Cardiovascular system


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Lectures of Dr. Noura El-Tahawy for Faculty of Nursing

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Cardiovascular system

  1. 1. Cardiovascular System By Dr. Noura El Tahawy
  2. 2. Angiology
  3. 3. • External/Outermost layer – CT with elastin and collagen – Protects, Strengthens, Anchors • Middle layer – Circular Smooth Muscle – Collagen & Elastic Fibers – Vaso- constriction/dilation • Internal/ Innermost layer – Endothelium – Minimize friction • Lumen Blood vessel wallBlood vessel wall Anatomy of Arteries and Veins
  4. 4. • Carry blood AWAY from heart • Systemic Circuit: carry O2 blood • Pulmonary Circuit: carry de-O2 blood • Walls thicker than Veins – Tunica media > Tunica externa • 3 Types – Conducting (elastic) • large, elastin, high pressure – Distributing (muscular) • medium size, to organs – Arterioles • smallest Vessels of Cardiovascular System: Arteries
  5. 5. ArteriesArteries • Carry blood away from the heart to distribute to tissues • In Systemic Circulation: carry Oxygenated (O2) blood from heart to different tissues • In Pulmonary Circulation: carry De-oxygenated (de-O2) blood from heart to lungs • Walls thicker than Veins (middle layer thicker with more smooth muscle in arteries) • Heart >>>Arteries >>>> arteriols >>> capillaries >> Venuls >> veins >>> heart
  6. 6. Capillaries • Smallest blood vessels • Single layer of endothelium surrounded by basal lamina • Deliver O2 and nutrients to cells and tissues and remove waste • Capillary Beds: networks of caps. • Regulating amount of blood going to cells throughout tissues • Tendons, Ligaments poorly vascularized • Epithelium, cartilage has no capillaries
  7. 7. • Carry blood from capillaries INTO the heart • In Systemic Circulation: carry O2 poor blood from tissues to the heart • In Pulmonary Circulation: carry O2 –rich blood from lungs to the heart • Thinner walls than arteries – External layer is thicker than middle layer, Less elastin • Larger lumen than arteries • Contain valves • Normal movement, Muscular contraction push blood through Venules (smallest veins) to veins Veins
  8. 8. Movement through Veins
  9. 9. Differences between arteries and veins Artery Vein Thickness Thick Thin Wall Elastic Collapsed Valves no valves has valves Union of branches form anastomosis plexus Lumen empty, reddish Full of blood, bluish
  10. 10. Heart Arteries (conducting-distributing) Arterioles Capillaries of tissues At Capillaries O2 is delivered and CO2 picked up Capillaries Venules Veins Heart Vaso Vasorum Tiny arteries, veins, capillaries in tunica externa of vessels to nourish them (outer half) Systemic circulationSystemic circulation
  11. 11. • Vessels unite and connect through: • Arterial Anastomosis – Communication between arteries. Fig. A • Capillary Anastomosis – Arteries connected to veins through capillaries. Fig. B • Arterio-venous anastomosis • Blood Sinusiods • Venous Anastomosis Vascular Anastomosis
  12. 12. • Anatomic end arteries are vessels whose terminal branches do not anastomose with branches of arteries supplying adjacent areas. • Functional end arteries are vessels whose terminal branches do anastomose with those of adjacent arteries, but the caliber of the anastomosis is insufficient to keep the tissue alive if one of the arteries become blocked. End Arteries Examples of end arteries:Examples of end arteries: Cerebral As., coronary As., spinalCerebral As., coronary As., spinal As., central artery of the retinaAs., central artery of the retina
  13. 13. Tortuous Arteries They are found when there are highly movable organ
  14. 14. Location of Heart in Thorax
  15. 15. The Great Vessels and major branches Aorta (from Left Ventricle) • Ascending – Coronary arteries • Aortic Arch – Brachiocephalic trunk – Left Common Carotid – Left Subclavian • Descending (Thoracic/Abdominal) – Many small branches to organs Pulmonary Trunk (from Rt Ventricle) - -2 Pulmonary Arteries into lungs Inferior/Superior Vena Cava - Coronary sinus
  16. 16. Heart Valves: • *Tricuspid Valve: Right AV valve – 3 Cusps (flaps) made of endocardium and CT – Cusps anchored in Rt. Ventricle by Chordae Tendinae – Chordae Tendinae prevent inversion of cusps into atrium – Flow of blood pushes cusps open – When ventricle is in diastole (relaxed), cusps hang limp in ventricle – Ventricular contraction increases pressure and forces cusps closed • *Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve: Left AV valve – 2 cusps anchored in Left Ventricle by chordae tendinae – Functions same as Rt. AV valve • **Semilunar valves: prevents backflow in large arteries – Pulmonary Semilunar Valve: Right Ventricle and Pulmonary Trunk – Aortic Semilunar Valve: Left Ventricle and Aorta – 3 cusps: blood rushes past they’re flattened, as it settles they’re pushed down (valve closed)
  17. 17. • Pulmonary Circulation – Vessels carrying blood to and from lungs – Pulmonary arteries and veins • Systemic Circulation – Vessels carrying blood to and from the rest of the body – All other vessels
  18. 18. Flow of Blood • O2-poor blood (S+I VC, Coronary Sinus) enters Rt Atrium • Travels through Tricuspid Valve into Rt Ventricle • Pumped out through Pulmonary Semilunar Valve into Pulmonary trunk (branches into Pulmonary Arteries) and to lungs • After circulating through lungs, O2-rich blood returns to the heart through 4 Pulmonary veins • The O2-rich blood enters the Left Atrium • Travels through Bicuspid/Mitral Valve into Left Ventricle • Pumped out through Aortic Semilunar Valve into Aorta to be distributed to rest of body by descending aorta and branches of aortic arch
  19. 19. Blood Flow to Supply the Heart Muscle • Heart wall too thick for diffusion of nutrients • Rt and Lft Coronary Arteries – Branch from Ascending Aorta – Have multiple branches along heart – Sit in Coronary Sulcus – Coronary Heart Disease • Cardiac Veins – Coronary Sinus (largest) – Many branches feed into sinus – Sits in Coronary Sulcus
  20. 20. Transverse section through the thorax at the level of the intervertebral disc between the sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae. Inferior aspect. Compare Fig. 2.69.
  21. 21. Sagittal section through the trunk. This section lies to the left of the median sagittal plane.
  22. 22. Thank you