Evaluation for IWRM Implementation in LAO PDR <br />By Oudomsack Philavong<br />
Outline of presentation<br /> National Overview<br /> National Water Resources Policy<br /> National Water Resources Legislation Framework<br /> Institutional Framework<br /> Water Resources Status<br /> Country Investment in Water Resources Demand Management <br /> Burning Issues, Hot Spots and Critical Challenges<br /> The Way Forward<br />
1. National Overview<br /><ul><li> Lao PDR located in South-East Asia, and bordered with Cambodia, Thailand, China and Viet Nam
The Mekong River flows nearly 1,800 km from north to south
Water resources per capita is around 55,000 m3 per person per year
The Mekong tributaries within the Lao territory is 35% or equal 270,000 million m3 of the average annual flow of the whole Mekong Basin
The monthly rivers flow by the pattern of rainfall is around 80% during the rainy season and 20% in the dry season.</li></li></ul><li>1. National Overview (Cont)<br /><ul><li>The development of socio-economic in Lao PDR is based on the country’s natural resources
The target of GOL by 2010 are Eliminating shifting cultivation and providing clean water for everyone
National development by management of water resources in an effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable
Institutional arrangement in the water sector, especially coordination mechanism and technical capacity, were considerably at the primary level and insufficient to cope with existing circumstances
In terms of institutional functions Lao National Mekong Committee also established in the year 1995. Water Resources Coordination Committee and its secretariat was established in 1997
IWRM was a new principle for water sectors due to on the job training are used for water resources management in Lao PDR</li></li></ul><li>2. National Water Resources Policy<br />National Long-Term Development structure of the 6th and 7th Party Congresses<br />National water-related goals are consist of some targets for:<br />Water and watershed management <br />Providing clean water to everyone by 2010 <br />Promotion of hydropower production and other industries <br />Depend on water accessibility, environmental protection and conservation of natural resources<br />some strategies were issued and define on specific proposed as following:<br /> <br />A focus on hydropower, irrigation, urban and rural water supply development (NSEDP, 2006-2010)<br />Watershed management (Forestry Strategy 2020)<br />Water quality management (Environment Strategy, 2020)<br /> Collection and use of natural resource royalties for natural resource management (Forestry Strategy 2020, Hydropower Social and Environmental Policy)<br />Flood and drought management (Disaster Management Committee)<br />Collecting and compiling information on local and traditional natural resource management practices (NGPES, Forestry Strategy 2020)<br />
2 National Water Resources Policy(Cont)<br />Policy on Water and Water Resources in 2000<br />Principles on water and water resources management;<br />Water source development and management;<br />Public involvement;<br />Financial resources for water source development and management;<br />Water allocation, quality management and use;<br />Data and information management; and <br />Capacity building and human resources development.<br />Other principles are to ensure the sustainability of water sources, coordination arrangements are to be identified and established between water and water resource and land and forest sub-sectors of the economy<br />Increasing water use efficiency, and to ensure environmental sustainability, coordination systems are to be established among the water and water resource sub-sectors and among the different provinces on the management, development, exploitation and use of water.<br />
2 National Water Resources Policy(Cont)<br />There was given priority for investment especially, hydropower, irrigation urban and rural water. <br />User contributions usually needed and management transferred to direct beneficiaries where suitable.<br />Use charges structured to enhance effectiveness are to consider capability to pay<br />Private sectors and investors from oversea will be encouraged to investment<br />Data collection to be prioritized for control the conflicts.<br />In 2009, water resources policy (WRP) has been development<br />New policy objectives is achieving social fairness and a balance between economic outcomes and environmental protection. <br />Draft National Water Resources Strategy and Action Plan for the Years 2011 to 2015 are also developed<br />Nine related programs which will be implemented to achieve the objectives of the Policy<br />The Draft National Water Resources Policy, Strategy and Action Plan 2011 – 2015 (NWRPSAP) have not been yet officially approved by the Government<br />
3. National Water Resources Legislation Framework<br />Decree on Implementation of the Law on Water and Water Resources<br />LWWR had introduced the root of Integrated Water Resources Management<br />More detail of LWWR as such:<br />The ownership of water resources, <br />National and river planning, <br />Monitoring and assessment of water resources, <br />Water resource allocation according to integrated river basin plans, <br />A specialized funding mechanism, <br />Public consultation requirements and <br />Watershed protection.<br />
3. National Water Resources Legislation Framework (Cont)<br />However, some problems on water resources management are still occurred:<br />Incomplete policies and secondary legislation <br />Gaps and areas of the law which are unclear in some points: <br />It is not clear whether it is supposed to set out some definitions or to be statement of fact <br />The use of the notion water ‘source’. The key issue is that water flows.<br />For the purpose of management water quality it can sometimes be useful to manage water in terms of water bodies (such as lakes or reservoirs) or the separate reaches of a river<br />There is no sense of scale: all are water sources. <br />The notion of the catchment is important but this definition in this law needs to be strengthened to focus on the notion of drainages/surface run-off.<br />
3. National Water Resources Legislation Framework (Cont)<br />One of the most important in this law is specifying of water and water resources ownership: <br />The notion that water is owned by the national community represented by the State is sound: in reality it is difficult to conceive of the ownership of water in the natural state and this approach is elegant and effective<br />However, it had started well; the article creates a basic problem in providing that the right to control and use water is to be based on approvals given by relevant authorized agencies, without specifying who those agencies are. <br />Water Source Type it seems to provide for the establishment of a system of functional zoning. However the notion of ‘water source’ (rivers, small waterways tributaries, ponds, canals, swamps, bogs, springs) is probably not adequate for this purpose.<br />
3. National Water Resources Legislation Framework (Cont)<br />Regarding to Determination of water and water resources allocation is not clear what ‘plan’ is being referred. Moreover the law does not specify how the Government is to make decisions on the distribution of water and water resources.<br />Regarding to the Objectives of Water and Water Resources Use Paragraph one does not really create a legal rule: rather it is a statement of the obvious<br />Particularly it does really specify what the use of water actually comprises: the use of water for family consumption is qualitatively different to its use for hydropower generation.<br />There are unclear on the word as water may be used for any purpose ‘if appropriate’. What does appropriate mean, how is a determination to be made as to the appropriateness of a proposed use and by whom?<br />
3. National Water Resources Legislation Framework (Cont)<br />This law was specified a concept about the right for water usage however:<br />There is no given the priority to any type of use, <br />Except the use of water for electricity production and for irrigation is subjected to specific regulations. <br />It was also specified a concept of Funds for the Preservation of Water and Water Resources to which the water and water resources users and those conducting water sources development activities must contribute.<br />
The notion of the catchment is important but this definition needs to be strengthened to focus on the notion of drainages/surface run-off. <br />4. Institutional Framework<br />Water and water resources management in Lao PDR is responsible by fairly large number of ministries and agencies as well as provincial and other local agencies, also for the provision of water-related services<br />Refer to the Prime Minister’s Decree on Implementation Law on Water and Water Resources, this decree defined the responsibilities of each water related sectors as follow: <br />
4. Institutional Framework (Cont)<br /><ul><li>There were two agencies namely The Water Resources Coordination Committee and the Lao National Mekong Committee which both serve as coordination agencies for Lao water sector in over a decade.
The WRCC mandate is directed toward national water resource management while the LNMC deals more with international aspects therefore this is not a clear separation
These organizations are quite small and lack of legal powers including capacity to carry out coordination of other ministries and agencies.
Provinces need to consider ways to strengthen and coordinate their water related planning and management. There is also a need for better coordination between provinces which share a river basin, through a river basin organization or other mechanism.
WREA which was established in May 2007 and which is headed by a Minister under the Prime Minister’s Office
Within WREA the departments having the greatest focus on water resources management are the DWR, the Department of Meteorology and Hydrology and the Lao National Mekong Secretariat. Mention can also be made of the Department of the Environment, the Department of Environmental Impact Assessment and the Water Resources and Environment Research Institute.</li></li></ul><li>5. Water Resources Status.<br /> Lao PDR, with an area of 236,800 km2, occupies a central position in the Southeast Asian Peninsula and in the Mekong River Basin. <br />The country is generally rich in water resources on the basin:<br /><ul><li>Average annual rainfall is 1935 mm or 462 km3, and average runoff is 1055mm or 250 km3, average river inflow to the country is 73 km3, From China (Mekong ) 95 km3, From Myanmar (Mekong). The total national annual surface water supply is 332.5 km3,
Average River outflow to Other Countries 18 km3, to Vietnam ( From outside the Mekong River basin) , 1330 mm or 29 km3, to Cambodia in the Sekong River basin and 600 mm or 330 km3, to Cambodia in the Mekong River.
Total available surface water resources of 332.5 km3, is equivalent to more than 55,000 m3, on an annual per capita basin..</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The total storage capacity of large reservoirs is 7 Km3 , Which is equivalent to 2.8% of annual surface water supply.
Hydropower generation has been developed to less than 8% of its estimated national potential.
There are 12 major tributary of the Mekong which are completely or primarily in Lao PDR.</li></li></ul><li>The 12 rivers and percentage a summary of these major national river basin, include their basin size, population, mean annual rainfall, mean runoff and minimum monthly flow are following in the table.<br />
<ul><li>However, Lao PDR is rich in water resources but little of the available water resource has so far been developed.
Hydropower development is seen as a major opportunity as the country moves toward a role as regional supplier of electricity.
The irrigation sector has been given a high priority to stabilize and expand the country’s agricultural output,
Domestic water supply and sanitation are also important areas for improvement of living standards and public health.</li></li></ul><li>6.Country Investment in Water Resources Demand Management:<br /><ul><li>The National Long-Term Development Framework incorporates guidelines from the 6th and 7th Party Congresses and lays out five and ten-year objectives to reach the 2020 mass poverty elimination goal and systematically improve social well being.</li></li></ul><li>Among the objectives for the period of 2001 – 2010 which are particularly relevant to the water sector are: <br /><ul><li>Nationally balanced and sustainable social / economic development and transformation of the country towards modernization and industrialization.
Enhance human resource development through: improved and extended education, training and health.
Eradicate basic mass poverty and phase out slash-and-burn cultivation by 2010.
Encourage food and commercial production to establish food security by ensuring rice and food supply to the whole country and promote export of agricultural commodities.
Spur rural development in order to progressively reduce mass poverty in rural areas.
Control serious illnesses such as malaria and dysentery and prevent an HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Provide clean water for everybody by the year 2010.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The Government has also identified investment and development priorities, based on the country’s natural resources which can help to increase national revenue and reduce poverty.
the Government will need a budget of about 13,147 billion kip from :
domestic (46.4%) and external (53.6%) sources,
Which represents an increase of 3.6 times in comparison with the previous period.
Of this amount 62,4% will be allocated to the infrastructure construction,
29.9% to the social and cultural sector, and 7.7% to other sectors.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Government priorities are currently directed at the development of hydropower, irrigation and water supply, which are and are possible to remain the most important sub-sectors in terms of investment.
Hydropower development contributes to the Government’s overall economic goals and amount to approximately $22 million US, of which $18.7 million came from grants and $3.3 million from soft loans.
Irrigation contributes to self-sufficiency in food, and the public investment in this sub-sector for the 2001-2005 amounted to approximately $14.3 million US.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Urban water supply helps to meet the needs of industries and urban population, and the public investment in the urban water supply for the 2001-2005 period amounted to approximately $19.8 million US.
National water-related goals include some specific targets for water and watershed management, including elimination of shifting cultivation and providing clean water to everyone by 2010.
They also include goals which directly or indirectly depend on water resource management including:
Promotion of hydropower production and other industries which depend on water availability;
Environmental protection and conservation of natural resources.</li></li></ul><li>7. Burning Issues, Hot Spots and Critical Challenges.<br /><ul><li>Recently,in Lao PDR there are general issues on in urgency decreased of natural resources and environment factor by socio-economic development;
There is specific issues on coordination and also on project design and implementation;
There are issues from small mining development or traditional mining practices of local people;</li></li></ul><li><ul><li> The legal framework there is problems on enforcement and dissemination;
Regarding to economic development the number of industrial especially tree plantation in many part of the country are increase, such as teak, rubber, paper pulp and others these are the main cause of natural forest encroachment, change of land use and soil erosion;
project design and approval are not much considering on impacts on other sectors, due to the lack of coordination among sectors and comprehensive study prior to the development of the projects;</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>In the cases water diversion for new irrigation scheme development has impacted to original eco-tourism activity at downstream of a river in a place of Bolovene Plateau at Southern part of Laos;
In some areas, where accessible to sedimentation of gold along streams and rivers, local people have traditional gold mining practices long time ago.
To date, it is assessed that overall legislation existed are somehow sufficient for overall agencies and society to be disseminated and implemented.</li></li></ul><li>However, it is seen that legislation enforcement is still limited;<br />The major issue on this is the lack of subsidiary regulations, rules, guidelines and procedures for implementation arrangement;<br />Moreover, capacity of national and local institutions in all means to deal with the adverse impact from high socio-economic growth rate is insufficient;<br />This seems an important factor to fulfill the sustainable growth policy of the Government. <br />
8. The Way Forward<br />Regarding to future water resources management, priority activities needed to achieve water security and keep up sustainability. To achieve this objective new policies and legal will be study to priority its activities and report in this section.<br />The Mekong Integrated Water Resources Management Project (M-IWRMP) Development Objective is to support integrated water resources management in the Lower Mekong Basin through improving integration of water resources management from the regional level to the community level, taking into consideration downstream impacts and benefits. <br />
8. The Way Forward<br />To promote integrated water resources management in the Lower Mekong Basin through improving integration of water resources management from the regional level to the community level, considering downstream impacts and benefits. <br /> In order to achieve this objective, the APL is designed to: <br /> <br />support implementation of tools for integrated water resource and natural disaster risk management, mainly floods and droughts in the LMB countries; <br />improve institutional capacity for integrated water resources management in selected countries, including strengthening hydro-met systems; and <br />support improved river basin, floodplain management and management of aquatic resources for regional environmental benefits and the enhancement of rural livelihoods in pilot areas.<br />
8. The Way Forward<br />The NIWRMSP will prepare in 2011-2015 and will base on earlier MWRAS studies which review IWRM capacity in the Lao PDR. The NIWRMSP comprises the following elements and the development partners shown in the Table have indicate their interest in supporting.<br />
References <br />WREA, Lao PDR (2010). Final Report on Updating the National Water Resources Policy and Strategy.<br />Committee for Planning and investment, Lao PDR (2006). National Socio Economic Development Plan.<br />WRCCS, Lao PDR (2007). National Water Sector Profile.<br /> <br />National Assembly, Lao PDR (1996). Water and Water Resources Law.<br />STEA, Lao PDR (2001). Decree to Implementation Water and Water Resources Law.<br />WREA, Lao PDR (2010). Final Report on Updating the National Water Resources Policy and Strategy.<br />