section 6, chapter 15: systemic arteries


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systemic blood vessels

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section 6, chapter 15: systemic arteries

  1. 1. systemic arteries Section 6, chapter 15
  2. 2. Arterial Divisions •Aorta - Main trunk of the systemic circulation. •Divisions of the aorta •Aortic root = attachment to heart •Ascending Aorta •Aortic arch •Thoracic aorta •Abdominal aorta
  3. 3. Structures at the aortic root 1. Aortic Valve 2. Aortic Sinus - Swelling at aortic root 3. Aortic Bodies • Chemoreceptors - monitor CO2 & O2 levels in blood 4. Right and left coronary arteries
  4. 4. Coronary Arteries Right Coronary Artery branches • Posterior interventricular artery: • supplies walls of both ventricles • Marginal artery: • supplies right atrium and right ventricle Left Coronary Artery branches • Anterior interventricular artery: • supplies walls of both ventricles • Circumflex Artery: • supplies left atrium and left ventricle Blocked coronary artery = myocardial infarction
  5. 5. Branches of Aortic Arch 1. Brachiocephalic artery • Right common carotid artery: supplies right neck and head • Right subclavian artery: supplies right arm 2. Left common carotid artery • supplies left neck and head 3. Left subclavian artery • Supplies left arm
  6. 6. Branches of Thoracic Aorta Grant’s Anatomy. Branches of the thoracic aorta 1. Bronchial Arteries – supplies bronchi 2. Pericardial artery – supplies pericardium 3. Esophageal arteries – supplies esophagus
  7. 7. Branches of Abdominal Aorta Phrenic arteries • supply diaphragm Celiac Trunk 1. Gastric a. - supply stomach 2. Splenic a. – supply spleen & pancreas 3. Hepatic a. – supplies liver with O2 blood Suprarenal a. • Supplies adrenal glands Superior Mesenteric a. • Supplies small intestine
  8. 8. Branches of Abdominal Aorta Renal arteries • Supplies kidneys Gonadal arteries. • Male = testicular arteries • Female = Ovarian arteries Lumbar arteries • Supplies skin and muscles of lower back Inferior mesenteric artery • Supplies most of large intestine
  9. 9. Arteries to the Brain, Head, and Neck Divisions of Common Carotid Arteries 1. External Carotid Arteries • Supplies blood to face, neck, and scalp 2. Internal Carotid Arteries • Supplies blood to brain • Provides 75% of blood to brain Carotid Sinus - point of bifurcation • Carotid bodies – chemoreceptors • Carotid baroreceptors • Common site of stenosis (narrowing)
  10. 10. Arteries to the Brain, Head, and Neck Branches of Internal Carotid Artery 1. Ophthalmic artery • supplies eyes 2. Anterior cerebral artery • supplies medial surface of brain 3. Middle cerebral artery • Supplies lateral surface of brain Internal carotid arteries
  11. 11. Arteries to the Brain, Head, and Neck Vertebral Arteries • Provides 25% of blood supply to brain • Branch from subclavian arteries • Pass through transverse foramen of cervical vertebrae •Enter skull through foramen magnum
  12. 12. Arteries to the Brain, Head, and Neck Basilar Artery • Both vertebral arteries merge to form a basilar artery at the base of the brain. • Supplies blood to brainstem • Branch: Posterior cerebral artery •Supplies occipital and temporal lobes
  13. 13. Arteries to the Brain, Head, and Neck Cerebral Arterial Circle (Circle of Willis) • Joins the internal carotid arteries with basilar artery at base of brain • Provides anastomoses (alternate routes) for blood flow
  14. 14. Arteries to the Shoulder and Upper Limb Axillary Artery • Arises from subclavian artery Brachial Artery • Continuation of axillary artery • Used for measuring blood pressure Ulnar Artery • Continues along medial arm to wrist Radial Artery • Continues along lateral arm to wrist • Convenient vessel for taking your pulse
  15. 15. Veins that drain the head and neck External Jugular Veins • Drains blood from face, scalp, and neck Internal Jugular Veins • Drains blood from brain and deep face • Arise from dural sinuses Dural Venous Sinuses • Located between 2 layers of dura mater • Major CSF draining pathway from brain
  16. 16. Veins that drain the arm Ulnar & Radial Veins • drain forearm and hands • Merge for form brachial veins Basilic Vein • Located on medial aspect of arm • Joins the brachial vein near the axilla Axillary Vein • Formed from the merging of basilic and brachial veins Cephalic Vein • Courses upward on the lateral arm • Joins axillary vein to form subclavian vein Median Cubital Vein • Joins basilic and cephalic veins at elbow • Often the site of venipuncture
  17. 17. Hepatic Portal System Portal System – drains blood from one capillary bed into a second capillary bed. Hepatic Portal Vein (HPV) • Carries nutrient rich blood from abdominal viscera to the liver for processing
  18. 18. Hepatic Portal System Tributaries of Hepatic Portal Vein • Gastric vein – blood from stomach • Splenic vein – blood from spleen & pancreas • Superior mesenteric vein – blood from small intestine • Inferior mesenteric vein – blood from large intestine Pathway of Hepatic Portal System Abdominal Sinusoids viscera HPV of Liver Hepatic Vein Inferior Vena Cava heart End of Chapter 15