Cardiovascular system


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Anatomy ppt - Cardiovascular system

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Cardiovascular system

  1. 1. CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM <ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Two circuits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fetal Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Heart Details </li></ul><ul><li>Other details </li></ul>
  2. 2. What Does C-V System do? <ul><li>Circulate blood throughout entire body for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport of oxygen to cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport of CO2 away from cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport of nutrients (glucose) to cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of immune system components (cells, antibodies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport of endocrine gland secretions </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How does it do it? <ul><li>Heart is pump </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries and veins are main tubes (plumbing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A rteries A way from Heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veins to Heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffusion happens in capillaries (oxygen, CO2, glucose diffuse in or out of blood) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Heart/Great Vessels--1 Route </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller aa. vv.--many routes (collateral circulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries—network where diffusion occurs </li></ul>Overall Organization of System
  5. 5. Collateral Circulation
  6. 6. Walls of Arteries and Veins <ul><li>Tunica externa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outermost layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CT w/elastin and collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthens, Anchors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tunica media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular Smooth Muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaso-constriction/dilation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tunica intima </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innermost layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize friction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lumen </li></ul>pg 546
  7. 7. Artery/Vein differences Lower Higher Pressure Valves Lumen Walls Direction of flow Valves (see next) No valves Larger Smaller THINNER: Tunica externa thicker than tunica media THICKER: Tunica media thicker than tunica externa Blood to Heart Blood Away from Heart Veins (vv.) Arteries (aa.)
  8. 9. Capillaries <ul><li>Microscopic--one cell layer thick </li></ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><li>Bathed in extracellular matrix of areolar tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Entire goal of C-V system is to get blood into capillaries where diffusion takes place </li></ul>
  9. 10. Two circulatory paths Pulmonary Systemic
  10. 11. <ul><li>GREAT VESSELS </li></ul><ul><li>Aorta </li></ul><ul><li>IVC, SVC </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Veins </li></ul>
  11. 12. Heart Chambers and Valves
  12. 13. Right Heart Chambers: Pulmonary Circuit <ul><li>Right Atrium (forms most of posterior of heart) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives O 2 -poor blood from body via IVC, SVC, Coronary sinus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral wall = rough Pectinate muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossa Ovalis - on interatrial septum, remnant of Foramen Ovale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right Ventricle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives O 2 -poor blood from right atrium through tricuspid valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps blood to lungs via Pulmonary Semilunar Valve in pulmonary trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trabeculae Carnae along ventral surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papillary Muscle -cone-shaped muscle to which chordae tendinae are anchored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderator Band- muscular band connecting anterior papillary muscle to interventricular septum </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Left Heart Chambers: Systemic Circuit <ul><li>Left Atrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives O 2 -rich blood from 4 Pulmonary Veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pectinate Muscles line only auricle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Left Ventricle (forms apex of heart) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives blood from Left Atrium via bicuspid valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps blood into aorta via Aortic Semilunar Valve to body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same structures as Rt Ventricle: Trabeculae carnae, Papillary muscles, Chordae tendinae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Moderator Band </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub** <ul><li>*Tricuspid Valve: Right AV valve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Cusps (flaps) made of endocardium and CT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cusps anchored in Rt. Ventricle by Chordae Tendinae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chordae Tendinae prevent inversion of cusps into atrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow of blood pushes cusps open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When ventricle in diastole (relaxed), cusps hang limp in ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventricular contraction increases pressure and forces cusps closed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve: Left AV valve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 cusps anchored in Lft. Ventricle by chordae tendinae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions same as Rt. AV valve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>**Semilunar valves : prevents backflow in large arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Semilunar Valve: Rt Ventricle and Pulmonary Trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aortic Semilunar Valve: Left Ventricle and Aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 cusps: blood rushes past they’re flattened, as it settles they’re pushed down (valve closed) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Another View
  16. 17. Location of Heart in Thorax pg 523
  17. 18. Location of Heart in Chest <ul><li>Oblique Position </li></ul><ul><li>Apex = Left of Midline (5th ICS), Anterior to rest of heart </li></ul><ul><li>Base (posterior surface) sits on vertebral column </li></ul><ul><li>Superior Right = 3rd Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum </li></ul><ul><li>Superior Left = 2nd Costal Cartilage, 1” left midsternum </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior Right = 6th Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior Left = 5th Intercostal Space at Midclavicular line </li></ul>
  18. 19. Heart Wall <ul><li>Epicardium (most superficial) </li></ul><ul><li>– Visceral pleura </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardium (middle layer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endocardium (inner) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelium on CT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates the valves </li></ul></ul>pg 524 How does heart muscle get blood supply?
  19. 20. Blood supply to heart wall <ul><li>Rt and Lft Coronary Arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch from Ascending Aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have multiple branches along heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit in Coronary Sulcus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary Heart Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiac Veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary Sinus (largest) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many branches feed into sinus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit in Coronary Sulcus </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Heart Innervation <ul><li>Heart receives visceral motor innervation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic (speeds up) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic (slows down) p. 534 </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Fetal Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>No circulation to lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foramen ovale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ductus arteriosum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circulation must go to placenta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Umbilical aa., vv. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Adult remnants of fetal circulation Umbilical cord (leaving fetus) Medial umbilical ligament Ductus venosus Ligamentum venosum Umbilical v.(within fetus) Round ligament (ligamentum teres) of liver Umbilical aa.(within fetus) Medial umbilical ligaments Ductus arteriosus Ligamentum arteriosum Foramen ovale Fossa ovale Fetus Adult
  23. 24. Hepatic Portal System
  24. 25. Lymphatic System…The Players: <ul><li>Lymph- clear fluid from loose areolar CT around capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic capillaries (near blood capillaries)  </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph collecting vessels (small, 3 tunicas, valves)  </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes (sit along collecting vessels)-clean lymph of pathogens, they are NOT glands </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic trunks  (convergence large collecting vessels) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lumbar, intestinal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic ducts  empty into veins of neck </li></ul>
  25. 26. Lymphatic System--Function <ul><li>Function: to collect excess tissue fluid collecting at arteriole end and return leaked blood proteins to blood (maintain osmotic pressure needed to take up water into bloodstream) </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph moved through vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse of nearby arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraction of surrounding skeletal muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular movement of body (wiggling legs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle in Tunica Media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lacteals-lymphatic capillaries w/unique function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In mucosa of small intestine, receive digested fat from intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty lymph becomes milky = Chyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chyle goes to bloodstream </li></ul></ul>