Green v Gold Open Access


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  • I first would like to cover a definition of what Green open access is. Our repository team use the Sherpa/Romeo database to check standard licence conditions for publishers, to see if manuscript/pre-print works or publisher versions can be deposited in an institutional repository (and if there is a standard embargo period).The Sherpa site colour codes publisher agreements based on various criteria. They have Green as : You can archive the pre-print AND post-print or publisher’s version/PDF
  • For Gold open access, the Sherpa site classifies this as Paid Open Access. They don’t have a gold open access classification.
  • Wiley sees Green Open access as being one with a 12 month embargo. The Library (and Sherpa) see Green Open access as fully open from day one (no embargo). The Hybrid Open access model is common. This is a payment option to be open on the publisher’s site from day one. Other articles are closed access (hence hybrid).The gold open access model for Wiley is the fully open model (paid for by Article Processing Fees).
  • Why are we all talking about Gold Open access, Article Processing Fees and Green Open access?These issues are a hot topic now due to mandatory deposit requirements from funding bodies in the UK, US, Europe and Australia.The Finch report in the UK really shook things up a lot in 2012. The Finch report recommended a lot of things, but proposed actual extra funding to ensure that papers were published in the right journals but with publisher open access (gold open access). Since then, they have changed their mind a bit.
  • The situations in Europe and the US are interesting. Europe focused again on gold open access. The US has really pushed for green open access with strong mandatory deposit policies.
  • Recent mandates by the NHMRC and ARC have fuelled the debate (and changes) in Australia
  • Warwick Anderson covered some of these issues recently in The Conversation (18 Sep 2013)
  • Green v Gold Open Access

    1. 1. Green v Gold Open access publishing Simon Huggard Digital Infrastructure Manager International Open Access Week Library Research Forum 25 October 2013 CRICOS Provider 00115M
    2. 2. Definitions – Green open access La Trobe University 2 2
    3. 3. Definitions – Gold open access – Paid Open Access • Some publishers are now offering … enhanced visibility of the final article through … free-to-view archiving • Typically involves a substantial additional fee • In some cases, the option simply consists of making the published version freely available from the publisher's own server, without any other rights or permissions being granted. In others, material is still placed under an embargo • Neither of these facilities can be counted as real "open access" La Trobe University 3 3
    4. 4. Publisher definitions – Wiley1 • Self-archiving (Green Open Access): Option of an author selfarchiving the Manuscript version after a 12 month embargo period from publication in a repository • Pay to publish (Hybrid Open Access): Wiley’s “pay to publish” (OnlineOpen option) - means that an article from a subscription journal becomes Open Access by a payment of a publication fee (currently $3000 per article) • Wiley’s Open Access Journals (Gold Open Access): These incur Article Processing Charges for the article to be published. Then freely available online via the Open Access journal site (along with ALL articles in that journal) (viewed 17 Oct 2013) La Trobe University 4 4
    5. 5. • What is Green Open Access? Researchers can deposit a version of their published work into a subject-based repository or an institutional repository. Every university in Australia has a repository for this purpose. • What is Gold Open Access? Alternatively researchers can publish in an open access journal, where the publisher of a scholarly journal provides free online access. Business models for this form of OA vary. In some cases, the publisher charges the author’s institution or funding body an article processing charge (APC). All Public Library of Science (PLoS) journals use this model. La Trobe University 5 5
    6. 6. Finch report - UK June 2012, Commissioned by UK Govt (chaired Dame Janet Finch) • a clear policy direction should be set towards support for publication in open access or hybrid journals, funded by APCs [article processing charges] … as the main vehicle for the publication of research • proposes spending £60 million a year to make all publicly-funded research free to access 10 Sept 2013 - UK Business, Innovation and Skills Committee: • Gold open access is a desirable ultimate goal, focusing on it during the transition to a fully open access world is a mistake • reconsider preference for Gold Open Access during the five year transition period, give due regard to the evidence of the vital role that Green Open Access and repositories have to play as the UK moves towards full OA • reinstate and strengthen the immediate deposit mandate in its original policy and improve the monitoring and enforcement of mandated deposit La Trobe University 6 6
    7. 7. SCONUL * Sept 2013 Briefing on mandatory OA policies • Most UK institutions working on raising awareness of OA requirements • Most have published OA policies • Of 8 case studies (SCONEL 2013), only 1 pref. Green OA • Many actively promoting the green route in line with RCUK policy. • Library or IT hold the Gold OA funds • Funds allocated on a first come-first served basis • The Society of College, National and University Libraries (SCONUL) represents all university libraries in the UK and Ireland. • La Trobe University 7 7
    8. 8. Europe & US • European Commission: Horizon 2020 research funding programmes: both the Green and Gold models are considered valid approaches to achieve open access • Supports the shift of payment from subscribers to authors (Gold Open Access). • Respects the rights of publishers to place embargoes on self-archiving in repositories • US Government: Feb 2013 memorandum from the U.S. Government's Office of Science and Technology Policy requiring public access to federally funded data. • Federal agencies with more than $100M in R&D expenditures [must] develop plans to make … federally funded research freely available to the public within one year of publication. (2013) Fuchs, C and Sandoval , M. The Diamond Model of Open Access Publishing: Why Policy Makers, Scholars, Universities, Libraries, Labour Unions and the Publishing World Need to Take Non-Commercial, Non-Profit Open Access Serious tripleC 13(2): 428-443 La Trobe University 8 8
    9. 9. Australia - Recent Mandates • NHMRC revised policy on dissemination of research findings NHMRC requires that any publications arising from an NHMRC supported research project must be deposited into an open access institutional repository within a twelve month period from the date of publication. [2012] • • ARC open access policy • The overarching aim of ARC’s Policy is to ensure that findings of publicly funded research are made available to the wider public as soon as possible. Both the research community and public gain from knowledge derived from ARC funded research, and both wish to derive maximum benefit from these outputs [2013] La Trobe University 9
    10. 10. Australia Warwick Anderson, CEO, NHMRC – 18 Sep 2013: • National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) mandate that all publications from research we’ve funded be openly accessible. We and … the Australian Research Council, are flexible on how it’s done, as long as the paper is made available. • Researchers may opt for Green self archiving … or Gold • The Open Access movement is having a significant impact on how we measure the impact of scientific research • The NHMRC moved away from using journal impact factors in 2008 • Focusing more on the quality of a few papers, rather than just counting the total number of publications and being overly influenced by the reputation of the journal, can help ameliorate the publishmore-and-more syndrome Anderson, W. (18 Sep 2013). Quality not quantity: measuring the impact of published research. The Conversation La Trobe University 10 10
    11. 11. Issues • Do authors retain copyright over their published material? • How many author manuscript versions are in our repository? • How do we compare nationally? • What works elsewhere? • How serious are we about providing open access publications? • Is there a positive correlation between open access and citations? La Trobe University 11 11
    12. 12. Empirical evidence • Many articles state that downloads are higher for OA articles than in subscription databases • More downloads = more readers? More readers = more citations? • Moed, H. (2012). Behind the data. Research Trends, Issue 28. Accessed 25 Oct 2013: • Gargouri, Y, Harnad, S. et al. (2010). Self-selected or mandated, open access increases citation impact for higher quality research. PLoS ONE, 5(10). Accessed 24 Oct 2013. 013636 • David, P., et al. (2008). Open access publishing, article downloads and citations.. BMJ, 337. • Swan, A. (2010) The Open Access citation advantage: Studies and results to date. ECS EPrints, 17 Feb 2010, 343-345. La Trobe University 12
    13. 13. La Trobe University 13
    14. 14. Ithaka S+R | Jisc | RLUK UK Survey of Academics 2012 UK wide survey of academics spotlights researchers' reliance on Open Access: • A major survey of UK Academics released on 29 May 2013 examined the attitudes of researchers and practitioners working within higher education. It shed light on behaviours, reliance on digital technologies, the Internet and Open Access. • The survey, funded by JISC and RLUK received 3,498 responses. Overarching themes included: increasing reliance on the Internet for research and publishing and the strong role that openness is playing in their work. Key findings include: access limitations, use of open resources, following one's peers and emergence of e-publications La Trobe University 14
    15. 15. Empirical evidence La Trobe University 15
    16. 16. Green Open Access in La Trobe’s Research Repository (Research Online) • Authors can upload their manuscript version (or email) • The Repository staff will: • Check copyright • Check publisher permissions (for La Trobe) • Link to the published version • Make any alternate versions available (if you have provided them) • Self-deposit form: • La Trobe University 16 16