"Open Access policies on national level" by Iryna Kuchma, EIFL Open Access programme manager
Open Access policies onnational levelIryna KuchmaEIFL Open Access programme managerPresented at the Regional Workshop “Benefits of Open Access for ResearchDissemination, Usage, Visibility and Impact” – 22 to 23 November 2010,Pretoria (South Africa)Attribution 3.0 Unported
EIFL partners in Africa Botswana, Cameroon, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia & Zimbabwe In progress: Algeria, Burkina Faso,Burundi, Ivory Cost, Morocco, Tunisia
EIFL Open Access Programme We advocate for the adoption of open access policies and mandates by research fundingagencies, universities and research organizations nationally and internationally We build capacities to launch open access repositories, and to ensure their long-term sustainability
EIFL Open Access Programme (2) We empower library professionals, scholars,educators and students to become open access advocatesWe offer training, support knowledge sharing, and provide expertise on open access policies and practices (journals and repositories)
EIFL Open Access Programme (3) Report on Open Repository Development in Developing and Transition countries (EIFL, the University of Kansas Libraries, the DRIVER project and Key Perspectives Ltd) http://www.eifl.net/cps/sections/services/eifl-oa/oa-news/2010_07_05_report-on-openReport on the implementation of open contentlicenses in developing and transition countrieshttp://www.eifl.net/cps/sections/services/eifl-oa/oa-news/2010_07_09_report-on-implementation
ContextCurrent research dissemination practices do not adequately meet the needs of all stakeholders Millions of educators and researchers, small businesses, students, physicians and clinicians, patients and their families, and others are without affordable access to the quality research information.
Context (2)How existing scientific research into malnutrition,hunger, agriculture, tropical and neglected diseases can be used to shape more effective government policies achieving the health and other outcomes stipulated by the UN MDGs?Research outputs needs to be more accessible and more visible locally and globally to contribute to solving local and global problems. Indigenous content and knowledge needs to be preserved to enrich the new generations.
Open Access policies Drivers: Knowledge economy E-science, E-research, Virtual Learning Environment Accountability and Assessment Freedom of informationFifth freedom: free movement of knowledge
A Digital Agenda for Europe2.5.2. Driving ICT innovation by exploiting the single market Knowledge transfer activities should be managed effectively... and publicly funded research should be widely disseminated through Open Access publication of scientific data and papersTo this end the Commission will appropriately extend current Open Access publication requirements as stipulated in Commission Decision C(2008) 4408 (more information on this pilot is available at http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/index.cfm? fuseaction=public.topic&id=1680).
Europe 2020 Europe 2020 Flagship Initiative Innovation Union The Commission will promote open access to the results of publicly funded research. It will aim to make open access to publications thegeneral principle for projects funded by the EU research Framework Programmes.
EC Open access pilot The European Commission wants to ensure that the results of the research it funds under the EUs 7thResearch Framework Programme (FP7) with more than € 50 billion from 2007 – 2013, are disseminated as widely and effectively as possible to guarantee maximum exploitation and impact in the world of researchers and beyond.Open access to research articles helps to increase the impact of the EUs investment in research anddevelopment and to avoid wasting time and valuable resources on duplicative research.
EC Open access pilot (2) With access to a wider selection of literature,researchers can build upon this knowledge to further their own work. Small and medium sized businesses andentrepreneurs can also benefit from improvedaccess to the latest research developments tospeed up commercialisation and innovation.
Funder mandatesThe Wellcome Trust in the UK was the first funder to mandate Open AccessThe U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH),implemented a policy requiring that its grant recipients make articles resulting from NIH funding publicly available within twelve months of publication in a peer-reviewed journal
University associations European University Association:“Universities should develop institutional policies and strategies that foster the availability of their quality- controlled research results for the broadest possible range of users, maximising their visibility, accessibility and scientific impact.The basic approach …should be the creation of an institutional repository or participation in a shared repository…http://www.eua.be/fileadmin/user_upload/files/Policy_Positions/Recommendations_Open_Access_adopted_by_the_EUA_Council_on_26th_of_March_2008_final.pdf
OA policy options for funding agencies and universities Request or require? If youre serious about achieving open access for the research you fund, you must require it.(Based on The SPARC Open Access Newsletter, issue #130 and The SPARC Open Access Newsletter, issue #127, by Peter Suber: http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/newsletter/02-02-09.htm and http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/newsletter/11-02-08.htm)
Green or Gold? Recommendation: If you decide to request and encourage open access, rather than a mandate it, then you can encourage submission to an open access journaland encourage deposit in an open access repository as well, especially when researchers publish in a toll access journal.
Green or Gold? (2) Recommendation: But if you decide to mandate open access, then you should require deposit in an open access repository, and not require submission to an open access journal, even if you alsoencourage submission to an open access journal.
Deposit what? Recommendation:Require the deposit of the final version of the authors peer-reviewed manuscript, not the published version. Require the deposit of data generated by the funded research project.In medicine and the social sciences, where privacy is an issue, open access data should be anonymised. A peer-reviewed manuscript in an open access repository should include a citation and link to the published edition.
Deposit what? (2) Recommendation: Allow the deposit of unrefereed preprints, previous journal articles, conference presentations (slides, text, audio, video), book manuscripts, book metadata (especially when the author cannot or will not deposit the full-text), and the contents of journals edited or published on campus.The university itself could consider other categories as well, such as open courseware, administrative records, and digitization projects from the library, theses and dissertations
Scope of policy? Recommendation: For simplicity and enforceability,follow the example of most funding agencies: apply your open access policy to research you fund "in whole or in part"
What embargo? Recommendation: No more than six months. Any embargo is a compromise with the public interest;even when they are justified compromises, the shorter they are, the better.
What exceptions? Recommendation:Exempt private notes and records not intended for publication. Exempt classified research. Either exempt patentable discoveries or allow anembargo long enough for the researcher to apply for a patent. (This could be a special embargo not allowed to other research.)And unless you fund research, which often results in royalty-producing books, exempt royalty-producing books.
Open repositories Publicise an institute’s research strengths, providing maximum return on research investment; Can be mandated by institutions, speeding development;Provide an administrative tool for institutions;
Open repositories (2) Increase impact and usage of institutes research, providing new contacts and research partnerships for authors; Use free software and benefit from free technical support for installation and use; low installation and maintenance costs; quick to set up & gain benefits;Provide usage statistics showing global interest and value of institutional research.
Open accessProvides access to the world’s research output, free of financial and other restrictions – a level playing field;Incorporates local research into interoperable network of global knowledge; Increases impact of local research, providing new contacts and research partnerships for authors; removes professional isolationStrengthens economies through developing a strong and independent national science base.
Open Access in Africa Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Ghana (CARLIGH): Open access repository KNUSTSpace http://dspace.knust.edu.gh/; Installation and troubleshooting of Dspace repositories: University of Cape Coast, University for Development Studies, University for Education Winneba, Pentecost University and Ashesi University4 open access journals: Etude de la Population Africaine/African Population Studies http://www.bioline.org.br/ep; the West African Journal of Applied Ecology http://ajol.info/index.php/wajae; The Ghana Medical Journal http://ajol.info/index.php/gmj; Studies in Gender and Development in Africa http://ajol.info/index.php/sigada
Open Access in Africa (2) Lesotho Library Consortium (LELICO):Is Open Access to information through libraries on the agenda at the African Union when it comes to assessing countries’ development under the African Peer Review Mechanisms? – asks Matseliso M. (Tseli) Moshoeshoe-Chadzingwa, National University of Lesotho, EIFL country coordinator in Lesotho and EIFL Advisory Board member, in her paper presented at the IFLA conference, 10-15 August 2010: http://www.ifla.org/files/hq/papers/ifla76/146- chadzingwa-en.pdf
Open Access in Africa (3) Nigerian University Libraries Consortium DSpace at University of JOS: http://dspace.unijos.edu.ng/ 10 open access journals in Biloine International: http://www.bioline.org.br/journals107 open access journals published by Academic Journals: http://www.academicjournals.org/journals.htm 12 open access Journals in African Journals Online: African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, The African Journal of Oral Health, The Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine, The African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology, the Journal of Agricultural Extension, International Journal of Health Research, African Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, OGIRISI: a New Journal of African Studies, Edo Journal of Counseling, Jos Journal of Medicine, Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report, Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association
National governments and international organizations 1. Require open access to publicly funded scientific research (funders mandates).2. Commit to public domain status for publicly funded data.3. Consider a patent policy that does not hinder the process of open innovations. 4. Start tracking and rewarding sharing viacitations to open articles, data sets, materials, tools.