IWRM Evaluation Result_Malaysia

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IWRM Evaluation Result_Malaysia

  1. 1. EVALUATION OF THE STATUS OF IWRM IMPLEMENTATION (2000-2010) – IN RESPECT TO POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS by Ir. Hj. Hanapi bin Mohamad Noor MALAYSIA GWP-SEA Workshop
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Issues and Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources Availability and Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources Governance </li></ul><ul><li>The way Forward in Governance Aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  3. 3. Definition of IWRM A process that “promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to minimise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems” Global Water Partneship (GWP) GWP-SEA Workshop
  4. 4. Nearly 20 years - Malaysia committed to IWRM <ul><li>OPP3 (2001-2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Eight Malaysia Plan (2001-2005) , Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006-2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Tenth Malaysia Plan (2011-2015) – Tabled in Parliament on June 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>National Physical Plan </li></ul>National <ul><li>ICWE Dublin and Rio Summit (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Water and MDG </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development Johannesburg (2002) </li></ul>International Ministerial Declarations <ul><li>World Water Forum (!997), The Hague (2000), Kyoto (2003) and Mexico (2006) </li></ul>Where is Malaysia in IWRM now? GWP-SEA Workshop
  5. 5. We are still very much in the “ Sectoral Mode” A Developing Country Mode We need to transform our Water Management to support our Economic Transformation Plans GWP-SEA Workshop
  6. 6. The sectoral approach is not an issue when Resources>>> Demand <ul><li>Population Small </li></ul><ul><li>Development gradual </li></ul><ul><li>Economy not complex </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle simple </li></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop In 1950s our population was just 5 million and in 1960s was only 8 million
  7. 7. The sectoral approach becomes an issue when Demand Resources (supply) GWP-SEA Workshop
  8. 8. <ul><li>WATER EXCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>WATER SHORTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>WATER POLLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>THE THREATS FROM CLIMATE CHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>STATE OF CURRENT WATER GOVERNANCE </li></ul><ul><li>IN MALAYSIA </li></ul>Issues and Challenges GWP-SEA Workshop
  9. 9. <ul><li>About 60% of the annual rain falls in the months of November and January </li></ul><ul><li>Many riverine areas and some flat terrains along the coast to experience widespread flooding </li></ul><ul><li>About 10% of the country is flood prone, requiring Government expenditures on flood-relief, flood-rehabilitation and flood-mitigation works to rise significantly in the last two decades </li></ul>WATER EXCESSES GWP-SEA Workshop
  10. 10. <ul><li>The seasonal distribution and variation of rainfall, both temporal and spatial, has rendered several regions in the country facing water stress related problems </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly severe in the smaller States and those that have been more extensively deforested. such as Melaka, Perlis, and Pulau Pinang </li></ul><ul><li>Extended periods of droughts cause water supply to fall short of water demands in States supporting large-scale agriculture for rice production such as Perlis, Kedah, and Selangor and those that are heavily industrialised as in the case of Pulau Pinang, Selangor, and the Federal Territories </li></ul>WATER SHORTAGES GWP-SEA Workshop
  11. 11. DROUGHT MONITORING GWP-SEA Workshop
  12. 12. Flooding in Johor (Dec. 2006 & Feb. 2007) GWP-SEA Workshop
  13. 13. <ul><li>Rivers and waterways are exposed to point and non point sources of pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>A recent estimate puts the wastes dump from the Klang Valley into its river system as amounting to a staggering 60 tons each day. </li></ul><ul><li>Some 90 selected lakes and reservoirs found that about 60% of them are ‘entropic’, primarily from nitrates and phosphates pollution originating from fertiliser and pesticide use in agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Water resource management in these instances clearly needs to reach out beyond the water boundaries and have an involvement in land, forests and environment control management affairs. </li></ul>WATER POLLUTION GWP-SEA Workshop
  14. 14. <ul><li>Polluters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities/ Industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural/Livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land clearance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water supply services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aquatic ecosystems </li></ul></ul>WATER POLLUTION GWP-SEA Workshop
  15. 15. River Water Quality Trend in Malaysia Bersih Sedikit Tercemar Tercemar Source: DOE Report 2010 GWP-SEA Workshop
  16. 16. <ul><li>According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) assessment reports, global warming over the last few decades has already created extreme variability’s in the climate </li></ul><ul><li>This impact is likely to get even more severe in the future and can cause sea levels to rise and further extremes in the flood and drought situations of the country. </li></ul>THE THREATS FROM CLIMATE CHANGE GWP-SEA Workshop
  17. 17. <ul><li>Even if the world maintained the pace of the 1990s in water supply development, it would not be enough to ensure that everyone had access to safe drinking water by 2025. </li></ul><ul><li>One study suggests that although global water conditions may worsen by 2025 due to population pressure, climate change could have a net positive impact on global water resources </li></ul><ul><li>(Source:, UNEP) </li></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  18. 18. <ul><li>Existing policies are spread into the functions of a number of Ministries </li></ul><ul><li>There is no single formally constituted entity that is presently empowered to plan, coordinate, and execute IWRM . </li></ul><ul><li>The National Water Resources Council (NWRC), whilst constituting a good coordinating body for water affairs, has not been provided with legal mandate for carrying out this function. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ministry of National Resources and Environment (MoNRE), which has been assigned the task of formulating, managing and enforcing policies, strategies and programs related to natural resources does not have a dedicated department within the ministry to provide the full scope of technical support it would need to carry out this function with regards to water </li></ul>STATE OF CURRENT WATER GOVERNANCE IN MALAYSIA GWP-SEA Workshop
  19. 19. GROUND WATER GWP-SEA Workshop IN CONTEXT OF NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES ATMOSPHERIC WATER SEA WATER 3 Nautical Mile Width from Coastline SURFACE WATER <ul><li>Contained in Water Bodies (Natural or Artificial), e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ponds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estuaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wetlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Catchment </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Annual Rainfall 3,000 mm/990 bill. m 3 Surface Runoff 1,715mm /990 bill. m 3 Estimated Potential Groundwater Storage 15,152 mm/5,000 bill. m3 Evapo-transpiration 1,091 mm/360 bill. m 3 GWP-SEA Workshop
  21. 21. <ul><li>Water demand projection include : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Per Capita Consumption (PCC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Water Demand (Domestic, Industrial, Irrigation and Fisheries) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non Revenue Water (NRW) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Water is necessary and being use in many areas for: </li></ul><ul><li>potable supply to meet domestic and industrial demands </li></ul><ul><li>food production, mainly to meet the irrigation demands </li></ul><ul><li>servicing of water borne transportation </li></ul><ul><li>power generation in the operation hydro electric power plants </li></ul><ul><li>enhancing and promoting recreation and tourism activities </li></ul>DEMAND FOR WATER GWP-SEA Workshop
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  24. 24. GWP-SEA Workshop
  25. 25. TOTAL WATER DEMAND FOR ALL SECTORS States Land Area sq km Total Water demand ( mm ) Available Runoff (mm) 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Perlis 821 383.7 376.9 362.1 361.2 359.9 470 Kedah 9,500 321.9 329.9 318.4 324.8 328.8 750 Pulau Pinang 1,048 785.8 855.7 872.4 921.6 954.7 800 Perak 21,035 108.2 111.4 110.9 118.1 127.6 930 Selangor 8,153 294.0 329.3 344.2 373.8 401.5 760 Negeri Sembilan 6,686 59.1 63.5 64.8 67.6 70.9 490 Melaka 1,664 232.5 262.2 272.7 297.5 320.8 570 Johor 19,210 45.5 58.1 68.7 78.8 89.9 1,140 Pahang 36,137 25.8 32.8 32.6 34.1 36.9 1,100 Terengganu 13,035 70.5 78.0 78.4 86.5 90.6 1,690 Kelantan 15,099 110.5 110.0 108.4 109.8 110.7 1,170 Pen Malaysia 132,388 106.0 114.9 116.5 123.6 130.7 1,060 Sabah 73,631 12.3 18.6 20.4 22.0 22.2 1,180 WP Labuan 91 213.1 289.4 336.4 370.8 403.3 2,150 Sarawak 124,450 8.6 17.5 17.2 17.7 18.3 1,470 East Malaysia 198,172 10.1 18.1 18.6 19.5 20.0 1,790 Total Malaysia 330,560 48.6 56.8 57.7 61.2 64.3 1,500 GWP-SEA Workshop
  26. 26. WATER DEMAND FOR POTABLE WATER States Land Area sq km Potable Water demand ( mm ) 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Perlis 821 66.7 74.7 79.6 85.4 91.6 Kedah 9,500 51.2 58.7 62.6 66.8 71.3 Pulau Pinang 1,048 339.2 426.6 479.2 531.1 568.7 Perak 21,035 18.4 22.7 25.4 28.4 31.4 Selangor 8,153 180.7 219.2 240.5 267.5 290.0 Negeri Sembilan 6,686 39.9 43.1 42.9 43.8 44.4 Melaka 1,664 97.2 121.5 139.9 156.8 170.2 Johor 19,210 28.6 36.6 43.3 48.0 51.6 Pahang 36,137 9.8 10.6 11.1 11.7 12.4 Terengganu 13,035 17.7 27.2 30.6 33.9 36.9 Kelantan 15,099 9.5 13.6 18.0 22.6 27.0 Pen Malaysia 132,388 33.7 41.3 45.9 50.8 55.0 Sabah 73,631 4.8 8.3 11.1 13.1 13.6 WP Labuan 91 213.1 289.4 336.4 370.8 403.3 Sarawak 124,450 3.3 5.4 6.6 7.7 8.8 East Malaysia 198,172 4.0 6.6 8.4 9.9 10.8 Total Malaysia 330,560 15.9 20.5 23.4 26.2 28.5 GWP-SEA Workshop
  27. 27. WATER DEMAND FOR IRRIGATED PADDY CULTIVATION States Land Area sq km Irrigation Water demand ( mm ) 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Perlis 821 241.2 224.1 201.0 188.8 171.7 Kedah 9,500 240.3 238.2 219.9 218.5 213.7 Pulau Pinang 1,048 341.6 314.9 268.1 252.9 233.8 Perak 21,035 70.2 64.3 55.1 51.5 48.0 Selangor 8,153 88.3 80.3 68.1 63.3 59.1 Negeri Sembilan 6,686 6.7 6.1 5.5 5.1 4.8 Melaka 1,664 51.7 51.7 37.3 37.3 37.3 Johor 19,210 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.6 Pahang 36,137 9.1 14.2 12.1 11.2 10.5 Terengganu 13,035 35.6 32.8 28.6 26.9 24.8 Kelantan 15,099 78.8 73.6 66.9 62.8 57.8 Pen Malaysia 132,388 54.3 52.9 46.9 44.8 42.4 Sabah 73,631 6.1 8.9 7.8 7.2 6.7 WP Labuan 91 - - - - - Sarawak 124,450 5.0 11.7 10.2 9.5 8.9 East Malaysia 198,172 5.4 10.6 9.3 8.6 8.1 Total Malaysia 330,560 25.0 27.6 24.3 23.1 21.8 GWP-SEA Workshop
  28. 28. WATER DEMAND FOR LIVESTOCK States Land Area sq km Liffestock (mm) 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Perlis 821 1.07 2.09 4.07 7.97 15.62 Kedah 9,500 0.68 0.89 1.18 1.60 2.24 Pulau Pinang 1,048 11.35 11.64 11.93 12.23 12.54 Perak 21,035 1.05 1.36 1.83 2.43 3.30 Selangor 8,153 1.06 1.38 1.83 2.47 3.42 Negeri Sembilan 6,686 0.74 1.21 1.61 2.22 3.16 Melaka 1,664 3.58 4.86 6.65 9.27 13.22 Johor 19,210 1.22 1.97 3.15 5.09 8.26 Pahang 36,137 0.22 0.39 0.71 1.33 2.54 Terengganu 13,035 0.39 0.62 0.99 1.64 2.80 Kelantan 15,099 0.40 0.58 0.80 1.25 1.89 Pen Malaysia 132,388 0.78 1.11 1.61 2.43 3.80 Sabah 73,631 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.17 0.25 WP Labuan 91 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Sarawak 124,450 0.12 0.15 0.19 0.24 0.32 East Malaysia 198,172 0.11 0.14 0.17 0.22 0.29 Total Malaysia 330,560 0.38 0.53 0.75 1.11 1.70 GWP-SEA Workshop
  29. 29. WATER DEMAND FOR FISHERIES States Land Area sq km Fisheries Water demand ( mm ) 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Perlis 821 11.5 12.7 14.0 15.5 17.1 Kedah 9,500 14.3 16.6 19.3 22.4 26.0 Pulau Pinang 1,048 55.9 64.9 75.3 87.3 101.4 Perak 21,035 15.5 19.8 25.4 32.5 41.5 Selangor 8,153 19.5 23.8 29.0 35.4 43.1 Negeri Sembilan 6,686 8.2 9.6 11.1 12.9 15.0 Melaka 1,664 38.4 42.4 46.8 51.7 57.1 Johor 19,210 8.2 12.3 14.9 18.2 22.2 Pahang 36,137 5.7 6.6 7.7 8.9 10.4 Terengganu 13,035 2.7 3.3 4.0 9.8 11.9 Kelantan 15,099 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.8 4.5 Pen Malaysia 132,388 9.4 11.7 14.1 17.5 21.2 Sabah 73,631 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 WP Labuan 91 - - - - - Sarawak 124,450 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 East Malaysia 198,172 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 Total Malaysia 330,560 3.9 4.8 5.8 7.2 8.8 GWP-SEA Workshop
  30. 30. WATER DEMAND vs WATER AVAILABILITY (Excess/Deficit) Note: 1.Water Deficit States Highlighted 2. All Water Sectors States Total Consumptive Water demand ( mm ) Effective rain (mm) Excess/deficit (mm) - Unregulated Flows 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Perlis 372.3 364.2 348.0 345.5 342.3 71 (302) (294) (277) (275) (272) Kedah 307.6 313.2 299.1 302.4 302.8 113 (195) (201) (187) (190) (190) Pulau Pinang 729.4 791.3 797.5 834.4 853.2 120 (609) (671) (677) (714) (733) Perak 92.7 91.6 85.5 85.6 86.1 140 47 48 54 54 53 Selangor 266.6 296.6 306.0 328.7 348.0 114 (153) (183) (192) (215) (234) N.Sembilan 51.0 54.1 53.6 54.7 56.0 74 23 19 20 19 18 Melaka 193.9 220.1 225.9 246.0 263.4 86 (108) (135) (140) (161) (178) Johor 37.2 45.8 53.8 60.6 67.7 171 134 125 117 110 103 Pahang 20.1 26.2 24.8 25.2 26.5 165 145 139 140 140 138 Terengganu 67.8 74.8 74.4 76.7 78.7 254 186 179 179 177 175 Kelantan 108.1 107.2 105.0 106.0 106.2 176 67 68 70 70 69 Pen Malaysia 96.5 103.1 102.2 105.9 109.2 159 62 56 57 53 50 Sabah 12.4 18.4 18.9 19.6 20.0 177 165 159 158 157 157 WP Labuan 197.7 264.3 285.0 304.0 318.0 323 125 58 37 19 4 Sarawak 8.4 17.3 17.0 17.5 18.0 221 212 203 203 203 202 East Malaysia 10.0 17.9 17.9 18.4 18.9 269 258 251 251 250 250 Total Malaysia 44.7 52.0 51.7 53.5 55.1 225.0 180.3 173.0 173.3 171.5 169.9 GWP-SEA Workshop
  31. 31. <ul><li>Water Resources Governance </li></ul><ul><li>– What should be managed ? </li></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  32. 32. <ul><li>There is no comprehensive policy on water resources , but only policy statements relating to various water resources aspects </li></ul><ul><li>There is no clear policy direction on what needs to be done for effective water resources governance (covering both administrative and management aspects), or direction to consolidate different measures and approaches </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to consolidate existing directions related to water resources and provide directions to complement existing policy statements </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to strengthen the executive reach of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Malaysia by detailing the focus areas, aspects & targets for which policy directions will be made </li></ul>WATER GOVERNANCE GWP-SEA Workshop
  33. 33. WR Governance – What Should be Managed Ground Water Wetlands Lakes Rainwater Stormwater Coastal Water WATER RESOURCES Rivers Inland Waters Coastal Zone, Shoreline, Estuaries LAND USE GWP-SEA Workshop
  34. 34. INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (IWRM) IRBM ILBM ISMP / ICZM Ground Water Wetlands Lakes Rainwater Stormwater Coastal Water Land Use Management River Basins / Catchments IFM WR Governance – What Should be Manage
  35. 35. GWP-SEA Workshop
  36. 36. <ul><li>The Way Forward in Governance Aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institution </li></ul></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
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  38. 38. <ul><li>Need to Change Begins with Reform in Water Governance </li></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  39. 39. <ul><li>NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES POLICY </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ministries and Policies that have bearing on the National Water Resources Policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROPOSED NWR POLICY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NWR POLICY - DIRECTION </li></ul></ul></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  40. 40. Ministries and Policies that have bearing on the National Water Resources Policy Ministry Policy Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment <ul><li>National Mineral Policy 2 </li></ul><ul><li>National Forestry Policy 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>National Biodiversity Policy </li></ul><ul><li>National Wetlands Policy </li></ul><ul><li>National Environment Policy </li></ul><ul><li>National Policy on Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>National Land Policy </li></ul>Ministry of Education <ul><li>National Education Policy </li></ul>Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities <ul><li>National Biofuel Policy </li></ul><ul><li>National Timber Industry Policy </li></ul>Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water <ul><li>National Energy Policy </li></ul><ul><li>National Green Technology Policy </li></ul>Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation <ul><li>National Biotechnology Policy </li></ul>Ministry of Tourism <ul><li>National Tourism Policy </li></ul>Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry <ul><li>Third National Agricultural Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Food Security Policy </li></ul>Ministry of Health <ul><li>National Food Safety Policy </li></ul>Ministry of Housing and Local Government <ul><li>National Solid Waste Management Policy </li></ul><ul><li>National Physical Plan </li></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  41. 41. <ul><li>PROPOSED PRINCIPLES: </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources Security </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Governance </li></ul><ul><li>PROPOSED FOUR KEY CORE AREAS TO BE ADDRESSED: </li></ul><ul><li>Secure Water Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Sustain Water Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Partnership for Water Resources Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Build Capacity and Expertise </li></ul>PROPOSED NWR POLICY GWP-SEA Workshop
  42. 42. <ul><li>NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES LEGISLATION FRAMEWORK </li></ul><ul><li>WATER RESOURCES LAW – JUSTIFICATION </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONSTITUTIONAL POSITIONS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NWR POLICY – DIRECTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LEGISLATIVE REFORM-The Way Forward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR PROPOSED LEGISLATION </li></ul></ul></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  43. 43. (1) There is a need for a holistic approach to effective governance of water resources - various aspects related to IWRM / IRBM is covered under many Federal laws such as EQA, Forestry, Geological Survey and Fisheries (2) There is a need for dedicated law at Federal level that would enable a National Agency to implement IWRM / IRBM in a holistic manner (3) There is a need for consistency in the laws governing the aspects related to water resources , e.g. the definition of water resources, scope of application and jurisdiction, etc differ in all the laws enacted by the State legislation - Kedah, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Sabah, Sarawak and Selangor (4) Waters Act 1920 – proposed to be repealed WATER RESOURCES LAW - JUSTIFICATION GWP-SEA Workshop
  44. 44. (4) Waters Act 1920 :  The Act only covered rivers and not the whole spectrum of water resources  The Act is outdated in terms of approach, penalties and mechanism for implementation  It is barely enforced in most States  In recent years, many States have repealed the State Waters Enactment and replaced it with a more comprehensive water resources enactment WATER RESOURCES LAW - JUSTIFICATION GWP-SEA Workshop
  45. 45. (2) Federal List - However the Federal Government also has jurisdiction over various aspects related to water resources such as: • International treaties and agreements • International trans-boundary rivers, interstate rivers (if there is dispute between states) • Marine & estuarine fisheries • Shipping & navigation, ports, foreshores • Federal works and power • Data/information collection and management • Scientific research • Setting of national standards and safety/security <ul><li>Concurrent List - Both Federal and State Governments have concurrent jurisdiction over several aspects including: </li></ul><ul><li>• Drainage & irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>• Water supplies & services </li></ul><ul><li>• Town & country planning </li></ul><ul><li>• National parks </li></ul><ul><li>• Sanitation & rehabilitation of land with soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>State List, Federal Constitution - In general States have jurisdiction over water resources and related aspects including rivers, land, forest and agriculture </li></ul>CONSTITUTIONAL POSITIONS GWP-SEA Workshop
  46. 46. <ul><li>The Way Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Article 76 </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Parliament may make laws to: </li></ul><ul><li>a) implement any treaty, convention or agreement in any state even if the matter concerned is enumerated in the State List; e.g. Biosafety Act (implementing the International Convention on Biodiversity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b) promote uniformity between two or more States ; e.g. Waters Act; Fisheries Act; Local Government Act; Street Drainage and Building Act; Town and Country Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) if requested by any State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(3) Laws made pursuant to (b) or (c) cannot be enforced in any State unless it is first adopted by State Legislature </li></ul>LEGISLATIVE REFORM GWP-SEA Workshop
  47. 47. <ul><li>The Way Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Four Options were considered by all Stakeholders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Option 1: Adopt a Model Law for Uniformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Option 2: Amend the Federal Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Option 3: Enact State Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Option 4: Strengthen Existing Legislation </li></ul></ul>LEGISLATIVE REFORM There was general agreement with the Consultant’s recommendations that Option 1 is the best option GWP-SEA Workshop
  48. 48. <ul><li>Pursuant to Article 76(3) of the Federal Constitution, Parliament may adopt a law to ensure uniformity among all states </li></ul><ul><li>The Law shall review and replace the Waters Act 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>The Law will be in strict conformity with the jurisdictions of the Federal and State Governments as enshrined in the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>The Law shall only come into effect in any State (other than the Federal Territories), after the State legislature adopts this Act of Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>The Law shall take into account existing enactments in some States on water resources </li></ul><ul><li>The Federal Law must be consistent with and shall give effect to the proposed National Water Resources Policy and Institutional set up </li></ul>GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR PROPOSED LEGISLATION GWP-SEA Workshop
  49. 49. <ul><li>INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK </li></ul><ul><li>INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT - OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISH NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CURRENT INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS BY STATES </li></ul><ul><li>PROPOSED NATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT </li></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  50. 50. <ul><ul><li>Water is largely under state jurisdiction (9th Schedule of the Federal Constitution, State List 6(c) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the main objectives of the proposed NWR Law – to confer executive authority on the Federal and State Governments on certain matters consistent with the provisions of Articles 74, 80-81, 92-95 regarding water resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new legislation shall not come into effect in any state (other than the Federal Territories) unless adopted by the State Legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In terms of policy, the main core areas are: sustainability, security, uniformity, partnerships, and capacity building of water resources in the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NWR POLICY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEGISLATIVE DIRECTIONS / NWR LAW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed Institutional Arrangement is guided by : </li></ul></ul>INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT GWP-SEA Workshop
  51. 51. (a) Provision of an institutional arrangement that when implemented will support the sustainable use & conservation of water resources in the country (based on NWR Policy) (b) Promotion of uniformity of law & policy for security of water resources throughout the country in accordance with the Federal Constitution (based on the NWR Policy & NWR Law) (c) Provision of an operational institutional organization model that will function efficiently and effectively to implement the NWR Policy and Legislation / NWR Law (d) Recommendation of functions and responsibilities of the water resource agency or agencies so formed, to align and conform to Articles 92 – 95 of the Constitution (based on the Constitution and NWR Law) INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT - OBJECTIVES GWP-SEA Workshop
  52. 52. MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT GWP-SEA Workshop
  53. 53. Establish National Water Resources Development FUNCTION DESCRIPTION INFORMATION <ul><li>Water Resources availability / water demand projections in terms of Q & Q assessments </li></ul>CAPACITY & PUBLIC AWARENESS <ul><li>Skills development (standards, criteria, procedures, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Skills dissemination (in-house/external) </li></ul><ul><li>Public awareness programs </li></ul>HAZARD MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Floods / droughts / climate change / pollution mitigations & / or rehabilitation measures </li></ul>RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS <ul><li>Multi purposes water resource storage facilities, development of alternative water resource sources, etc </li></ul>CROSS BORDER COMMITIMENTS <ul><li>State border – mediate when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>International border- Lead </li></ul>WATER ALLOCATION <ul><li>National policies, plans and programmes for water resources allocation and priorities </li></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  54. 54. Current Institutional Arrangements by States CATEGORY INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS STATE REMARKS 1 Fully developed & implemented Selangor (LUAS ) – Cat 1 Sabah – Cat 1 Sarawak – Cat 2 <ul><li>Fully mandated and functional with institutional structures </li></ul>2 Developed and/or need refinement and/or to be implemented Kedah (LUAN) – Cat 1 Pahang (LUAP) – Cat 2 Kelantan, Terengganu & N. Sembilan – Cat 3 <ul><li>All have mandates but are not fully functional yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Kedah is more developed than the rest - it has a specific structure for water resource management </li></ul><ul><li>The States in italics are in both categories because of their legislations that have taken into consideration water resources components </li></ul>3 Service oriented and industry-based or distribution-based Melaka, Negeri Sembilan & Sarawak – Cat 2 Perak, Pulau Pinang, Kelantan, Terengganu & Johor – Cat 3 <ul><li>Development through COPPRI </li></ul><ul><li>Bounded by Water Services Act (WSIA 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>NS recently enacted legislation for water services (2009) </li></ul>4 None of the above or preparations underway <ul><li>Perlis – Cat 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Territory of : </li></ul><ul><li>K L – Cat 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Labuan – Cat 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Putrajaya – Cat 5 </li></ul><ul><li>No provisions yet </li></ul><ul><li>Syarikat Air Perlis has signed agreement with PAAB regarding water assets (2010) </li></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  55. 55. NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL (NWRC) MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES & ENVIRONMENT MALAYSIA (NRE) NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES DEPARTMENT (NWRD) (DID MALAYSIA*) STATE WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL (SWRC, or equivalent)** STATE WATER RESOURCES AGENCY (SWRA)** NWRC CHAIRMAN : YAB Prime Minister MEMBERS : YAB Menteri Besar & Chief Ministers from all States, relevant Federal Ministers <ul><li>NWRC RESPONSIBILITIES : </li></ul><ul><li>Guide implementation of NWR Policy and Law </li></ul><ul><li>Federal/State Coordination on issues related to IWRM, IRBM, IFM, ICZM, TCM, WDM etc </li></ul>NRE : Secretariat to NWRC NWRD : Technical support in the formulation / implementation / co-ordination of national policies, plans & programs related to IWRM, IRBM, IFM, ICZM, TCM, WDM etc SWRC (or equivalent) CHAIRMAN: YAB MBs/CMs MEMBERS/Attendance: selected ExCo, State Secretary, State Legal Officer, State Financial Officer, SWR Dir & DID State Dir, other selected Heads of State Dept/Agencies & Stakeholders (to be decided by State) SWRA: Control & regulation of water resources in the State including implementation of IWRM, IRBM, IFM, ICZM, WDM, etc policies, plans & programs *existing DID to be renamed as WRD * * refer to state models PROPOSED NATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT GWP-SEA Workshop
  56. 56. <ul><li>The Great Leap Forward in IWRM: Inter-Ministerial Dialogue </li></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  57. 57. GWP-SEA Workshop
  58. 58. GWP-SEA Workshop
  59. 59. GWP-SEA Workshop
  60. 60. CONCLUSION <ul><li>A comprehensive short and long term planning and management of water resources in Malaysia is essential on managing water resources </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive database on water resources availability and demand will be the key in the development of an effective decision support system </li></ul><ul><li>The proposed national policy, law and institutional arrangement will set the way forward for an effective water resources governance </li></ul><ul><li>Participation of all stake holder s will be of paramount importance to address the current and future issues related to water resources. </li></ul>GWP-SEA Workshop
  61. 61. TERIMA KASIH THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION GWP-SEA Workshop

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