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Scholarly Communications Presentation


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This presentation is about scholarly communications/publishing system.

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Scholarly Communications Presentation

  1. 1. SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATIONS By, Vasantha Raju N. Librarian Govt. First Grade College-Talakad Paper Presented at the Department of Library and Information Science, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Post Graduate Centre, University of Mysore, Chamarajanagara on 25th April 2018
  2. 2. What is Scholarly Communication (SC)? Scholarly communication (SC) is a cyclical process in which content is generated, reviewed, disseminated, acquired, preserved, discovered, accessed, and assimilated for the advancement of scholarship. The assimilation can potentially lead to generation of new content and thus start a new iteration of the process (or lifecycle). - Adrian K. Ho
  3. 3. Scholarly Communication Life Cycle *Depending on the mode of dissemination, some components may not exist. Source:
  4. 4. Scholarly Communication Channels • Scholarly Communication is disseminated or exchanged via formal and informal channels of communication – Formal communication channels • Journals, proceedings, databases, books, etc., - Informal communication channels • Listservs, invisible colleges, preprints, conversations, etc.,
  5. 5. Historical Developments of Scholarly Communication • In the beginning of the emergence of scholarly journals, learned societies have played crucial role in its development. • Journal des Scavans – was the first academic journal which was Published 5th January in 1665 in Paris • The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society- was the second academic journals released 6th March 1665 in England • By the end of 2014, Ulrich’s Web Directory listed 28134 active scholarly peer-reviewed English language journals.
  6. 6. Scholarly Communication Channels Databases, eJournals, eBooks, Institutional repositiories, Webcasts, etc. Indexes, print journals, print proceedings, books, etc. Invisible college, conversations, pre-prints, etc. Websites, blogs, email, ePreprints DigitizedNon-digitized Informal/unpublished Formal /archived Source:
  7. 7. Primary (Formal) Channels of Scholarly Communication Academic Journals Conference Proceedings Research Monographs Research Reports Working Papers Theses & Dissertations Patents/ Standards Source:
  8. 8. Types of Articles in Academic Journals Review Paper Feature Article Short/Research Communication Opinion/ Commentary Paper Perspectives/Insights News/Views Letter to the Editor Book Reviews Research Paper Editorial Source:
  9. 9. Content Pages of Two Indian Known Journals Current Science-1
  10. 10. Content Pages of Two Indian Known Journals Economic & Political Weekly-2
  11. 11. Academic Journals • (Academic) Journals are regarded as the main spike in the scholarly communication process or cycle. ( Academic or Scholarly) Journals are periodicals carrying accounts of research published after due peer review rather than journalistically based magazines Source:
  12. 12. What Constitutes a (Academic) Journal • Should have an ISSN number • Should consists of Peer-Reviewed contents • Should be published on a regular basis • The contents should be relevant and readable for an international audience, and • Should have publications ethics and publication malpractice statement - UNESCO Open Access for Researchers Scholarly Communication Course Module
  13. 13. Major Functions of Academic Journals • Mark Ware & Michael Mabe (2009) have identified four major functions of a journal, they are:  Registration: Establishing the author’s precedence and ownership of an idea  Dissemination: Communicating the findings of its intended audience  Certification: Ensuring quality control through peer review and rewarding authors  Archival Record: Preserving a fixed version of the paper for future reference and citation
  14. 14. Peer-Review • Peer Review is fundamental to scholarly communication and specifically to journals. It is the process of subjecting an author’s manuscript to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, prior to publication in a journal. • Peer Review helps to determine the validity, significance and originality of the work • helps to improve the manuscripts by identifying the gaps in the literature • Enable discussion among authors reviewers and editors
  15. 15. Different Types of Peer-Review Source:
  16. 16. Peer-Review Process Source:
  17. 17. Shift From Print Based Journals to Electronic Journals (Publishing)- What Made it? • formal pattern of printed communication was relatively slow or lengthy process for dissemination • Increasing costs restricted the immediate access to scholarly journals • Decreases in library acquisition budgets • Changing in Information Seeking behaviour • Reduction in computing and communication costs (Advancements in Internet/Web Technologies) Source:
  18. 18. E-Journals • Electronic journal (e-journals) is any journal which is available in electronic or computerized form on the internet or on CD-ROM. Electronic journals have been called by various names such as virtual journals, paperless journals, online journals, scholarly electronic journals, networked journals and CD-ROM journals - Sasse and Winkler, 1993. Electronic journal is one which is available electronically and used with the help of computer and other communication technologies - Singh and Krishan Kumar, 2005.
  19. 19. Types of E-Journals • King & Mckim (as cited in Mukherjee, 2009) have identified four types of electronic journals. They are: • Pure e-journals which are originally distributed only in digital form e.g. Electronic Journal of Communication, Journal of Digital Information, Information Research. • E-p journals which are primarily distributed electronically, but may have very limited distribution in paper form. e.g. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence. • P-e journals which are primarily distributed in paper form, but are also distributed electronically. E.g. Nature, Science, Physical Review. • P+e journals which are initiated with parallel paper and electronic editions that may be widely distributed. e.g. Organic Letters.
  20. 20. Types of E-Journals Conti…. • There were other studies which have distinguished e-journals based on their format of publication, distribution and free access. Kumar & Grover (2007) have identified three types of e-journals. They are:  Electronic Journals: Which are available in electronic format with print version. Some publishers provide printed journals with online access on nominal charges. Some journals are available in electronic version and print version is available on some extra charges. Some electronic journals are free with print version.  Electronic-Only Journals: Electronic-only journals are those which only publishes in electronic format. They have no print counter parts. They may be available on subscription or freely.  Open Access Journals: Open access (OA) journals are scholarly journals that are available online to the reader "without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. They remove price barriers (e.g. subscription, licensing fees, pay-per- view fees) and most permission barriers (e.g. copyright and licensing restrictions). While open access journals are freely available to the reader, there are still costs associated with the publication and production of such journals. Some are subsidized, and some require payment on behalf of the author. Source: Kumar, S. and Grover, V. K. (2007), “Electronic journals: Impact on scholarly communication, user and Library”, Library Herald, Vol. 45 No.4, pp. 325-336.
  21. 21. Benefits of E-Journal (Publishing) • Speed of Publication & Distributions - E-journals can be published more quickly, which overcomes the delays experienced with print publications • Print Materials Are Limited and Exclusive in Use – Restricted access/ Replicated innumerable times – electronic documents are not exhausted by use. • Convenience – Remote Access (independent of location) – Facilitate cross searching – No time constraints (faster in accessing and disseminating information) Source: Wu, Michelle M. (2005). Why print and electronic resources are essential to the academic law library. Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works. Retrieved from
  22. 22. Benefits of E-Journal (Publishing) • Portability – Easily transportable (e-book readers/Reduce Space) • Relational Mobility – Can link to other databases or e-resources • User expectations – Adaptations of technology • Lower costs of contents – Pay-per-view • Accurate Use Assessment – Obtaining Usage statistical Data through log-ins/Downloads Source: Wu, Michelle M. (2005). Why print and electronic resources are essential to the academic law library. Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works. Retrieved from
  23. 23. E-Journals Overtaking its Print Counter Part • ALPSP’s 2008 Report on scholarly Publishing Practice (Cox & Cox, 2008) found that 96% of STM and 87% of arts, humanities and social sciences journals were accessible electronically in 2008. The total numbers of electronic and print-only journal titles subscribed to by the 115 UK universities (Source: SCONUL, from RIN 2009) Source:
  24. 24. Serial Crisis and Other Issues in Scholarly Communications • Exponential Price of STM Journals (Scientific, Technical, and Medical (STM) fields (“serials crisis”) • Library Budget Cuts/Shrinking • Inflation & Economic Recession • Licensing restrictions on access
  25. 25. Serial Crisis & Change in Electronic Publishing and Subscribing Models • Establishment of library consortia • Digitization of back volumes & offering reduced prices • Non-profit publishers offering OA to back volumes • Strengthening Inter Library Loan (ILL) services • Emergence of Open Access( Movement) Publishing Models Source:
  26. 26. Introducing Library Consortia • In order to mitigate the serial crisis libraries around the world introduced library consortia model of subscribing scholarly journals . A Consortium is described as a group of organizations who come together to fulfil a combined objective that usefully requires co-operation and the sharing of resources. And need to have a clear mutual goal in order to ensure their success. A library Consortium formation can be local, regional, state, national and inter institutional level.
  27. 27. Some of the Well Known Library Consortia in India Consortia Name Year Functions National Knowledge Resource Consortium (NKRC) 2009 • NKRC is a network of libraries and information centres of 43 CSIR and 26 DST institutes • NKRC facilitates access to 5,000+ e-journals of all major publishers, patents, standards, citation and bibliographic databases FORSA (Forum for Resource Sharing in Astronomy and Astrophysics) 1981 • Facilitate e-access to Journals and Books; • Actively participate in Resource Sharing, ILL; • Document delivery by Fax, e-mail, Speed post, Courier, etc. • Database merging of library holdings (Books/Journals) and facilitate access to merged database and others HELINET (Health Sciences Library & Information Network) %20about%20us.html 2002 • o meet the needs of academic and research community of health science disciplines in the state of Karnataka through Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences. • About 600+ core international e-journals, 2000+ e- books, 1500+ videos and databases are being subscribed/ procured and provided to students and faculties and research scholars pursuing their studies in various faculties of health sciences
  28. 28. Consortia Name Year Functions IIM’s Library Consortia (The Indian Institute of Management) 2000 • Sharing of information on library processes and policies across IIMs. • Collective negotiation to decrease the cost of e- resources and or increase the collections. • Sharing of resources like books, journals, papers, CDs, etc. on Inter Library Loan. INDEST-AICTE Consortium (Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology) 2003 • Was set up by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) • The Consortium subscribes to over 12,000 electronic journals from a number of publishers and aggregators • .The total number of members in the Consortium has now grown to 1235 UGC-Infonet Digital Library Consortium (e-ShodhSindhu) e-ShodhSindhu: Consortium for Higher Education Electronic Resources (UGC-INFONET, N-LIST and INDEST-AICTE Consortium) 2004 • Provides current as well as archival access to more than 15,000 core and peer-reviewed journals and a number of bibliographic, citation and factual databases in different disciplines from a large number of publishers and aggregators to its member institutions including centrally-funded technical institutions, universities and colleges that are covered under 12(B) and 2(f) Sections of the UGC Act.
  29. 29. Digitization of back volumes Journals • Institutions have undertaken digitization of back volumes of print journals and have archived these contents in online platforms such as Project Muse & JSTOR. • Project Muse & JSTOR are offering subscription based access to digitized print journals at much cheaper price for institutions and universities across the world.
  30. 30. Subscription-based service to online full text research databases • Online full text research databases provide contents from multiple publishers in multidisciplinary subject areas • These databases are much cheaper than publisher’s journal subscription. Some of the major online full text research database service providers are :
  31. 31. Source :
  32. 32. Strengthening Inter Library Loan (ILL) Services • The ever increasing cost of scholarly journals and libraries shrinking budgets made libraries across the world to strengthening and depending the ILL services to provide access to information. • Library cooperation become part of many libraries. In India also many institutions and libraries started library networking. Early efforts can be traced back to the 1980s with start of DEL NET, CALIBNET, MANLIBNET, MYLIBNET etc., • ILL operates on principles of cooperation and resource sharing. • Library users search information in his library or through databases and then seek required information from ILL Network libraries.
  33. 33. Open Access Publishing Models • The high cost of scholarly journals and restrictive copyright/licensing policies made academics and libraries to think of developing new publishing models. • As a result Open Access Movement (OA) was introduced to provide free and unrestricted access to scholarly information (knowledge) • Scholarly open access (OA) journals are a kind of e-journals available in online environment through Internet, without any access barrier, such as annual subscription fee. In the beginning years of the 21st Century, scholarly communities got engaged with the global OA movements for opening up scholarly resources, more particularly research literature, to worldwide researchers’ communities without any access fee or subscription cost.
  34. 34. Open Access Definition BOAI and PLoS Defines OA as “the free availability of literature on the public Internet, permitting any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the Internet itself” (Budapest Open Access Initiative, 2002; Public Library of Science, 2005)
  35. 35. The Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities have included the following statement on OA • The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small number of printed copies for their personal use. • A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving (for the biomedical sciences, PubMed Central is such a repository) (Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, 2003; Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, 2003, as cited in Mukherjee, 2009)
  36. 36. Types of Open Access (OA) • Green Open Access (Self Archiving): Making (peer-reviewed) manuscripts of published journal articles freely available online, e.g., archiving in institutional or central repositories, arXiv • Gold Open Access (Open Access Journals) : Made possible by publishing in online books or journals that are freely available for access, e.g., journals published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) and others • There are other types of OA journal as well. For instance: Delayed Open Access Journals (Embargoed Access Journals ) and Partial Open Access Journals (making certain articles OA). Source:
  37. 37. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) • DOAJ is a online directory which indexes and provide access to open access peer reviewed journals. • It acts as major source of information for identifying and accessing open access scholarly journals • As on 24th of April 2018 DOAJ directory consists of 11273 open access journals.
  38. 38. Self Archiving Digital Repositories (Green Open Access) • Digital Repositories allow authors to self archive their research materials • Repositories organize, store and preserve research materials • Allow users to search and access collected materials without any financial and legal restrictions.
  39. 39. Digital Repositories Around the World Disciplinary Repositories Legends Type Numbers Aggregating 108 Disciplinary 304 Governmental 85 Institutional 3023 Source:
  40. 40. Some of Well Known Subject Based Repositories Source :
  41. 41. Institutional Repositories (IRs) Institutional repositories (IRs) are open access, online electronic archives of university research outputs such as journal articles, conference papers, books, book chapters and digital objects including video and sound files.
  42. 42. IRs and Its Benefits • Increase the visibility and prestige of the Institutions • Accountable for public funding • Serve as an online archival database for storing institutional research output • Enhance the institutional research profile • International visibility and recognition of the institutions • Help for research collaborations and networking • Attract quality staff and students to the institutions • Support for teaching and learning • Attract research funding • Attract more citations and impact
  43. 43. Content Types in OpenDOAR Repositories - India Source:
  44. 44. Software Used for Developing IRs in India Source:
  45. 45. IR @ University of Mysore Source:
  46. 46. Finding Digital Repositories and Findings Publishers Open Access Policies Directory Name Website Discription OpenDOAR (Directory of Open Access Repositories) OpenDOAR maintains a comprehensive and authoritative list of institutional and subject- based repositories. ROAR (Registry of Open Access Repositories) The aim of ROAR is to promote the development of open access by providing timely information about the growth and status of repositories throughout the world Repositry66 Repositry66 provides visualization of digital repository statistics SHERPA/RoMEO SHERPA RoMEO is an online resource that aggregates and analyses publisher open access policies from around the world and provides summaries of self- archiving permissions and conditions of rights given to authors on a journal-by-journal basis.
  47. 47. Journals and Publishers Open Access Archiving Policy Source:|&mode=simple
  48. 48. New Models of Open Source Online Journal Publishing • Online journals are hosted by institutions or academic libraries on freely available online journal publishing platforms • Some of the OS online journal publishing Software for hosting and publishing OA Journals – Open Journal Systems (OJS) – DPubS (Digital Publishing System) – epublishing Toolkit (ePubTk)
  49. 49. Open Journal Systems (OJS) ( • Open Journal Systems (OJS) is a journal management and publishing system developed by the Public Knowledge Project (PKP) • OJS is open source software made freely available for institutions to host journals only • OJS encourages journals shifting towards open access mode • Facilitate online submission and management of scholarly content
  50. 50. Some of the LIS journals Published Using OJS platform
  51. 51. Open Data Initiative • Open data is nothing but making available research data freely on the web for others to use for expanding the existing knowledge • making available of open data results in the rise of new disciplines, alternative ways of evaluating the quality and impact of research, new pathways in publishing, and different scientific reputation systems.
  52. 52. Open Education Resources (OERs) • Open Educational Resources (OERs) are any type of educational materials that are in the public domain or introduced with an open license. • The nature of these open materials means that anyone can legally and freely copy, use, adapt and re-share them. • OERs range from textbooks to curricula, syllabi, lecture notes, assignments, tests, projects, audio, video and animation.
  53. 53. Examples for OERs
  54. 54. Other Emerging Alternative Scholarly Communication Channels • Blogs emerging as alternative platforms for academic communication and exchange of information • Wikis for Collaborative Research • Social Media and Network for research and publications – SciVee , Mendeley, ResearchGate, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Social Science Research Network (SSRN), figshare, etc., • Launching of Data Journals – Biodiversity Data Journal, International Journal of Robotics Research, etc., • Semantic Web and Semantic Enrichment • Linked Data (Microsoft Academic Search) • Open Annotations Source :
  55. 55. References I have used following sources extensively in preparing this presentation • Fjällbrant, Nancy. (1997). Scholarly Communication: Historical development and new possibilities. Retrieved from • Ho, Adrian K. (2010). Scholarly Communication: A Presentation for FIMS LIS9630 [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from • Jones, L. (2014). What is peer review? Retrieved from • Keefer, Alice, (2001). Electronic journals, scholarly communication and libraries. Retrieved from • Kling, R., & Callahan, E. (2003). Electronic journals, the Internet, and scholarly communication. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 37, 127–177. • Kumar, S., & Grover, V. K. (2007). Electronic journals: Impact on scholarly communication, user and Library. Library Herald, 45(4), 325-336. • Mugar Memorial Library (2005). Scholarly communications [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from communication/scholar-comm-8-05.ppt
  56. 56. • Mukherjee. B. (2009). Scholarly communication: A journey from print to web. Library Philosophy & Practice. Retrieved from • SHERPA/RoMEO:Publisher copyright policies & self-archiving. (2018). Retrieved from|&mode=simple • The Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR). (2018). Retrieved from • UNESCO (Producer). (2015). Scholarly communications [Open Access (OA) Curriculum]. Retrieved from • Ware, M., & Mabe, M. (2009). The STM Report: An overview of scientific and scholarly journal publishing. Retrieved from STM: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers Website: • Ware, M., & Mabe, M. (2015). The STM Report: An overview of scientific and scholarly journal publishing. Retrieved from STM: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers Website: • What is peer review? (2018). Retrieved from review • Wu, Michelle M. (2005). Why print and electronic resources are essential to the academic law library. Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works. Retrieved from
  57. 57. Thank You ? Image Courtesy: OCLC