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Why the blue is goodfor you?  {   Heli J. Roy, PhD, MBA, RD      LSU AgCenter
   The consumption of blueberries rose about 1.6        times in the last ten years.       Blueberries have gained incre...
   Blueberries have many phytochemicals that         have healthful properties. These compounds         act as an:       ...
   The term "phytochemicals" refers to a wide        variety of compounds produced by plants.       Phytochemicals are n...
   They are found in fruits, vegetables, beans,        grains, and other plants.       They are the colored compounds in...
There are several major groups ofphytochemicals    Alkaloids                 Monophenols    Anthocyanins              ...
   Phytochemicals are promoted for the           prevention and treatment of many health           conditions, including ...
   The polyphenols include a large subgroup of             chemicals called flavonoids. Flavonoids are             plant ...
   Some flavonoids act as antioxidants. These get        rid of the harmful molecules known as free        radicals, whic...
   The isoflavones found in foods and        supplements such as soy products, red clover,        garbanzo beans and lico...
   Ellagic acid, found in raspberries, blackberries,        cranberries, strawberries, and walnuts, also is        said t...
   Carotenoids, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene        and zeaxanthin, which give carrots, yams,        cantaloupe, squas...
   Blueberries have anthocyanins, which give        blueberries their blue hue and help neutralize        free radicals. ...
   Oxygen radical absorbance capacity or ORAC       is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities       in biological s...
For 100 grams of food:      Spices, cloves, ground             290,283      Spices, turmeric, ground             127,068...
   Blueberries are low in calories, only 80 calories per cup         and they are fat free.        Blueberries have many...
   There is some evidence that certain        phytochemicals may help prevent           the formation of potential carci...
   Blueberry extracts can inhibit the growth of many        types of cancers. Eating blueberries on a regular        basi...
   Chrologenic acid removes particularly toxic reactive        species by scavenging alkylperoxyl radicals and        may...
   Research has shown that regular consumption        of fruits and vegetables lowers the risk for        developing hear...
   In the cardiovascular system, blueberry        antioxidants enhance the relaxation of the blood        vessels, reduce...
   In diabetes, blueberries improve capillaries and        microaneurysms and lower glycemic index.       Chlorogenic ac...
   In terms of vision, blueberry antioxidants        reduce eye strain.       Feeding laboratory animals with blueberrie...
    The consumption of blueberries is believed to        play a role in delaying the development of        neurodegenerat...
   In the brain, blueberry antioxidants help protect                the brain from oxidative stress and may reduce       ...
    The consumption of berries has also been        suggested to play a role in gastrointestinal (GI)        health.    ...
   In the urinary track, blueberry antioxidants fight        infection, prevent the adhesion of harmful        bacteria i...
Effect of blueberry phytochemicals on the organ systems and the organs in the  body:System                   EffectWhole s...
   http://text.lsuagcenter.com/en/food_health/nutrit         ion/nutrients/Health-Benefits-of-Blueberries.htmHealth Benef...
   Blueberries are available fresh, frozen, dried or        canned as fruit or juices or ready made        products such ...
   Fresh and frozen samples had similar levels of        anthocyanins.       Extracts did not differ from that of the fr...
   Blueberries can be considered as superfood        with all the various health benefits they provide.       Regular co...
1.    Olsson M et al. J Agric Food Chem. 2004; 52: 7264-71. 2.    Yi W, Fischer J, Krewer G, Akoh C. J Agric Food Chem. 20...
Why the blue is good for you
Why the blue is good for you
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Why the blue is good for you

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Why the blue is good for you

  1. 1. Why the blue is goodfor you? { Heli J. Roy, PhD, MBA, RD LSU AgCenter
  2. 2.  The consumption of blueberries rose about 1.6 times in the last ten years.  Blueberries have gained increased attention because of beneficial components in blueberries. The components are strong antioxidants that can delay the development of chronic diseases and aging.  The antioxidants compounds give blueberries their blue color.Usage and Popularity
  3. 3.  Blueberries have many phytochemicals that have healthful properties. These compounds act as an:  Antioxidant  Anticancer  Anti-neurodegerative  Anti-inflammatory  Because of these properties, recent research shows that blueberries have beneficial effects against chronic diseases. Blueberry antioxidants benefit many organ systems in the body.Health Benefits of Blueberries
  4. 4.  The term "phytochemicals" refers to a wide variety of compounds produced by plants.  Phytochemicals are naturally-occurring non- nutritive (not required in the diet, like nutrients) constituents of fruits and vegetables.  Scientists have identified thousands of phytochemicals, although only a small fraction have been studied closely.What are Phytochemicals?
  5. 5.  They are found in fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, and other plants.  They are the colored compounds in many fruits, vegetables and flowers.  They are said to be bioactive and are considered to have a beneficial effect on human health.What are Phytochemicals?
  6. 6. There are several major groups ofphytochemicals  Alkaloids  Monophenols  Anthocyanins  Monoterpenes  Carotenoids  Organo sulfides  Coumestan  Phenolic acids  Flavan-3-Ols  Phytosterols  Flavonoids  Saponins  Hydroxycinnamic acid  Stylbenes  Isoflavones  Triterpenoids etc  Lignans  ZanthophyllsMajor Groups ofPhytochemicals
  7. 7.  Phytochemicals are promoted for the prevention and treatment of many health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.  Lycopene – prostate cancer  Lutein – eye sight  Genistein – hormone replacement in menopause  Resveratrol – heart health  Capsaicin – pain treatmentPhytochemicals (American Cancer Society)
  8. 8.  The polyphenols include a large subgroup of chemicals called flavonoids. Flavonoids are plant chemicals found in a broad range of fruits, grains, and vegetables. Current studies will examine whether they can prevent chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease.FlavonoidsAmerican Cancer Society
  9. 9.  Some flavonoids act as antioxidants. These get rid of the harmful molecules known as free radicals, which can damage a cells DNA and may trigger some forms of cancer and other diseases. Flavonoids that act as antioxidants and may protect against some cancers and heart disease.  Quercetin, another flavonoid with antioxidant properties, is found in apples, onions, teas, and red wine.Flavonoids cont.
  10. 10.  The isoflavones found in foods and supplements such as soy products, red clover, garbanzo beans and licorice, and the lignans found in flaxseed and whole grains may mimic the actions of the female hormone estrogen ( Licorice and Soybean). These estrogen-like substances from these plant sources are called phytoestrogens. They may play a role in the development of and protection against some hormone-dependent cancers such as some types of breast and prostate cancer.Isoflavones
  11. 11.  Ellagic acid, found in raspberries, blackberries, cranberries, strawberries, and walnuts, also is said to have anti-cancer effects.  Another called allyl sulfides, are found in garlic and onions. These compounds may stimulate enzymes that help the body get rid of harmful chemicals. They may also help strengthen the immune system.Phenolic Acids
  12. 12.  Carotenoids, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin, which give carrots, yams, cantaloupe, squash, and apricots their orange color, are also promoted as anticancer agents.  Tomatoes, red peppers, and pink grapefruit contain lycopene, which proponents claim is a powerful antioxidant.  The phytochemicals lutein and zeaxanthin, found in spinach, kale, and turnip greens, may reduce the risk of some cancers.Carotenoids
  13. 13.  Blueberries have anthocyanins, which give blueberries their blue hue and help neutralize free radicals. An example is myricetin.  They also have many other phytochemicals that have been shown to be helpful in preventing various conditions such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease. These are ursolic acid and chlorogenic acid.Blueberry Phytochemicals
  14. 14.  Oxygen radical absorbance capacity or ORAC is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities in biological samples. A wide variety of foods has been tested using this methodology, with certain spices, berries and legumes rating highly.ORAC Score
  15. 15. For 100 grams of food:  Spices, cloves, ground 290,283  Spices, turmeric, ground 127,068  Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened 55,653  Ginger root, raw 14,840  Blueberries, wild, raw 9,621  Blueberries, raw 4,669  Peaches, raw 1,922  Oranges, raw, navel 1,819  Grapes, Black 1,746  Oats, uncooked, old fashioned 1,708ORAC Score http://www.oracvalues.com/sort/orac-value/260
  16. 16.  Blueberries are low in calories, only 80 calories per cup and they are fat free.  Blueberries have many vitamins and minerals and they contain many non-nutritive factors as well.  They are an excellent source of vitamin C. In fact, a serving contains about 14 mg or almost 25 percent of the recommended daily value (DV). Blueberries are also a good source of dietary fiber, about 3.5 g per cup, and they are an excellent source of manganese, about 0.5g per cup. Manganese is important for carbohydrate and fat metabolism and is present in most cells in the body.  Some of the other nutrients in blueberries are: calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E.Blueberries are aSuperfood
  17. 17.  There is some evidence that certain phytochemicals may help prevent  the formation of potential carcinogens (substances that cause cancer),  block the action of carcinogens on their target organs or tissue, or  act on cells to suppress cancer development.  Many experts suggest that people can reduce their risk of cancer by eating significantly more fruits, vegetables, and other foods from plants that contain phytochemicals.Cancer Risk
  18. 18.  Blueberry extracts can inhibit the growth of many types of cancers. Eating blueberries on a regular basis can reduce the incidence and risk for cancer.  The extracts of several berries have been investigated, particularly blueberries, in regards to their role in cancer prevention of oral, breast, colon and prostate cancers.  The anthocyanins are specifically effective in inhibiting cancerous cell growth the best, blueberry anthocyanins in particular are effective in killing certain cancer cells and preventing cancer development.Cancer Risk Lila
  19. 19.  Chrologenic acid removes particularly toxic reactive species by scavenging alkylperoxyl radicals and may prevent carcinogenesis by reducing the DNA damage they cause.  Laboratory tests show that kaempferol suppresses the growth of a number of human malignancies. It does it by enhancing the cell chemistry which destroys the malignant cells. Its effectiveness is increased when combined with other flavonoids or molecules that are known to be toxic to cancer cells.  Quercetin enhances cancer cell death.Cancer Prevention
  20. 20.  Research has shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables lowers the risk for developing heart disease.  A study examined the effects of blueberry consumption in relation to heart disease risk. Those who consumed blueberries on a regular basis had the greatest benefit and lowest risk factors for heart disease.Heart Disease Risk
  21. 21.  In the cardiovascular system, blueberry antioxidants enhance the relaxation of the blood vessels, reduce platelet aggregation, protect against capillaries weakened by exposure to irradiation, reduce capillary permeability, and increase capillary resistance.  Kaempferol prevents oxidative damage of our cells, lipids and DNA. It decreases the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and reduces the formation of platelets in the blood. Another way that it inhibits heart disease development is that it decreases a protein that begins the plaques formation in the arteries.  Chlorogenic acid in blueberries can limit low-density lipid (LDL) oxidation, the major determinant of the initial events in atherosclerosis.Heart Disease Risk
  22. 22.  In diabetes, blueberries improve capillaries and microaneurysms and lower glycemic index.  Chlorogenic acid in blueberries is an antioxidant which may slow the release of glucose into the bloodstream after a meal.  Blueberry extract also decreases glucose uptake by cells.  Anthocyanin malvidin lowered elevated blood glucose levels by 33 to 51% in laboratory animals.  Blueberry anthocyanins improve pancreatic beta cell function.Diabetes
  23. 23.  In terms of vision, blueberry antioxidants reduce eye strain.  Feeding laboratory animals with blueberries for 4 weeks prior to light exposure effectively reduced photodamage to the retinas.  Blueberry protected retinal cells against chemical toxins. It increased cell viability, decreased oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis. After a 24-hour preincubation time, blueberry totally inhibited the effect of chemical toxins targeted to harm the retina.Vision
  24. 24.  The consumption of blueberries is believed to play a role in delaying the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease.  Several studies in laboratory animals show promising results. Blueberry extract given to laboratory animals reversed some age related neuronal degeneration and resulted in better spatial recall.Alzheimers Risk
  25. 25.  In the brain, blueberry antioxidants help protect the brain from oxidative stress and may reduce the effects of age-related conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease or dementia.  Blueberry supplementation may protect against neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment caused by oxidative stress.Alzheimer’sDuffy KB et al Ingram DK. Neurobiology of Aging 29 (2008) 1680–1689
  26. 26.  The consumption of berries has also been suggested to play a role in gastrointestinal (GI) health.  Some of the components in blueberries can inhibit the growth of several intestinal pathogens, such as Salmonella and Staphylococcus. All berries are effective in inhibiting the growth of Heliobacter pylori. H pylori is a bacterial infection that can lead to peptic ulcer disease.GI Health
  27. 27.  In the urinary track, blueberry antioxidants fight infection, prevent the adhesion of harmful bacteria in the urinary track and act as an antimicrobial agent.  The large anthocyanin molecules in blueberries prevent adhesion and proliferation activity of E Coli bacteria in UTI.Urinary Track
  28. 28. Effect of blueberry phytochemicals on the organ systems and the organs in the body:System EffectWhole system Antioxidant (whole body) Cancer prevention (whole body) Anti-infectious (whole body) Prevents hyperglycemic peak, improves insulin and glucose levels (blood) Reduces inflammatory reaction, improves the immune system (whole body) Reduces blood pressure (blood vessels) Preventive against toxinsLiver Prevents glycogenolysisIntestines Improves glucose absorptionCardiovascular , blood Prevents LDL oxidationvesselsBrain Reduces oxidative stress and Alzheimer’s. Reduces amyloid formation in Alzheimer’s and improves dopamine levels in Parkinson’sHeart Dilates blood vessels in the heart, reduces plaque formation, improves endothelial cell functionBones Protects against osteoporosis, promotes bone growthSkin Protects against UV radiation, cancer preventive.Joints Collagen formationEyes Maintain healthy vision, reduce cataractsNerve cells Synthesis of neurotransmittersMuscles Improves performance
  29. 29.  http://text.lsuagcenter.com/en/food_health/nutrit ion/nutrients/Health-Benefits-of-Blueberries.htmHealth Benefits ofBlueberries
  30. 30.  Blueberries are available fresh, frozen, dried or canned as fruit or juices or ready made products such as jams and jellies. They are traditionally used in jellies, jams, and pies but also incorporated into many new foods today. They are baked into muffins and are an ingredient in many other snacks and delicacies. A more recent use of blueberries includes blueberry juice.Forms Available
  31. 31.  Fresh and frozen samples had similar levels of anthocyanins.  Extracts did not differ from that of the fresh fruit.  In a study, there was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between the anthocyanin extracts of the frozen or dried samples and the fresh fruit.Anthocyanin Stability
  32. 32.  Blueberries can be considered as superfood with all the various health benefits they provide.  Regular consumption can improve memory, visual acuity, reduce infections, reduce cancer, reduce diabetes and heart disease risk.Conclusions
  33. 33. 1. Olsson M et al. J Agric Food Chem. 2004; 52: 7264-71. 2. Yi W, Fischer J, Krewer G, Akoh C. J Agric Food Chem. 2005; 53: 7320-29 3. Seeram N et al. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54: 9329-39. 4. McAnulty SR et al. Free Radic Res. 2005; 39(11): 1241-8. 5. Lau FC et al. Neurobiology of Aging 26S (2005) S128–S132. 6. Ramierz MR et al. Pharmacol Res. 2005; 52 (6): 457-62. 7. Andres-Lacueva C et al. Nutritional Neuroscience, Volume 8, Issue 2 April 2005 , pages 111 - 120 8. Blueberries http://www.fas.usda.gov/htp/Commodity_Pages/Fruits/2005%20Blueberries.pdf 9. B. Dave Oomah and G. Mazza. Trends in Food Science & Technology 10 (1999) 193-198. 10. Vivek Sharma, Christy Joseph, Soumya Ghosh, et al. Mol Cancer Ther 2007;6(9):2544–53 11. Mary H. Gracea, 1, David M. Ribnickyb, 1, Peter Kuhnb, Alexander Poulevb, Sithes Logendrab, Gad G. Yousefa, Ilya Raskinb and Mary Ann Lila. Phytomedicine 12. Hypoglycemic activity of a novel anthocyanin-rich formulation from lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton. Phytomedicine Vol 16 (5) 2009, P. 406-415. 13. Phytomedicine Vol. 13 (9-10)2006, Pages 612-623 14. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011, 59, 356–363 15. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004, 52, 6433-6442 16. Duffy KB et al Ingram DK. Neurobiology of Aging 29 (2008) 1680–1689References

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