EFFECTIVE TESTING: AN ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENT FOR ENGLISH PROGRAMMES By <ul><li>Eric Ntam </li></ul><ul><li>University of Ya...
How can we better obtain educational objectives? <ul><li>Educational objectives are better obtained through testing. A goo...
… to develop national tests of student achievement in reading and in math….Every state should adopt high national standard...
<ul><li>Good tests will </li></ul><ul><li>show us who needs help, </li></ul><ul><li>what changes in teaching to make </li>...
“ Standards and Tests: B ” at the top of Mr. Clinton’s list, was his boldest idea … a long-overdue step toward true accoun...
Tests and characteristics  <ul><li>A test is ‘a collection of tasks (items or questions) assumed to be a representative sa...
A good test is characterised by: <ul><li>Validity:  results measure some aspect of learning consistently over time.   </li...
How can test validity, reliability, and objectivity be obtained?  <ul><li>To obtain validity, reliability, non-biased test...
What are standardised tests?  <ul><li>“ Standardised tests are tests which provide standards or norms by which an individu...
Why are tests standardised?  <ul><li>Tests are standardised in order to allow for the comparison of results beyond the con...
<ul><li>What are the qualities of standardised tests? </li></ul><ul><li>1) Constructed by experts in curriculum and measur...
Significance of Standardised tests <ul><li>Student’s academic/vocational level </li></ul><ul><li>selection and placement <...
<ul><li>2. Improvement of educational system </li></ul><ul><li>Standardised testing systems </li></ul><ul><li>help ministe...
3. They help in grading: Universities in Cameroon conform to the following grading system Mark GPA ( Grade Point Average) ...
What are some of setbacks of standardised tests? 1)They give false information about the status of learning in nation’s sc...
6) high achieving students are penalised if individual grades are averaged
<ul><li>How can we check the foregoing setbacks? </li></ul><ul><li>Implement assessments that are tied to real application...
Clinton, William Jefferson “1997 State of the Union Address”  Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Educational Is...
Change We Need Thank You
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EFFECTIVE TESTING: AN ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENT FOR ENGLISH PROGRAMMES

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Presentation by Eric Ntam at the ELT conference in Sudan/ University of Khartoum and British Council/
1-3 March 2010

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EFFECTIVE TESTING: AN ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENT FOR ENGLISH PROGRAMMES

  1. 1. EFFECTIVE TESTING: AN ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENT FOR ENGLISH PROGRAMMES By <ul><li>Eric Ntam </li></ul><ul><li>University of Yaounde I, Cameroon </li></ul>
  2. 2. How can we better obtain educational objectives? <ul><li>Educational objectives are better obtained through testing. A good testing system does not only indicate learners’ progress and the out put of a school but enhances political stability as well. </li></ul>
  3. 3. … to develop national tests of student achievement in reading and in math….Every state should adopt high national standards … every state should test every fourth grader in reading and every eighth grader in math to make sure these standards are met. William Jefferson Clinton (February 4, 1997 )
  4. 4. <ul><li>Good tests will </li></ul><ul><li>show us who needs help, </li></ul><ul><li>what changes in teaching to make </li></ul><ul><li>which schools need to improve </li></ul><ul><li>help us to end social promotion, for no child should move from one grade school to junior high or junior high to high school until he or she is ready. </li></ul>
  5. 5. “ Standards and Tests: B ” at the top of Mr. Clinton’s list, was his boldest idea … a long-overdue step toward true accountability. Republicans to applaud it.” Chester E. Finn, Jr(February, 1997)
  6. 6. Tests and characteristics <ul><li>A test is ‘a collection of tasks (items or questions) assumed to be a representative sample of the behaviours that the tester wishes to assess’ </li></ul><ul><li>Guy R. Lefrancois (1988) </li></ul>
  7. 7. A good test is characterised by: <ul><li>Validity: results measure some aspect of learning consistently over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability: test results can be depended on to decide the student’s ability and/or vocational orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Test bias: partiality or subjectivity in the results. (prevent objective/judgment, little school accountability) </li></ul>
  8. 8. How can test validity, reliability, and objectivity be obtained? <ul><li>To obtain validity, reliability, non-biased tests, </li></ul><ul><li>standardisation of testing is necessary. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What are standardised tests? <ul><li>“ Standardised tests are tests which provide standards or norms by which an individual learner’s performance is judged.” </li></ul><ul><li>standardised tests are </li></ul><ul><li>uniform in content, </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform in administration </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform in scoring </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why are tests standardised? <ul><li>Tests are standardised in order to allow for the comparison of results beyond the confines of a particular classroom or school. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>What are the qualities of standardised tests? </li></ul><ul><li>1) Constructed by experts in curriculum and measurement to provide </li></ul><ul><li>accurate, meaningful information on student’s level of performance </li></ul><ul><li>vocational orientation, </li></ul><ul><li>the objectivity of tests results </li></ul><ul><li>comprehensible grading, </li></ul><ul><li>improvement of the educational system in general. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Facilitates teacher assessment (Grove 1997) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Significance of Standardised tests <ul><li>Student’s academic/vocational level </li></ul><ul><li>selection and placement </li></ul><ul><li>decision on which students to place in specific academic tracks like college preparation or vocational orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation of the progress of students in particular subject areas. </li></ul><ul><li>provide feedback, information, and incentive. </li></ul><ul><li>motivate students to give or improve a certain level of performance. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>2. Improvement of educational system </li></ul><ul><li>Standardised testing systems </li></ul><ul><li>help ministerial officials to diagnose, evaluate, account for, and improve the school system </li></ul><ul><li>reveal learning problems and strengths, indicating where modes of remediation are needed </li></ul><ul><li>help ministerial and school authorities to improve the academic staff situation </li></ul><ul><li>foster the accountability of schools </li></ul><ul><li>Answer questions on school performance </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3. They help in grading: Universities in Cameroon conform to the following grading system Mark GPA ( Grade Point Average) Grades Honours Mention 16-20 4.00 A, A+ 1st Class Tr ès Bien 14-15.99 3-3.50 B, B+ 2nd Class (Lower - Upper) Bien 12-13.99 2.50 C+ 3rd Class Assez Bien 10-11.99 2.00 C Pass Passable
  15. 15. What are some of setbacks of standardised tests? 1)They give false information about the status of learning in nation’s schools. 2) Selection of high achieving school’s high overall scores. 3) U nfair or biased against some kinds of students 4) corrupt the process of teaching and learning 5) time, energy and attention focused on the simpler skills tested
  16. 16. 6) high achieving students are penalised if individual grades are averaged
  17. 17. <ul><li>How can we check the foregoing setbacks? </li></ul><ul><li>Implement assessments that are tied to real application of learning skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend alternative or authentic assessment systems </li></ul><ul><li>3. Set a variety of tests </li></ul>
  18. 18. Clinton, William Jefferson “1997 State of the Union Address” Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Educational Issues . 10th ed.. James Wm. Noll (Ed). Dushkin: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999. 144 – 47 Finn, Chester E., Jr. “C for Effort” Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Educational Issues . 10th ed.. James Wm. Noll (Ed). Dushkin: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999. 148-52 Grove, Carole C. Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. 5 th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1997.
  19. 19. Change We Need Thank You

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