoiSerbiaPhD Social network thumbnails have been added to each thesis so the altmetrics can be tracked – that cover not just citation counts, but also other aspects of the impact of a work, such theses views, downloads, or mentions in social media and news media.
  49. 49. University of Belgrade “I will publish the results of my PhD related research in an OA repository so that everyone can benefit from it.’’ Comment of a PhD student at the University of Belgrade in a questionnaire after one of the workshops where OA was presented and explained
  50. 50. OA mandate for doctoral dissertations in Serbia Law on Amendments and Additions to the Law on Higher Education (adopted 2014, September, 10th)
  51. 51. Article 8. A higher education institution, which organizes the preparation and defense of a doctoral dissertation, is required to make available (1) doctoral dissertation and (2) the report of the evaluation of the doctoral dissertation, to the public in electronic version on the official website of the institution and in hard copy in the library of the institution, at least 30 days prior to the approval of the Commission, the competent authority, as well as to dissertation defense.
  52. 52. Article 8 (cont.). The University is required to establish a digital repository, which permanently stores electronic version of PhD thesis, together with the report of the evaluation committee, data about the mentor and members of the defense Commission, as well as information on copyright, and that all these data are available to public. A copy of the content that is stored in the university's repository shall, within three months of submission of a thesis for defense be deposited in a central repository maintained by the Ministry.
  53. 53. Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
  54. 54. What PhD students can do Use OA research (find and use OA journals and OA repositories in your field) Share your work: Writing an article for a scholarly journal? Working on your thesis or dissertation? Gain more exposure of your work and ideas
  55. 55. What PhD students can do (2) Submit your research articles to OA journals, when there are appropriate OA journals in your field. Deposit your research output in an OA repository. When asked by a colleague to send a copy of one of your articles, self-archive the article instead (see above). (Peter Suber)
  56. 56. What PhD students can do (3) Ask journals to let you retain the rights you need to consent to OA. Deposit your data files in an OA repositories along with the articles built on them. Negotiate with conventional journals of experimenting with OA. (Peter Suber)
  57. 57. What PhD students can do (4) Take action for OA on your campus (organize an event on campus, pass a resolution in your student government, or ask your student organization to support OA) Show your support: Tell the word your want OA to research
  58. 58. Image courtesy of CC-BY
  59. 59. Open research data
  60. 60. “The distinction between open access publication and open research data should disappear, they are research findings” - Ross Wilkinson, Research data enhancement through ANDS and RDA Hubble telescope has an open archive for data, led to significant increase in publications
  61. 61. Acknowledgment Two slides below were originally prepared/presented by Sarah Jones Digital Curation Centre, University of Glasgow
  62. 62. What is research data? ‘Research data’ refers to information, in particular facts or numbers, collected to be examined and considered as a basis for reasoning, discussion or calculation. In a research context, examples of data include statistics, results of experiments, measurements, observations resulting from fieldwork, survey results, interview recordings and images. The focus is on research data that is available in digital form. Guidelines on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Research Data in Horizon 2020 v.1.0, 11 December 2013, Footnote 5, p3
  63. 63. What is open data? Openly accessible research data can typically be accessed, mined, exploited, reproduced and disseminated, free of charge for the user. Guidelines on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Research Data in Horizon 2020, p3
  64. 64. “1. Science is all about reproducibility – if someone else can’t reproduce your results, then your conclusions are invalid, and therefore the science doesn’t work. For a lot of scientific domains, reproducing results means using the original data collected, which means having access to it in the first place, which means sharing.”
  65. 65. Image courtesy of CC-BY
  66. 66. Image courtesy of CC-BY
  67. 67. “2. Data sharing cuts down on academic fraud. It’s hard work fabricating datasets (I know this from personal experience, having spent most of my PhD trying to simulate synthetic rain fields that looked anything like the real ones…), and having other people using your data means that they’re more likely to notice if something seems a bit wrong (which is also useful for error corrections).”
  68. 68. “3. Data sharing saves time and money. If a dataset already exists to test your hypothesis, why spend the effort and the money to collect an entirely new one?”
  69. 69. “4. Data sharing improves the transparency of the research process. If the data’s available to anyone who wants it, then you can’t be accused of hiding evidence about a controversial topic (like climate change).”
  70. 70. Image courtesy of CC-BY
  71. 71. Acknowledgment Eight slides below were originally prepared/presented by Sarah Jones Digital Curation Centre, University of Glasgow
  72. 72. Benefits of sharing data (1) 13alzheimer.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 “It was unbelievable. Its not science the way most of us have practiced in our careers. But we all realised that we would never get biomarkers unless all of us parked our egos and intellectual property noses outside the door and agreed that all of our data would be public immediately.” Dr John Trojanowski, University of Pennsylvania ... scientific breakthroughs
  73. 73. Benefits of sharing data (2) “There is evidence that studies that make their data available do indeed receive more citations than similar studies that do not.” Piwowar H. and Vision T.J 2013 "Data reuse and the open data citation advantage“ 10% - 30% increase ... more citations
  74. 74. Why manage data: rewards More citations: 69% ↑ (Piwowar, 2007 in PLoS) Prevent data loss New research opportunities and collaborations Recognition Validation of results: ‘data behind the graph’ Easier to do your research…
  75. 75. Metadata and documentation Metadata: basic info e.g. title, author, dates, access rights... Documentation: methods, code, data dictionary, context... Use standards wherever possible for interoperability metadata-standards
  76. 76. Requirements of the Horizon2020 Open Research Data pilot 1. Develop (and update) a Data Management Plan 2. Deposit in a research data repository 3. Make it possible for third parties to access, mine, exploit, reproduce and disseminate data – free of charge for any user 4. Provide information on the tools and instruments needed to validate the results (or provide the tools)
  77. 77. 1. Develop (and update) a Data Managemenet Plan - DMPonline A web-based tool to help researchers write DMPs Includes a template for Horizon 2020
  78. 78. 2. Deposit in a repository
  79. 79. 3. License your data for reuse Outlines pros and cons of each approach and gives practical advice on how to implement your licence OTHER CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSES NC Non-Commercial What counts as commercial? SA Share Alike Reduces interoperability ND No Derivatives Severely restricts use es/license-research-data Horizon 2020 recommendation is to use OR
  80. 80. 4. Provide info on tools needed for validation Need to share much more than just the data for research to be reproducible... Difficult to validate data if you’re missing info on the steps between the initial idea and end results
  81. 81. Useful links • Open Knowledge Foundation (advocacy, training, services, handbook...) • MyExperiment and Taverna (sharing workflows) and • Software Sustainability Institute (UK-based) • School of Data (training to help people use open data) • Digital Curation Centre (RDM guidance, tools and resources)
  82. 82.
  83. 83. Open and collaborative science, image courtesy of Reecha Piya
  84. 84. Open science definitions
  85. 85. Michael Nielsen: “Open science is the idea that scientific knowledge of all kinds should be openly shared as early as is practical in the discovery process.”
  86. 86. Research Information Network: “science carried out and communicated in a manner which allows others to contribute, collaborate and add to the research effort, with all kinds of data, results and protocols made freely available at different stages of the research process.”
  87. 87. The strain was analyzed by scientists at BGI-Shenzen in China working together with those in Hamburg, and 3 days later a draft genome was released under an open data license. This kick-started analysis by bioinformatic groups on 4 continents. 24 hours after the release of genome it was assembled.
  88. 88. Within a week two dozen reports have been filed on an open site. They produced results in time to help contain the outbreak and by July 2011 scientists published papers based on the analysis.
  89. 89. By opening up their early sequencin results to international collaboration, researchers in Hamburg produced results that were quickly tested by a wide range of experts, used to produce new knowledge and ultimately to control a public health emergency.
  90. 90. Citizens science
  91. 91. “Inside your cells, proteins allow your body to break down food to power your muscles, send signals through your brain that control the body, and transport nutrients through your blood. Every protein consists of a long chain of joined-together amino acids, which are small molecules made up of atoms of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and hydrogen. Small proteins can consist of 100 amino acids, whereas some human proteins are much larger, with thousands of amino acids. Each type of protein folds up into a very specific shape, which specifies the protein's function. How can we predict the structure of a protein?
  92. 92. Open science policy
  93. 93. In 2014 the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture established Open Science and Research Initiative to incorporate open science and research to the whole research process. This will help to improve the visibility and impact of science and research in the innovation system and society at large; and to foster the research system in Finland towards better competitiveness and higher quality, transparent, collaborative and inspirational research process.
  94. 94. This national initiative promotes open access publications, open research data, open research methods and tools, as well as new skills and support services in open science domain (see the policy document here)
  95. 95. “Michael Faraday’s advice to his junior colleague to: “Work. Finish. Publish.” needs to be revised. It shouldn’t be enough to publish a paper anymore. If we want open science to flourish, we should raise our expectations to: “Work. Finish. Publish. Release.” That is, your research shouldn’t be considered complete until the data and meta-data is put up on the web for other people to use, until the code is documented and released, and until the comments start coming in to your blog post announcing the paper. If our general expectations of what it means to complete a project are raised to this level, the scientific community will start doing these activities as a matter of course.” (What, exactly, is Open Science? by Dan Gezelter:
  96. 96. Sharing
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  98. 98. Joint ARL/CARL/COAR/LIBER Task Force Librarians’ Competencies in Support of E-Research and Scholarly Communication
  99. 99. Competency areas: Scholarly Communication & OA Roles involved: • Scholarly publishing services • Copyright & OA advocacy & outreach • Scholarly resource assessment
  100. 100. Competency areas: Scholarly Communication & OA (2) Core competencies: Scholarly publishing services • OA publishing models • Infrastructure (OJS, OMP, repositories) • Standards: DOI, ISSN, ISBN, persistent URL and citation options, such as OpenURL and CNRI Handle
  101. 101. Competency areas: Scholarly Communication & OA (3) Core competencies: Scholarly publishing services (2) • Funder OA mandates and requirements • Data formats, database design, data management, data manipulation tools • Awareness of data curation and preservation options
  102. 102. Competency areas: Scholarly Communication & OA (4) Core competencies: Copyright and OA advocacy and outreach • OA policy and advocacy • Support and training
  103. 103. Competency areas: Scholarly Communication & OA (5) Support and training: • Raise awareness for the need and options of OA, including practical questions such as financing • Advise faculty and graduate students on alternatives to signing away copyright to their original scholarly works
  104. 104. Competency areas: Scholarly Communication & OA (6) Support and training (2): • Promote data sharing and reuse, explain data citation • Copyright and intellectual property licensing issues relating to scholarship and commercial and non-commercial publishing; Creative Commons and other OA license models
  105. 105. Competency areas: Scholarly Communication & OA (7) Support and training (3): • Advisory skills, collaboration skills, service marketing, project management, etc. • Management of digital collections, metadata standards, discovery tools • Traditional scholarly publishing economics and open access benefits and requirements
  106. 106. Competency areas: Scholarly Communication & OA (8) Core competencies: Scholarly resource assessment • Bibliometrics and altmetrics theory & practice • Faculty promotion & tenure policies & procedures • Institutional assessment/planning interests in scholarly output
  107. 107. Competency areas: Research Data Management (RDM) Roles involved: • Providing access to data • Advocacy & support for managing data • Managing data collections
  108. 108. Competency areas: RDM (2) Core competencies: Some level of subject knowledge is required. In particular librarians need to have an understanding of the disciplinary landscape, norms, and standards.
  109. 109. Competency areas: RDM (3) Core competencies: Providing access to data • Data centres, repositories & collections • The way data are organized & structured within these collections • Data licensing & IP policies and principles • Data manipulation/analysis techniques & tools
  110. 110. Competency areas: RDM (4) Core competencies: Advocacy & support for managing data • Funders’ policies & requirements • Data management plans • Articulate benefits of data sharing & re-use • Research practices & workflows • Disciplinary norms & standards
  111. 111. Competency areas: RDM (5) Core competencies: Advocacy & support for managing data (2) • Data structures, types & formats • Best practices for managing data, standards, metadata & vocabularies • Data publication requirements of specific journals
  112. 112. Competency areas: RDM (6) Core competencies: Advocacy & support for managing data (3) • Data sharing options, open access, IPR, licenses • Data audit and assessment tools.
  113. 113. Competency areas: RDM (7) Core competencies: Managing data collections • Selection & appraisal techniques for datasets • Metadata standards & schemas, data formats, domain ontologies, identifiers, data citation, data licensing • Discovery tools
  114. 114. Competency areas: RDM (8) Core competencies: Managing data collections (2) • Database design types & structures • Data linking & data integration techniques • Data storage infrastructures • Digital preservation metadata • Forensic procedures in digital curation
  115. 115. Feedback & questions Iryna Kuchma, https :// ng/task-force-competencies /
  116. 116. Thank you! Questions?