CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM• Principles• Structures• Two circuits  – Pulmonary  – Systemic• Fetal Circulation• Heart Details• O...
What Does C-V System do?• Circulate blood throughout entire body  for  – Transport of oxygen to cells  – Transport of CO2 ...
How does it do it?• Heart is pump• Arteries and veins are main tubes (plumbing)  – Arteries Away from Heart  – Veins to He...
Overall Organization of System• Heart/Great Vessels--  1 Route• Smaller aa. vv.--many  routes (collateral  circulation)• C...
Collateral Circulation
Walls of Arteries and Veins• Tunica externa   – Outermost layer   – CT w/elastin and collagen   – Strengthens, Anchors• Tu...
Artery/Vein differences          Arteries (aa.)       Veins (vv.)Direction Blood Away from      Blood to Heartof flow   He...
Capillaries• Microscopic--one  cell layer thick• Network• Bathed in  extracellular matrix   of areolar tissue• Entire goal...
Two circulatory paths    Systemic          Pulmonary
GREAT VESSELS•Aorta•IVC, SVC•Pulmonary Trunk•Pulmonary Veins
Heart Chambers and Valves
Right Heart Chambers: Pulmonary Circuit• Right Atrium (forms most of posterior of heart)   – Receives O2-poor blood from b...
Left Heart Chambers: Systemic Circuit• Left Atrium  – Receives O2-rich blood from 4 Pulmonary Veins  – Pectinate Muscles l...
Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub**• *Tricuspid Valve: Right AV valve   –   3 Cusps (flaps) made of endocardium and CT   –   Cusps an...
Another View
Location of Heart in Thorax                        pg 523
Location of Heart in Chest•   Oblique Position•   Apex = Left of Midline (5th ICS), Anterior to rest of heart•   Base (pos...
• Epicardium (most  superficial)  – Visceral pleura     Heart   Wall• Myocardium (middle layer)  – Cardiac muscle  – Contr...
Blood supply to heart wall• Rt and Lft Coronary Arteries  –   Branch from Ascending Aorta  –   Have multiple branches alon...
Heart Innervation• Heart receives visceral  motor innervation  – Sympathetic (speeds up)  – Parasympathetic (slows    down...
Fetal Circulation•No circulation to lungs    •Foramen ovale    •Ductus arteriosum•Circulation must go to placenta    •Umbi...
Adult remnants of fetal circulationAdult                         FetusFossa ovale                   Foramen ovaleLigamentu...
Hepatic Portal System
Lymphatic System…The Players:• Lymph- clear fluid from loose areolar CT around  capillaries• Lymphatic capillaries (near b...
Lymphatic System--Function• Function: to collect excess tissue fluid collecting at  arteriole end and return leaked blood ...
Cardiovascular system
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Cardiovascular system

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Cardiovascular system

  1. 1. CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM• Principles• Structures• Two circuits – Pulmonary – Systemic• Fetal Circulation• Heart Details• Other details
  2. 2. What Does C-V System do?• Circulate blood throughout entire body for – Transport of oxygen to cells – Transport of CO2 away from cells – Transport of nutrients (glucose) to cells – Movement of immune system components (cells, antibodies) – Transport of endocrine gland secretions
  3. 3. How does it do it?• Heart is pump• Arteries and veins are main tubes (plumbing) – Arteries Away from Heart – Veins to Heart• Diffusion happens in capillaries (oxygen, CO2, glucose diffuse in or out of blood)
  4. 4. Overall Organization of System• Heart/Great Vessels-- 1 Route• Smaller aa. vv.--many routes (collateral circulation)• Capillaries—network where diffusion occurs
  5. 5. Collateral Circulation
  6. 6. Walls of Arteries and Veins• Tunica externa – Outermost layer – CT w/elastin and collagen – Strengthens, Anchors• Tunica media – Middle layer – Circular Smooth Muscle – Vaso-constriction/dilation• Tunica intima – Innermost layer – Endothelium – Minimize friction• Lumen pg 546
  7. 7. Artery/Vein differences Arteries (aa.) Veins (vv.)Direction Blood Away from Blood to Heartof flow HeartPressure Higher LowerWalls THICKER: Tunica THINNER: Tunica media thicker than externa thicker tunica externa than tunica mediaLumen Smaller LargerValves No valves Valves (see next)
  8. 8. Capillaries• Microscopic--one cell layer thick• Network• Bathed in extracellular matrix of areolar tissue• Entire goal of C-V system is to get blood into capillaries where diffusion takes place
  9. 9. Two circulatory paths Systemic Pulmonary
  10. 10. GREAT VESSELS•Aorta•IVC, SVC•Pulmonary Trunk•Pulmonary Veins
  11. 11. Heart Chambers and Valves
  12. 12. Right Heart Chambers: Pulmonary Circuit• Right Atrium (forms most of posterior of heart) – Receives O2-poor blood from body via IVC, SVC, Coronary sinus – Ventral wall = rough Pectinate muscle – Fossa Ovalis- on interatrial septum, remnant of Foramen Ovale• Right Ventricle – Receives O2-poor blood from right atrium through tricuspid valve – Pumps blood to lungs via Pulmonary Semilunar Valve in pulmonary trunk – Trabeculae Carnae along ventral surface – Papillary Muscle-cone-shaped muscle to which chordae tendinae are anchored – Moderator Band-muscular band connecting anterior papillary muscle to interventricular septum
  13. 13. Left Heart Chambers: Systemic Circuit• Left Atrium – Receives O2-rich blood from 4 Pulmonary Veins – Pectinate Muscles line only auricle• Left Ventricle (forms apex of heart) – Receives blood from Left Atrium via bicuspid valve – Pumps blood into aorta via Aortic Semilunar Valve to body – Same structures as Rt Ventricle: Trabeculae carnae, Papillary muscles, Chordae tendinae – No Moderator Band
  14. 14. Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub**• *Tricuspid Valve: Right AV valve – 3 Cusps (flaps) made of endocardium and CT – Cusps anchored in Rt. Ventricle by Chordae Tendinae – Chordae Tendinae prevent inversion of cusps into atrium – Flow of blood pushes cusps open – When ventricle in diastole (relaxed), cusps hang limp in ventricle – Ventricular contraction increases pressure and forces cusps closed• *Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve: Left AV valve – 2 cusps anchored in Lft. Ventricle by chordae tendinae – Functions same as Rt. AV valve• **Semilunar valves: prevents backflow in large arteries – Pulmonary Semilunar Valve: Rt Ventricle and Pulmonary Trunk – Aortic Semilunar Valve: Left Ventricle and Aorta – 3 cusps: blood rushes past they’re flattened, as it settles they’re pushed down (valve closed)
  15. 15. Another View
  16. 16. Location of Heart in Thorax pg 523
  17. 17. Location of Heart in Chest• Oblique Position• Apex = Left of Midline (5th ICS), Anterior to rest of heart• Base (posterior surface) sits on vertebral column• Superior Right = 3rd Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum• Superior Left = 2nd Costal Cartilage, 1” left midsternum• Inferior Right = 6th Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum• Inferior Left = 5th Intercostal Space at Midclavicular line
  18. 18. • Epicardium (most superficial) – Visceral pleura Heart Wall• Myocardium (middle layer) – Cardiac muscle – Contracts How does heart• Endocardium (inner) muscle get blood – Endothelium on CT supply? – Lines the heart – Creates the valves pg 524
  19. 19. Blood supply to heart wall• Rt and Lft Coronary Arteries – Branch from Ascending Aorta – Have multiple branches along heart – Sit in Coronary Sulcus – Coronary Heart Disease• Cardiac Veins – Coronary Sinus (largest) – Many branches feed into sinus – Sit in Coronary Sulcus
  20. 20. Heart Innervation• Heart receives visceral motor innervation – Sympathetic (speeds up) – Parasympathetic (slows down) p. 534
  21. 21. Fetal Circulation•No circulation to lungs •Foramen ovale •Ductus arteriosum•Circulation must go to placenta •Umbilical aa., vv.
  22. 22. Adult remnants of fetal circulationAdult FetusFossa ovale Foramen ovaleLigamentum arteriosum Ductus arteriosusMedial umbilical ligaments Umbilical aa.(within fetus)Round ligament Umbilical v.(within fetus)(ligamentum teres) of liverLigamentum venosum Ductus venosusMedial umbilical ligament Umbilical cord (leaving fetus)
  23. 23. Hepatic Portal System
  24. 24. Lymphatic System…The Players:• Lymph- clear fluid from loose areolar CT around capillaries• Lymphatic capillaries (near blood capillaries) • Lymph collecting vessels (small, 3 tunicas, valves)• Lymph nodes (sit along collecting vessels)-clean lymph of pathogens, they are NOT glands• Lymphatic trunks (convergence large collecting vessels) – Lumbar, intestinal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular• Lymphatic ducts  empty into veins of neck
  25. 25. Lymphatic System--Function• Function: to collect excess tissue fluid collecting at arteriole end and return leaked blood proteins to blood (maintain osmotic pressure needed to take up water into bloodstream)• Lymph moved through vessels – Pulse of nearby arteries – Contraction of surrounding skeletal muscle – Regular movement of body (wiggling legs) – Muscle in Tunica Media• Lacteals-lymphatic capillaries w/unique function – In mucosa of small intestine, receive digested fat from intestine – Fatty lymph becomes milky = Chyle – Chyle goes to bloodstream

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