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Why the blue is good for you


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Presentation by Heli Roy of the LSU AgCenter that explains how consuming blueberries is good for the human body.

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Why the blue is good for you

  1. 1. Why is the blue good for you? Heli J. Roy, PhD, MBA, RD LSU AgCenter
  2. 2. <ul><li>The consumption of blueberries rose about 1.6 times in the last ten years. </li></ul><ul><li>Blueberries have gained increased attention because of beneficial components in blueberries. The components are strong antioxidants that can delay the development of chronic diseases and aging. </li></ul><ul><li>The antioxidants compounds give blueberries their blue color. </li></ul>Usage and Popularity
  3. 3. <ul><li>Blueberries have many phytochemicals that have healthful properties. These compounds act as an: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antioxidant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-neurodegerative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-inflammatory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Because of these properties, recent research shows that blueberries have beneficial effects against chronic diseases. Blueberry antioxidants benefit many organ systems in the body. </li></ul>Health Benefits of Blueberries
  4. 4. <ul><li>The term &quot;phytochemicals&quot; refers to a wide variety of compounds produced by plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Phytochemicals are naturally-occurring non-nutritive (not required in the diet, like nutrients) constituents of fruits and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have identified thousands of phytochemicals, although only a small fraction have been studied closely. </li></ul>What are Phytochemicals?
  5. 5. <ul><li>They are found in fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, and other plants. </li></ul><ul><li>They are the colored compounds in many fruits, vegetables and flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>They are said to be bioactive and are considered to have a beneficial effect on human health. </li></ul>What are Phytochemicals?
  6. 6. Major Groups of Phytochemicals <ul><ul><li>Alkaloids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthocyanins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carotenoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coumestan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flavan-3-Ols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flavonoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroxycinnamic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isoflavones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lignans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monophenols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monoterpenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organo sulfides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenolic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phytosterols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saponins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stylbenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triterpenoids etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zanthophylls </li></ul></ul>There are several major groups of phytochemicals
  7. 7. <ul><li>Phytochemicals are promoted for the prevention and treatment of many health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Lycopene – prostate cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Lutein – eye sight </li></ul><ul><li>Genistein – hormone replacement in menopause </li></ul><ul><li>Resveratrol – heart health </li></ul><ul><li>Capsaicin – pain treatment </li></ul>Phytochemicals (American Cancer Society)
  8. 8. <ul><li>The polyphenols include a large subgroup of chemicals called flavonoids . Flavonoids are plant chemicals found in a broad range of fruits, grains, and vegetables. Current studies examine whether they can prevent chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. </li></ul>Flavonoids American Cancer Society
  9. 9. <ul><li>Some flavonoids act as antioxidants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rid body of free radicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protect DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protect against some cancers and heart disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quercetin, another flavonoid with antioxidant properties, is found in apples, onions, teas, and red wine. </li></ul>Flavonoids cont.
  10. 10. <ul><li>The isoflavones mimic the actions of the female hormone estrogen ( Licorice and Soybean ). </li></ul><ul><li>Development of and protection against some hormone-dependent cancers such as some types of breast and prostate cancer. </li></ul>Isoflavones
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ellagic acid, found in raspberries, blackberries, cranberries, strawberries, and walnuts, also is said to have anti-cancer effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Allyl sulfides are found in garlic and onions. These compounds may stimulate enzymes that help the body get rid of harmful chemicals. They may also help strengthen the immune system. </li></ul>Phenolic Acids
  12. 12. <ul><li>Carotenoids, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin are found in carrots, yams, cantaloupe, squash, and apricots. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes, red peppers, and pink grapefruit contain lycopene . </li></ul><ul><li>The phytochemicals lutein and zeaxanthin is found in spinach, kale, and turnip greens. </li></ul>Carotenoids
  13. 13. <ul><li>Blueberries have anthocyanins, which give blueberries their blue hue and help neutralize free radicals. An example is myricetin. </li></ul><ul><li>They may prevent diabetes, cancer and heart disease. </li></ul>Blueberry Phytochemicals
  14. 14. <ul><li>Oxygen radical absorbance capacity or ORAC is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities in biological samples. A wide variety of foods has been tested using this methodology, with certain spices, berries and legumes rating highly. </li></ul>ORAC Score
  15. 15. <ul><li>For 100 grams of food: </li></ul><ul><li>Spices, cloves, ground 290,283 </li></ul><ul><li>Spices, turmeric, ground 127,068 </li></ul><ul><li>Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened 55,653 </li></ul><ul><li>Ginger root, raw 14,840 </li></ul><ul><li>Blueberries, wild, raw 9,621 </li></ul><ul><li>Blueberries, raw 4,669 </li></ul><ul><li>Peaches, raw 1,922 </li></ul><ul><li>Oranges, raw, navel 1,819 </li></ul><ul><li>Grapes, Black 1,746 </li></ul><ul><li>Oats, uncooked, old fashioned 1,708 </li></ul>ORAC Score
  16. 16. <ul><li>Low in calories, only 80 calories per cup and they are fat free. </li></ul><ul><li>Many vitamins and minerals and they contain many non-nutritive factors as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent source of vitamin C, dietary fiber, manganese. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the other nutrients in blueberries are:  calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E. </li></ul>Blueberries are a Superfood
  17. 17. <ul><li>There is some evidence that certain phytochemicals may help prevent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the formation of potential carcinogens (substances that cause cancer), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>block the action of carcinogens on their target organs or tissue, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act on cells to suppress cancer development. </li></ul></ul>Cancer Risk
  18. 18. <ul><li>Blueberry extracts can inhibit the growth of many types of cancers </li></ul><ul><li>The types of cancers researched were: oral, breast, colon and prostate cancers. </li></ul><ul><li>The anthocyanins are specifically effective in inhibiting the growth of cancerous cells, blueberry anthocyanins in particular. </li></ul>Cancer Risk Lila
  19. 19. <ul><li>Chrologenic acid reduces DNA damage by oxidative chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaempferol suppresses the growth of  a number of human malignancies. It does it by enhancing the cell chemistry which destroys the malignant cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Quercetin enhances cancer cell death. </li></ul>Cancer Prevention
  20. 20. <ul><li>Research has shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables lowers the risk for developing heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who consume blueberries on a regular basis have the greatest benefit and lowest risk factors for heart disease. </li></ul>Heart Disease Risk
  21. 21. <ul><li>In the cardiovascular system, blueberry antioxidants enhance the blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaempferol, a chemical in blueberries, prevents oxidative damage of our cells, lipids and DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorogenic acid in blueberries can limit low-density lipid (LDL) oxidation, the major determinant of the initial events in atherosclerosis. </li></ul>Heart Disease Risk
  22. 22. <ul><li>In diabetes, blueberries improve the capillaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorogenic acid in blueberries is an antioxidant which may slow the release of glucose into the bloodstream after a meal. </li></ul><ul><li>Blueberry extract also decreases glucose uptake by cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthocyanin malvidin lowered elevated blood glucose levels by 33 to 51% in laboratory animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Blueberry anthocyanins improve pancreatic beta cell function. </li></ul>Diabetes
  23. 23. <ul><li>Blueberry antioxidants reduce eye strain. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced photodamage to the retinas. </li></ul><ul><li>Blueberry protected retinal cells against chemical toxins. </li></ul>Vision
  24. 24. <ul><li>  The consumption of blueberries is believed to play a role in delaying the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Blueberry extract reversed some age related neuronal degeneration and resulted in better spatial recall. </li></ul>Alzheimer's Risk
  25. 25. <ul><li>Blueberry antioxidants reduce oxidative stress in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Blueberry supplementation may protect against neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment caused by oxidative stress. </li></ul>Alzheimer’s Duffy KB et al Ingram DK. Neurobiology of Aging 29 (2008) 1680–1689
  26. 26. <ul><li>  Improve gastrointestinal (GI) health. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit the growth of several intestinal pathogens, such as Salmonella and Staphylococcus. </li></ul><ul><li>All berries are effective in inhibiting the growth of Heliobacter pylori . H pylori is a bacterial infection that can lead to peptic ulcer disease. </li></ul>GI Health
  27. 27. <ul><li>In the urinary track, blueberry antioxidants fight infection, prevent the adhesion of harmful bacteria in the urinary track and act as an antimicrobial agent. </li></ul><ul><li>The large anthocyanin molecules in blueberries prevent adhesion and proliferation activity of E Coli bacteria in UTI. </li></ul>Urinary Track
  28. 28. Effect of blueberry phytochemicals on the organ systems and the organs in the body: System/Effect Whole system:   Cancer prevention (whole body)   Anti-infectious (whole body)   Prevents hyperglycemic peak, improves insulin and glucose levels (blood) Reduces inflammatory reaction, improves the immune system (whole body)   Reduces blood pressure (blood vessels)   Preventive against toxins Antioxidant (whole body)
  29. 29. System Effect Liver Prevents glycogenolysis Intestines Improves glucose absorption Cardiovascular , blood vessels Prevents LDL oxidation Brain Reduces oxidative stress and Alzheimer’s. Reduces amyloid formation in Alzheimer’s and improves dopamine levels in Parkinson’s Heart Dilates blood vessels in the heart, reduces plaque formation, improves endothelial cell function Bones Protects against osteoporosis, promotes bone growth Skin Protects against UV radiation, cancer preventive. Joints Collagen formation Eyes Maintain healthy vision, reduce cataracts Nerve cells Synthesis of neurotransmitters Muscles Improves performance
  30. 30. <ul><li> </li></ul>Health Benefits of Blueberries
  31. 31. <ul><li>Blueberries are available fresh, frozen, dried or canned as fruit or juices or ready made products such as jams and jellies. They are traditionally used in jellies, jams, and pies but also incorporated into many new foods today. They are baked into muffins and are an ingredient in many other snacks and delicacies. A more recent use of blueberries includes blueberry juice. </li></ul>Availability
  32. 32. <ul><li>Anthocyanins are large fat soluble molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Since they are fat soluble, their absorption is improved with added dietary fat. </li></ul>Enhancing absorption
  33. 33. <ul><li>Fresh and frozen samples had similar levels of anthocyanins. </li></ul><ul><li>Extracts did not differ from that of the fresh fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>In a study, there was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between the anthocyanin extracts of the frozen or dried samples and the fresh fruit. </li></ul>Anthocyanin Stability
  34. 36. <ul><li>Blueberries can be considered as superfood with all the various health benefits they provide. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular consumption can improve memory, visual acuity, reduce infections, reduce cancer, reduce diabetes and heart disease risk. </li></ul>Conclusions
  35. 37. Thank You!
  36. 38. <ul><li>Olsson M et al. J Agric Food Chem . 2004; 52: 7264-71. </li></ul><ul><li>Yi W, Fischer J, Krewer G, Akoh C. J Agric Food Chem . 2005; 53: 7320-29 </li></ul><ul><li>Seeram N et al. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54: 9329-39. </li></ul><ul><li>McAnulty SR et al. Free Radic Res. 2005; 39(11): 1241-8. </li></ul><ul><li>Lau FC et al. Neurobiology of Aging 26S (2005) S128–S132. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramierz MR et al. Pharmacol Res. 2005; 52 (6): 457-62. </li></ul><ul><li>Andres-Lacueva C et al. Nutritional Neuroscience , Volume 8 , Issue 2 April 2005 , pages 111 - 120 </li></ul><ul><li>Blueberries </li></ul><ul><li>B. Dave Oomah and G. Mazza. Trends in Food Science & Technology 10 (1999) 193-198. </li></ul><ul><li>Vivek Sharma, Christy Joseph, Soumya Ghosh, et al. Mol Cancer Ther 2007;6(9):2544–53 </li></ul><ul><li>Mary H. Gracea, 1, David M. Ribnickyb, 1, Peter Kuhnb, Alexander Poulevb, Sithes Logendrab, Gad G. Yousefa, Ilya Raskinb and Mary Ann Lila. Phytomedicine </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoglycemic activity of a novel anthocyanin-rich formulation from lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton. Phytomedicine Vol 16 (5) 2009, P. 406-415. </li></ul><ul><li>Phytomedicine Vol. 13 (9-10)2006, Pages 612-623 </li></ul><ul><li>J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011, 59, 356–363 </li></ul><ul><li>J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004, 52, 6433-6442 </li></ul><ul><li>Duffy KB et al Ingram DK. Neurobiology of Aging 29 (2008) 1680–1689 </li></ul>References