Hanging Separately
Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
China and Africa GDP, 1960-2012
China and U.S. GDP, 1960-2012
China-Africa Interactions Pre-1950
Zheng He
(1371-1433)

Muslim Eunuch, commander of Nanjing,
fleet admiral, diplomat, mar...
Zheng He’s voyages, 1405-1433
Parallel Histories
Africa

Pre-Colonial

Colonial

China

Imperial
Colonial Influence
1912 Revolution

Independence

1949 ...
1911 Independence Flag

Red: Han
Yellow: Manchus
Blue: Mongols
Hui (Muslims):
White
Black: Tibetans
Colonialism, 1898
Colonialism, 1920
Colonialism, 1936
Colonialism, 1945
Six Decades of PRC-Africa Relations
50s-60s
“One China”, UN votes, diplomatic recognition

70s-80s
Sino-Soviet conflicts, ...
Independence, by decade
African Nations
(Ordered by first recognition of the PRC)
Egypt

Zambia

Niger

South Africa

Morocco

Benin

Gambia

Mala...
The Five Principles of
Peaceful Coexistence
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity
mutua...
Six Decades of PRC-Africa Relations
50s-60s
“One China”, UN votes, diplomatic recognition

70s-80s
Sino-Soviet conflicts, ...
UN recognizes PRC, 1971
Nixon visits Beijing, 1972
[The guiding principle of Chinese diplomacy in
the 1980s changed from] “ideological idealism
to pragmatic idealism and fro...
Six Decades of PRC-Africa Relations
50s-60s
“One China”, UN votes, diplomatic recognition

70s-80s
Sino-Soviet conflicts, ...
The Party
(Communist Party of China)

18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China
Hu Jintao’s “Four Nos”

1.
2.
3.
4.

no hegemonism
no power politics
no military alliances
no arms races
1997 ASEAN Summit
Trade between Africa and China 19952008
Egypt

Free Officers’ Revolt, 1952
Mubarak deposed, 2011
Sudan

Independence, 1956
Coup d'état, 1969
Coup d'état, 1971
1972, civil war hiatus
Coup d'état, 1989
South Sudan separat...
Burkina Faso

Formerly Upper Volta
Independence 1984
Coup d'état, 1987
Ghana

Independence 1957
Coup d'état, 1966
Various coups 1966-1981
Elections 1992
Kwame Nkrumah and Mao Zedong
Nigeria

Independence 1960
Variosu coups, civil war,
1966-1970
Military junta, 1970, coups,
junta
Elections 1999
“Chinese citizens found in oil installations will
be treated as thieves. The Chinese government
by investing in stolen cru...
Equatorial Guinea

Independence 1968
Coup d'état, 1979
Tanzania

Independence 1961
Merge with Zanzibar, 1964
Angola

Independence 1975
Ceasefire, 2002
Elections 2008
South Africa

Independence 1931
Transition to Republic, 1961
First universal elections, 1994
Zimbabwe

Formerly South Rhodesia
Declaration of independence,
1964
“Zimbabwe Rhodesia”, 1979
Elections, 1980
Transition t...
“It is possible to build an unequal relationship,
the kind of relationship that has developed
between African countries as...
Further Resources
Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
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Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals

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Slide deck for a talk given at Coffman Memorial Union, University of Minnesota to the local Great Decisions chapter.

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Hanging Separately: Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals

  1. 1. Hanging Separately Why China and Africa are unable to meet as equals
  2. 2. China and Africa GDP, 1960-2012
  3. 3. China and U.S. GDP, 1960-2012
  4. 4. China-Africa Interactions Pre-1950 Zheng He (1371-1433) Muslim Eunuch, commander of Nanjing, fleet admiral, diplomat, mariner.
  5. 5. Zheng He’s voyages, 1405-1433
  6. 6. Parallel Histories Africa Pre-Colonial Colonial China Imperial Colonial Influence 1912 Revolution Independence 1949 Revolution
  7. 7. 1911 Independence Flag Red: Han Yellow: Manchus Blue: Mongols Hui (Muslims): White Black: Tibetans
  8. 8. Colonialism, 1898
  9. 9. Colonialism, 1920
  10. 10. Colonialism, 1936
  11. 11. Colonialism, 1945
  12. 12. Six Decades of PRC-Africa Relations 50s-60s “One China”, UN votes, diplomatic recognition 70s-80s Sino-Soviet conflicts, “One China”, domestic focus 90s-00s “Brand” management, rapid growth, secure supply chain
  13. 13. Independence, by decade
  14. 14. African Nations (Ordered by first recognition of the PRC) Egypt Zambia Niger South Africa Morocco Benin Gambia Malawi Algeria Mauritania Botswana South Sudan Sudan Equatorial Guinea Guinea Ethiopia Mozambique São Tomé and Príncipe Swaziland (never recognized) Ghana Nigeria Comoro Islands Mali Cameroon Cape Verde Somalia Sierra Leone Seychelles Democratic Republic of Congo Rwanda Liberia Senegal Libya Mauritius Djibouti Togo Zimbabwe Madagascar Angola Chad Côte d'Ivoire Burkino Faso Lesotho Guinea Bissau Namibia Gabon Eritrea Tanzania Uganda Kenya Burundi Tunisia Congo, Brazzaville Central African Republic
  15. 15. The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity mutual non-aggression non-interference in each other's internal affairs equality and mutual benefit peaceful coexistence. Originally set forth by Premier Zhou Enlai to the Indian delegation in 1953-1954
  16. 16. Six Decades of PRC-Africa Relations 50s-60s “One China”, UN votes, diplomatic recognition 70s-80s Sino-Soviet conflicts, “One China”, domestic focus 90s-00s “Brand” management, rapid growth, secure supply chain
  17. 17. UN recognizes PRC, 1971
  18. 18. Nixon visits Beijing, 1972
  19. 19. [The guiding principle of Chinese diplomacy in the 1980s changed from] “ideological idealism to pragmatic idealism and from unconditional internationalism to a priority of national interest." —He Wenping Chinese Africanist
  20. 20. Six Decades of PRC-Africa Relations 50s-60s “One China”, UN votes, diplomatic recognition 70s-80s Sino-Soviet conflicts, “One China”, domestic focus 90s-00s “Brand” management, rapid growth, secure supply chain
  21. 21. The Party (Communist Party of China) 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China
  22. 22. Hu Jintao’s “Four Nos” 1. 2. 3. 4. no hegemonism no power politics no military alliances no arms races 1997 ASEAN Summit
  23. 23. Trade between Africa and China 19952008
  24. 24. Egypt Free Officers’ Revolt, 1952 Mubarak deposed, 2011
  25. 25. Sudan Independence, 1956 Coup d'état, 1969 Coup d'état, 1971 1972, civil war hiatus Coup d'état, 1989 South Sudan separates, 2011
  26. 26. Burkina Faso Formerly Upper Volta Independence 1984 Coup d'état, 1987
  27. 27. Ghana Independence 1957 Coup d'état, 1966 Various coups 1966-1981 Elections 1992
  28. 28. Kwame Nkrumah and Mao Zedong
  29. 29. Nigeria Independence 1960 Variosu coups, civil war, 1966-1970 Military junta, 1970, coups, junta Elections 1999
  30. 30. “Chinese citizens found in oil installations will be treated as thieves. The Chinese government by investing in stolen crude places its citizens in our line of fire.” —Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND)
  31. 31. Equatorial Guinea Independence 1968 Coup d'état, 1979
  32. 32. Tanzania Independence 1961 Merge with Zanzibar, 1964
  33. 33. Angola Independence 1975 Ceasefire, 2002 Elections 2008
  34. 34. South Africa Independence 1931 Transition to Republic, 1961 First universal elections, 1994
  35. 35. Zimbabwe Formerly South Rhodesia Declaration of independence, 1964 “Zimbabwe Rhodesia”, 1979 Elections, 1980 Transition to Republic, 1961 First universal elections, 1994
  36. 36. “It is possible to build an unequal relationship, the kind of relationship that has developed between African countries as colonies. The African continent exports raw material and imports manufactured goods, condemning (it) to underdevelopment” —President Thabo Mbeki, South Africa, 2006
  37. 37. Further Resources

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