Ch 3 Tissue Types

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Ch 3 Tissue Types

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Body Tissues
  2. 2. <ul><li>I. Body Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>A. Tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.Groups of cells with similar structure and function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.Four primary types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Cell Diversity – predict which tissue? </li></ul>Figure 3.7; 1, 2
  4. 4. <ul><li>Cell Diversity - predict which tissue? </li></ul>Figure 3.7; 3
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cell Diversity - predict which tissue? </li></ul>Figure 3.7; 4, 5
  6. 6. <ul><li>Cell Diversity - predict which tissue? </li></ul>Figure 3.7; 6, 7
  7. 7. <ul><li>II. Epithelial Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>A. Found in different areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body coverings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body linings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glandular tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B.Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>C. Epithelium Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Cells fit closely together </li></ul></ul><ul><li> B.Tissue layer always has one free surface </li></ul><ul><li>C. The lower surface is bound by a basement membrane </li></ul><ul><li>D. Avascular (have no blood supply) </li></ul><ul><li>E. Regenerate easily if well nourished </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>D. Classification of Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>1. Number of cell layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple – one layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified – more than one layer </li></ul></ul>Figure 3.16a
  10. 10. <ul><li>Classification of Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>2. Shape of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous – flattened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuboidal – cube-shaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columnar – column-like </li></ul></ul>Figure 3.16b
  11. 11. <ul><li>E. Simple Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>1. Simple squamous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Single layer of flat cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Usually forms membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lines body cavities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lines lungs and capillaries </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 3.17a
  12. 12. <ul><li>2. Simple cuboidal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Single layer of cube-like cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Common in glands and their ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms walls of kidney tubules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covers the ovaries </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 3.17b
  13. 13. <ul><li>3. Simple columnar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Single layer of tall cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Often includes goblet cells, which produce mucus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Lines digestive tract </li></ul></ul>Figure 3.17c
  14. 14. <ul><li>4. Pseudostratified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Single layer, but some cells are shorter than others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Often looks like a double cell layer </li></ul></ul>Figure 3.17d
  15. 15. <ul><li>F. Stratified Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>1. Stratified squamous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Cells at the free edge are flattened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Found as a protective covering where friction is common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 3.17e
  16. 16. <ul><li>2. Stratified cuboidal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two layers of cuboidal cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Stratified columnar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface cells are columnar, cells underneath vary in size and shape </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Stratified Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional epithelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines organs of the urinary system </li></ul></ul>Figure 3.17f
  18. 18. <ul><li>III. Connective Tissue Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>A. Variations in blood supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Some tissue types are well vascularized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Some have poor blood supply or are avascular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Extracellular matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Non-living material that surrounds living cells—varies from type to type </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>2. Two main elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Ground substance – mostly water along with adhesion proteins and polysaccharide molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen fibers—strong </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic fibers—stretch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reticular fibers—fine collagen fibers which form the internal “skeleton” of some organs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 3. Connective Tissue Types <ul><li>Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Dense Connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Loose Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>C. Connective Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><li>1. Bone (osseous tissue) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Composed of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone cells in lacunae (cavities) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard matrix of calcium salts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large numbers of collagen fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Used to protect and support the body </li></ul></ul>Figure 3.18a
  22. 22. <ul><li>Connective Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><li>2. cartilage—flexible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyaline cartilage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant collagen fibers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rubbery matrix </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entire fetal skeleton is hyaline cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 3.18b
  23. 23. <ul><li>Connective Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><li>b. Elastic cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides elasticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: supports the external ear </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Connective Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><li>c . Fibrocartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly compressible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: forms cushion-like discs between vertebrae </li></ul></ul>Figure 3.18c
  25. 25. <ul><li>Connective Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><li>3. Dense connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Main matrix element--collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Cells are fibroblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendon – attach muscle to bone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments – attach bone to bone </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 3.18d
  26. 26. <ul><li>Connective Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><li>4. Loose connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Areolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most widely distributed connective tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soft, pliable tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains all fiber types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can soak up excess fluid </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 3.18e
  27. 27. <ul><li>Connective Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><li>b. Adipose tissue commonly called fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix is an areolar tissue in which fat globules predominate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many cells contain large lipid deposits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulates the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protects some organs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a site of fuel storage </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 3.18f
  28. 28. <ul><li>Connective Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><li>c. Reticular connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delicate network of interwoven fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms stroma (internal supporting network) of lymphoid organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 3.18g
  29. 29. <ul><li>Connective Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><li>5. Blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Fibers are visible during clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Functions as the transport vehicle for materials </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>IV. Muscle Tissue </li></ul>A. Function is to produce movement B. Three types of muscle tissue
  31. 31. <ul><li>B. 3 Types of Muscle Tissue, cont. </li></ul>1. Skeletal muscle a. Can be controlled voluntarily b. Cells attach to connective tissue c. Cells are striated d. Cells have more than one nucleus Figure 3.19b
  32. 32. <ul><li>Muscle Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cardiac muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Found only in the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Function is to pump blood (involuntary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Cells attached to other cardiac muscle cells at intercalated disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Cells are striated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e. One nucleus per cell </li></ul></ul>Figure 3.19c
  33. 33. <ul><li>Muscle Tissue Types </li></ul><ul><li>3. Smooth muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Involuntary muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Surrounds hollow organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Attached to other smooth muscle cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. No visible striations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e. One nucleus per cell </li></ul></ul>Figure 3.19a
  34. 34. <ul><li>V. Nervous Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>A. Composed of Neurons and nerve support cells </li></ul><ul><li>B. Function is to send impulses to other areas of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Cells display Irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. And Conductivity </li></ul></ul>Figure 3.20

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