4-2 Ionic & Covalent Bonding


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  • It would be good if you have a working inorganic chemist to proofread these presentations before you post them. I found several inaccurate statements in this one, alone.
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4-2 Ionic & Covalent Bonding

  1. 1. Warm-Up <ul><li>What are valence electrons? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an atom. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which group of atoms hardly react at all? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobel gases. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isotopes of an element have different number of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A) neutrons C) protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B) electrons D) nuclei </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. 4-2: Ionic & Covalent Bonding <ul><li>Describe how ionization energy affects ionic bonding. </li></ul><ul><li>Predict the composition of an ionic compound from its formula. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how covalent bonds are formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate the properties of ionic and covalent compounds. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ionization Energy <ul><li>It requires energy to remove an electron from an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy has to be added to the electron to overcome its attraction to the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>This energy is called ionization energy </li></ul><ul><li>High ionization energy = difficult to remove. </li></ul><ul><li>Low ionization energy = easy to remove. </li></ul>
  4. 7. Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Ionic bonds are formed when electrons are transferred between metals and nonmetals. </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds exist with nonmetals only. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals cannot transfer electrons to form a stable electron configuration. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals share electrons. </li></ul>
  5. 8. Sharing Electrons <ul><li>Atoms that share electrons are called molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>The atom can share multiple electrons to obtain a full outer shell of electrons. </li></ul>
  6. 9. Sharing Electrons <ul><li>Molecules are neutral groups of atoms that are joined by one or more covalent bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent bonds are formed with non-metals only. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals that bond with themselves are called diatomic molecules. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 , I 2 , </li></ul></ul>
  7. 11. Multiple Covalent Bonding <ul><li>Atoms can share multiple pairs of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Types of covalent bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single – one shared set of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double – two shared sets of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple – three shared sets of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadruple can not form because of electron repulsion. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 12. Ionic compound Structure <ul><li>All ionic compound form crystals. </li></ul><ul><li>The formula does not tell how the ions are arranged in the compound. </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at samples help to identify the pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic compound form a crystal lattice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A repeating pattern of ions. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 13. Properties of Compounds <ul><li>Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High melting point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor electrical conductor in solid state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good electrical conductor in liquid state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to shatter when struck. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally good dissolving in water. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 14. Properties of Compounds <ul><li>Covalent Compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low melting points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally soft and pliable (won’t shatter). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor conductors of heat and electricity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most covalent compounds are poorly soluble in water. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 15. Summary <ul><li>Which type of elements make covalent bonds? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmetals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which type of bond is stronger? Ionic or covalent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic because ionic compounds have very high melting points. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which type of compound does not usually dissolve in water? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalent </li></ul></ul>