Zahid Report

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Report by the Committee t Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development of Higher Education in Malaysia

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Zahid Report

  1. 1. ENTER
  2. 2. © Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, 2006All rights reserved. No part of this Report may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the priorwritten permission from the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, Block E3, Parcel E, Federal GovernmentAdministrative Centre, 62505 Putrajaya.Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication DataReport: the committee to study, review and make recommendations concerning the development and direction of higher education in Malaysia, Ministry of Higher Education in Malaysia : towards excellence Bibliography : p. 279 ISBN 983-3643-61-2 1.Education, Higher--Malaysia. 2.Universities and colleges-- Malaysia. 378.595Cover Design : Billion Printing Sdn. Bhd.Typesetting : Siti Nurshahidah Sah Allam Mohd Fadhel Mohd DrusTypeface : Times New RomanType Size : 12/15Printed by : Univision Press Sdn. Bhd. (Email: univisionpress@gmail.com)This is a translation of the original text entitled: Laporan Jawatankuasa Mengkaji, Menyemak dan MembuatPerakuan Tentang Perkembangan dan Hala Tuju Pendidikan Tinggi Malaysia: Langkah-langkah Ke ArahKecemerlangan. iv Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  3. 3. CONTENTS PageDiagrams viiCharts ixTables xiAddenda xiiiMessage from the Honourable Minister xvPreface xviiAcknowledgements xxiExecutive Summary xxiiiRecommendations xxxviiPart I: IntroductionChapter 1 : Imperatives 3Chapter 2 : The Study 15Part II: Background of Higher Education in MalaysiaChapter 3 : History of the Development of Higher Education 21Chapter 4 : The National Policies and Vision 2020 27Chapter 5 : National Education Policy 31Chapter 6 : National Values 37Chapter 7 : Laws Governing Higher Education 41Part III: Empowering Institutions of Higher EducationChapter 8 : Vision and Mission of Higher Education 47Chapter 9 : Legislation and Governance 53Chapter 10 : Funding, Financial Management and Control 65Chapter 11 : Human Resources 79Chapter 12 : Quality, Competitiveness and Internationalisation 91Chapter 13 : Information & Communication Technology 107 Towards Excellence v
  4. 4. Part IV: Excellence in Teaching and LearningChapter 14 : Curriculum 123Chapter 15 : Teaching and Assessment 137Part V: Excellence in Research and DevelopmentChapter 16 : Research and Development 149Part VI: Excellence in Contributing to Malaysian SocietyChapter 17 : National Unity 173Chapter 18 : Access and Equity 177Chapter 19 : The Strategic Way Forward 191Part VII: ConclusionChapter 20 : Conclusion 199AppendicesAppendix I : Committee Members 203Appendix II : Biodata of Main Committee Members 207Appendix III : List of Participants in Dialogue Sessions on National Higher Education 219Appendix IV : List of Participants in Round Table Discussions on National Higher Education 243Appendix V : List of Countries and Institutions Visited on International Benchmarking and Best Practices Study 253Appendix VI : Statistics of Malaysia’s Population, Public and Private Institutions of Higher Education 257Appendix VII : List of Institutions of Higher Education in Malaysia 259Appendix VIII : Ranking of the Top 500 Universities in the World 2004 263Appendix IX : Top 200 Universities in the World 2004 275Bibliography 279Glossary of Abbreviations and Acronyms 285vi Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  5. 5. DIAGRAMS PageDiagram 9.1 : Relationship of Public IHE with Various Government Agencies 61Diagram 9.2 : Supervision Scheme in the Governance of Private IHE 62Diagram 13.1 : eHigher Education (eHiED) Simplified Business Architecture 119 Towards Excellence vii
  6. 6. CHARTS PageChart 10.1 : Composition of Workforce with Certificate, Diploma and Degree for Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea and Australia 70Chart 10.2 : Private IHE Graduates by Levels of Certification, 2004 74Chart 16.1 : Research Intensity in Selected Countries (Percentage) 150Chart 16.2 : FTE of Researchers per 1000 Labour Force in Selected Countries 151 Towards Excellence ix
  7. 7. TABLES PageTable 3.1 : Number of Non-University Level Private IHE, 2004 24Table 10.1 : Number of Public IHE Graduates by Level of Certification 66Table 10.2 : Expenditure on Higher Education by Member Countries and Partner Countries of OECD, 2001 and Malaysia, 2004 66Table 10.3 : List of Registered Professionals for 1988 and 2004 67Table 10.4 : HDI and Education Index of Selected Developed Countries and Malaysia for 2002 68Table 10.5 : Percentage of Malaysian Workforce Pursuing Degrees, Diplomas and Certificates for 1980 and 2003 69Table 10.6 : The Number of Private and Public Universities in Japan 2003 73Table 14.1 : Malaysia’s Palm Oil Industry, 2004 128Table 14.2 : Malaysia’s Maritime Assets 130Table 16.1 : Breakdown of Researchers According to Qualification (Percentage) 151Table 16.2 : Grants, Funds and Schemes for Research Promotion 152Table 16.3 : Sources of Funding for R&D in IHE 154Table 16.4 : Breakdown of Researchers in IHE 154Table 18.1 : Enrolment and Participation Rate by Cohort in Public IHE 180 Towards Excellence xi
  8. 8. ADDENDA PageAddendum 1.1 : Mission and Functions of Higher Education 9Addendum 8.1 : Proposed Vision of National Higher Education 50Addendum 8.2 : Proposed Mission of National Higher Education 51Addendum 9.1 : The Power of the Board of Directors According to the Views of Legal Consultants 59Addendum 10.1 : Comparison of Percentage of Students in Higher Education between South Korea and Malaysia 71Addendum 11.1 : Proposed Higher Education Service Scheme and Academic Staff Career Pathway 88Addendum 12.1 : A Study on the Status of Malaysian Public IHE Graduates 100Addendum 16.1 : Basis for Research in Malaysia’s Human Resources Development 149Addendum 16.2 : Aspirations for R&D in the Vision Development Policy 153Addendum 16.3 : The Korean Advanced Institute of Technology, South Korea 160Addendum 16.4 : The Australian National University, Australia 161 Towards Excellence xiii
  9. 9. KEMENTERIAN PENGAJIAN TINGGI MALAYSIA BLOK E3, PARCEL E PUSAT PENTADBIRAN KERAJAAN PERSEKUTUAN 62505 PUTRAJAYA Tel : 03-88835000 Faks : 03-88891327 Web : http://www.mohe.gov.my MESSAGE FROM THE HONOURABLE MINISTER OF HIGHER EDUCATIONThe Government of Malaysia is firm in its resolution to ensure the re-emergence and continuanceof excellence in higher education in the country, so that institutions of higher learning are capable ofproducing cohorts of quality human capital, who are fully competent to make outstandingcontributions to the development of the nation.In order to succeed in this endeavour, there is need for a sea change in the way we currentlymanage the higher education enterprise. We require, in the words of the Right Honourable PrimeMinister, an “education revolution”. This revolution commenced when the Ministry of HigherEducation was created and I have the honour and privilege of being the first Minister of this newMinistry.The Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning theDevelopment and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia was appointed by me so that,acting on the recommendations, the momentum of change can be maintained and even acceleratedsuch that there can be no turning back or half-measures put in place in our push for excellence.Since expediency was of the essence, the Committee, made up of selected distinguished Malaysiansunder the capable chairmanship of Tan Sri Dato’ Dr. Wan Mohd Zahid Mohd Noordin, was givena six-month deadline to complete the project.I wish to express my deepest appreciation and heartfelt gratitude to the Committee for meeting notonly the deadline but also for producing a comprehensive Report. The recommendations captureprecisely what we need to do in our quest for excellence. My Ministry will now conduct an in-depth study of this Report and explore avenues to pragmatically implement as many of therecommendations as possible, especially those which have been identified as requiring immediateaction.It is my hope that the Committee members would be able to make further contributions to thisnoble cause. Their experience and wisdom would be invaluable as the Ministry undertakes thenecessary but daunting task of bringing to fruition the thorough and painstaking work that has beenput in producing this Report.DATO’ DR. HAJI SHAFIE BIN HAJI MOHD SALLEHMinister of Higher Education Malaysia 18 July 2005 Towards Excellence xv
  10. 10. PREFACET he Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning theDevelopment and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia was appointed by theMinister of Higher Education, the Honourable Dato’ Dr. Haji Shafie bin Haji Mohd Salleh, on17 January 2005. This Committee was given the mandate to study the status of highereducation in Malaysia taking into account contemporary regional and international developmentsin tertiary education. In addition, the Committee was instructed to prepare a report withrecommendations for the Ministry of Higher Education based on Terms of Reference stipulatedby the Honourable Minister. A six-month deadline was set for the completion of thisundertaking. On 18 July 2005, by the grace of God, the Committee completed its work andsubmitted this Report to the Honourable Minister of Higher Education.The scope of this study covers the core functions of higher education: teaching and learning,research and development, service to the community, life-long learning, issues related to thedemocratisation of education such as access and equity, and the commitment of these institutions,by benchmarking with international best practices to unremitting efforts to upgrade the qualityof the education that they provide. The Committee has tried its level best, given the extensivescope that this study encompasses, to avoid deviating from its mandate: the formulation ofrecommendations, based on in-depth analysis of the current situation, which are targeted toachieve the aspiration to make Malaysia an internationally acknowledged centre of excellencefor higher education.In this connection, the Committee has carried out benchmarking studies to identify internationalbest practices through visits to prestigious higher education institutions throughout the world,covering North America, Europe and Asia.This Report has adopted, as frames of reference for higher education, the perspectives of theNational Philosophy of Education, the National Vision, and policies that have the goal of Towards Excellence xvii
  11. 11. developing human capital that is resilient, competitive, cultured and intellectually rigorous.These qualities will enable them to face the challenges of globalisation and contribute towardsthe attainment of national unity and the socio-economic development of the country.Based on the above-mentioned core functions and perspectives of this study, the theme ofthis Report is: Towards Excellence. There are seven parts in the Report and each parthighlights sub-themes, all of which endorse the main theme. Each part is also divided intochapters, each of which deals with a specific sub-theme followed by recommendationspertaining to that particular sub-theme.Parts I and II deal with imperatives, historical development, vision, policies, values and lawspertaining to higher education. Part III, entitled: Empowering Institutions of HigherEducation presents an analysis of the current situation of higher education in the country aswell as recommendations to empower these institutions to carry out their core functionsefficiently and deal with the challenges of competing effectively in the global arena. Part IV,entitled: Excellence in Teaching and Learning, focuses on the most basic yet foremostprecondition for any educational institution to attain excellence and international pre-eminence.In Part V, the focus of study is on Excellence in Research and Development withaccompanying recommendations. R&D is the second most vital component in higher education,a variable that qualitatively differentiates one institution of higher education from another.Directly or indirectly, IHE and society are inextricably linked, not least because of theconsiderable financial contribution made by the latter. Part VI therefore is entitled, Excellencein Contributing to the Malaysian Society. This part elaborates on this sub-theme andsuggests action to raise the quality of the contribution that higher education can make to thelocal as well as to the international community. Finally, in Part VII, the committee identifiescertain limitations and constraints to this study as well as several factors that inhibit the successfulinplementation of the recommendations that have been put forward.By and large, the Committee has avoided making recommendations which have prohibitivefinancial implications for the Government.The excellence that is loudly and persistently demanded by everyone concerned with the stateof higher education requires a strong sense of purpose together with concentrated andsustainable effort in the implementation of appropriate courses of action.In this connection, the Committee wishes to echo the sentiments expressed by a representativeof the community who attended one of the Committee’s consultative sessions: “… we have atour disposal every facility to enable us to achieve eminence. In fact, we have in the pastachieved this excellence in quality but with the passage of time this has eroded somewhat.The question before us now is: have we the resoluteness to regain our former pre-eminence?” xviii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  12. 12. TAN SRI DATO’ DR. WAN MOHD ZAHID BIN MOHD NOORDIN Chairman Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Prof. Emeritus Dato’ Prof. Dato’ Dr. Haji Zainul Ariff Haji Hussain Dr. Khoo Kay Kim Dr. T. Marimuthu Chairman Professor, History Department Vice PresidentBank Pembangunan Malaysia Berhad University of Malaya International Graduate Studies College Prof. Dato’ Dr. Hassan Said Prof. Dato’ Dzulkifli Abdul Razak Datuk Dr. Sulaiman Mahbob Director General Vice Chancellor President Department of IHE Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia Institute of Integrity Malaysia Ministry of Higher Education Datuk Dr. Abdul Monir Yaacob Prof. Dato’ Prof. Dato’ Mohd. Shukri Ab. Yajid, Commissioner of SUHAKAM Dr. Ibrahim Ahmad Bajunid President(Former Director General, Institute of Dean University College of Technology Islamic Understanding Malaysia) Faculty of and Management Malaysia Humanities and Social Sciences Universiti Tun Abdul Razak Prof. Datuk Mustafa MansurDr. Shaik Md. Noor Alam Shaik Mohd Hussain President Professor Federation of Malaysian Faculty of Economics and Management Manufacturers Universiti Putra Malaysia 18 July 2005 Towards Excellence xix
  13. 13. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTST he Committee wishes to express its profound appreciation and gratitude to the highestechelon of leadership in the country, the Right Honourable Prime Minister, Dato’ Seri Abdullahbin Haji Ahmad Badawi, and the Right Honourable Deputy Prime Minister, Dato’ Sri Mohd.Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak, for giving us the benefit of their time and ideas. We are beholdento the Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department, the Honourable Dato’ Mustapa Mohamed,for his generous input to the Committee. We also wish to record our sincere thanks to formerPrime Minister, His Excellency Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, former Deputy Prime Minister,His Excellency Tan Sri Musa Hitam, and former Chief Secretary, Tan Sri Dato’ Seri (Dr.)Ahmad Sarji Abdul Hamid, for their insights and advice.The Committee also takes this opportunity to record its appreciation and indebtedness tovarious institutions and renowned universities in the many countries visited as well as thenumerous agencies and individuals in these countries who generously shared information andideas which resulted in the Committee being able to collate its findings and formulate constructiverecommendations.The Committee would be remiss in its responsibility if special mention is not made to theinvaluable contributions by specific groups and institutions. The members of the WorkingCommittee especially deserve particular citation for its unswerving dedication to the task athand, working to the very end, well beyond the call of duty, to expeditiously complete thisReport.We also wish to express our appreciation and thanks to the members of the Secretariat fromthe Ministry of Higher Education as well as to the Institute of Integrity Malaysia. A special‘thank you’ is extended to Universiti Teknologi MARA for its benevolence in printing theReport and providing secretarial services. We thank also the academic staff and administratorsof the institutions of higher learning in the country, government officers, various professionals,society leaders and non-governmental organisations, student unions, women’s organisations,and all those who contributed their suggestions and opinions through the Committee’s website.Finally, the Committee wishes to record our heartfelt thanks and appreciation to the Ministerof Higher Education, the Honourable Dato’ Dr. Haji Shafie bin Haji Mohd. Salleh, whoentrusted us with this important and momentous assignment. Towards Excellence xxi
  14. 14. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1. INTRODUCTION1.1 The theme of this Report is: Towards Excellence. The Committee decided on this theme after exhaustive and in-depth deliberations of a number of substantive and valid contentions.1.2 Firstly, the Terms of Reference of this study focus on the achievement of excellence. The Committee was charged to formulate recommendations that would enable higher education in Malaysia to achieve world class status and establish the country as a regional centre of excellence in education.11.3 Secondly, the country’s leaders have consistently and resolutely reiterated the call for higher education in the country to attain world class and become a regional centre of excellence.1.4 Thirdly, the Prime Minister himself is convinced that, “…we will need nothing less than an ‘education revolution’ to ensure that our aspirations to instil a new performance culture in the public and private sectors is not crippled by our inability to nurture a new kind of human capital that is equal to the tasks and challenges ahead.”21 Refer Chapter 2, para 2.12 Extract from the speech of the Prime Minister Malaysia at The NEAC Dialogue Forum on 13 January 2004, IOIMarriott Hotel Putrajaya Towards Excellence xxiii
  15. 15. Executive Summary1.5 Fourthly, feedback obtained by the Committee through dialogue and discussion sessions as well as website commentaries overwhelmingly call for positive action towards excellence in higher education.1.6 There is no question therefore, that serious attention should be paid to the concerted voices emanating from all walks of life to garner our resources to achieve excellence. In other words, the citizens of this country have clearly articulated the desire for higher education in Malaysia to be reliably depicted as excellent, pre-eminent, and world class. Their views on this matter are a strong indication of their profound dissatisfaction vis-á-vis the current state of education in this country, particularly higher education.1.7 This matter was raised in every meeting the Committee convened with various interest groups, that is, the urgency and boldness with which much needed change should be executed so that we can regain the glory and excellence we attained in the past. In this context, the Right Honourable Prime Minister himself has added his voice to the chorus of demands by calling for an education revolution to ensure that Malaysians are equal to the tasks and challenges ahead of us.1.8 There is therefore no question but that change is an absolute necessity requiring concentrated effort and the courage to implement bold measures. Some quarters, however, have expressed grave reservations concerning the work undertaken by this Committee because they have experienced half-hearted attempts to bring about change with only partial implementation of such change-driven projects. For instance, in a round-table discussion, organised by the Committee, concerning the direction of higher education in this country, one of the participants had this to say, “…If a decision has been made, we must have the political will to carry it out. We must change what needs to be changed. What we do not want to see is the fragmentary and piecemeal implementation of projects based on superficial and incomplete studies. I hope this Committee would be able to make bold and unambiguous decisions. Let this be the very last Committee to study higher education for the next ten years. We have been talking about this matter for at least 30 years.”1.9 The Committee has every confidence that this call for excellence is not mere rhetorics but reflects our authentic and sincere aspiration for institutions of higher education (IHE) in this country to quickly achieve world class status and become a regional centre of excellence. The Committee unreservedly recognises the seriousness of public expectations that IHE become highly reputable institutions. The Committee is also persuaded that there is tremendous public support for this enterprise which would be displayed through their taking some responsibility in the journey towards excellence and prestige. xxiv Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  16. 16. Executive Summary1.10 The Committee wishes to emphasise that the analysis and recommendations put forth in this Report were informed and guided principally by such unequivocal expressions of intent and desire by the Malaysian public. It must be stressed that the call for excellence has consequences for both strategy and policy. The Committee is cognizant of the existence of affirmative initiatives for restructuring society and abolishing identification of race with economic activity and residential locations. However, in order to promote national unity and harmony, affirmative action together with other policies need to be implemented in the context of a multi-ethnic society.1.11 In this regard, the Committee acknowledges the conflict of interests that prevails between two contrasting claims. On the one hand, there is the pressure to meet the needs of historically disadvantaged groups and, on the other, the imperative for the country to push forward and become competitive internationally. The most judicious resolution is to effect progress through a modusoperandi that is balanced yet dynamic.1.12 It must be stressed that the pursuit of progress must be undertaken tirelessly and in all seriousness. The implication of this is that the country cannot wait for groups which are not yet ready before striving for excellence. If the nation ever takes this course, then this ‘levelling down’ can only result in loss and regressiveness.1.13 The best formula for this country is, in fact, a ‘levelling up’ strategy which would be consistent with the balanced and dynamic approach we advocate to achieve progress. The Committee is of the opinion that this ‘levelling up’ strategy will benefit the disadvantaged groups and simultaneously provide opportunities for all Malaysians to be involved in the pursuit of progress and excellence.1.14 ‘Levelling up’, with its twin goals of achieving excellence and catering for the disadvantaged, is precisely what this Committee advocates in bringing about the democratisation of education. This balanced and dynamic strategy will form the basis of the Committee’s recommendations relating to the curriculum for higher education.1.15 The concern to upgrade the market value of graduates has become more pressing with the increase in the number of unemployed graduates. This has resulted in more pressure from certain quarters, including intellectuals, to view education purely from a utilitarian perspective. The consequence, if this outlook prevails, would be negative, because education should not be limited to the achievement of an overly narrow and specific objective. Towards Excellence xxv
  17. 17. Executive Summary1.16 Education is an enterprise that embodies a whole range of goals and objectives requiring time and focused effort. The pursuit of excellence, therefore, is a time consuming and complex endeavour. The Committee has identified two aspects which are requisites for achieving excellence. They are:3 1.16.1 The social objectives of education 1.16.2 The economic objectives of education1.17 These social and economic objectives are the main drivers of the noble goals of education, that is, the development of exemplary human beings who are balanced, knowledgeable, skilled, responsible and wise.1.18 It is not appropriate therefore, to view education solely from a utilitarian perspective because, by neglecting the moral dimension, mankind would be driven only by passion. Any society dominated by utilitarian and materialistic individuals become ineffectual because of the avarice and corruption of these individuals. One symptom of this malaise is graft or the widespread practice of bribery. The Government is currently stepping up its efforts to stamp out this malignancy, a move that further strengthens the argument for a balanced and holistic education.1.19 The Committee therefore fully endorses the National Philosophy of Education (NPE) with the goal of producing citizens who are balanced in their outlook. The Philosophy of Education is as shown below: “Education in Malaysia is an ongoing effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal wellbeing as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of the society and the nation at large.41.20 The Philosophy of Education does not compromise the aspiration to develop human capital. It is a balanced philosophy which is responsive to the utilitarian perspective and advocates the development of skills to raise the market value of human resources who have gone through the educational process. At the same time, their development is reinforced by a belief in God and the assimilation of moral values and principles.3 The Committee recognises that the objective of education is wider and more encompassing than described above.Nevertheless, it is not the intention of the Committee to discuss all these objectives.4 Education Act 1996. xxvi Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  18. 18. Executive Summary1.21 This Committee takes the stand that the national higher education curriculum should be balanced such that graduates would be equipped with the skills and competencies required for their careers and also be true to values and moral principles.2. SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS2.1 The above fundamental considerations form the nucleus for this Committee to understand and approach the question of the direction higher education should take in this country. The Committee’s stand is that the thrust towards excellence must be in tandem with the democratisation of educational opportunities for everyone. No one should be sidelined while at the same time the nation must not deviate from the challenge of reaching out to achieve excellence and prominence in the international arena.2.2 This Committee has put forward 138 recommendations for consideration by the Government, the Ministry of Higher Education, the various institutions of higher education in the country and by the society at large. These recommendations have been grouped under five categories: 2.2.1 Excellence in teaching and learning 2.2.2 Excellence in research and development 2.2.3 Excellence in the capability of institutions of higher education (IHE) to make contributions to the economy and society 2.2.4 Excellence in the capacity of IHE to fulfil their core functions 2.2.5 Excellence in initiating the democratisation of education by ensuring access and participation of all Malaysians irrespective of race, colour or political loyalty3. EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING AND LEARNING3.1 Teaching is a core function of higher education. Mastery of the art of teaching is a pre-condition for effective pedagogy in the transmission of any given subject. It is generally accepted that exceptional teaching begets excellent institutions and outstanding lecturers produce outstanding graduates who display their excellence in meeting any challenge in life.3.2 The Committee has made recommendations to upgrade the quality of teaching and learning. The Committee has proposed that training in pedagogy and andragogy be a requirement for new lecturers taking into account that democratisation has made higher education accessible to a significantly larger number of students. Towards Excellence xxvii
  19. 19. Executive Summary3.3 The democratisation of education means that higher education is no longer elitist but is open to students from a variety of background and with wide-ranging learning capabilities.This situation requires the mastery of pedagogical skills on the part of lecturers to cope with such mixed ability groups. Teaching can no longer be carried out on a trial and error basis. The Committee therefore recommends that ongoing efforts be made to upgrade the qualifications and expertise of lecturers not only in methods of teaching but also in evaluation procedures.The Committee also recommends that lecturers work closely with professionals outside universities in the development of relevant curricula and evaluation procedures. Furthermore, it is recommended that lecturers acquire work experience in the industrial and commercial sectors.4. EXCELLENCE IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT4.1 Research and Development (R&D) is another mainstay in higher education which qualitatively differentiates a world class institution of higher education from another. Research stimulates students to discover new knowledge. It challenges, stimulates and encourages them in the pursuit of knowledge and in understanding humanity.4.2 The country’s IHE are lagging far behind in research. The post-graduate enrolment in local IHE is very small compared to that of developed nations. In Japan, for instance, post-graduates comprise 27.3 per cent of the total enrolment while in South Korea the figure is 13.1 per cent. Post-graduates in Malaysia only comprise 5.9 per cent of total enrolment in IHE.5 This cries out for urgent and bold measures to be taken by the Government to rectify the imbalance. As an initial step, the Committee has proposed that the Government identify five prominent universities in the country for conversion into research and post-graduate institutions.4.3 In this connection, the Committee has proposed that already existing public universities, which meet criteria stipulated by the Ministry of Higher Education, be converted into research, post-graduate and post-doctoral universities.5 The Committee’s analysis is based on data from the Annual Book of Statistics Malaysia 2004 and MoHE.http:/www.mohe.gov.my (30 August 2005) xxviii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  20. 20. Executive Summary4.4 In line with this move, the Committee has also recommended the formation of a Malaysian Research Board composed of representatives of IHE, research institutions, commercial and industrial institutions and government economic agencies. This Board would work in cooperation with the National Research and Development of Science Council to develop and strengthen research activities as landmark innovations in science, technology and the humanities as well as be models of cross- border and interdisciplinary collaborations between top-flight researchers. The Malaysian Research Board will play the role of facilitating renowned scientists and scholars from all over the world to carry out research in Malaysia jointly with their local counterparts.4.5 The Committee is of the opinion that the promotion of R&D projects should not be confined to government initiatives. State governments and other public sector boards should be actively involved by sponsoring R&D projects in IHE through the creation of Research Chairs in strategic fields such as Communications, Energy, Agriculture, Banking, and Management of Development Policies.4.6 In addition, students who have done research and produced innovative findings ought to be given encouragement through the awarding of scholarships or one-off grants. Appropriate remuneration should be accorded to students whose articles have been accepted by national, regional and international journals of repute. The same should apply for post-graduate scholars especially those involved in research which directly contributes to the development of the country and the wellbeing of the society. The Committee also supports the Government’s initiatives in sponsoring students to study overseas and recommends that post-graduate and post-doctoral sponsorships be increased.4.7 However, the Committee emphatically asserts that only post-graduate students be sent overseas and only to world renowned institutions. This means that the time has come to discontinue the practice of sending large numbers of students overseas for their first degree. Perhaps selected students can still be allowed to pursue their first degree overseas with the proviso that they gain admission to world class institutions in fields of study that are considered critical to the needs of the nation and society. We have to accept the fact that, by and large, undergraduates do not conduct substantive research and generally are not supervised by world renowned professors. Towards Excellence xxix
  21. 21. Executive Summary4.8 To increase collaboration in research between disciplines, the Committee proposes that research universities be given the responsibility to initiate the setting up and activating of the following academies: 4.8.1 Academy of Science and Technology6 4.8.2 Academy of Engineering Science 4.8.3 Academy of Social Science 4.8.4 Academy of Humanities It is recommended that these four academies be integrated to form a National Scholars Academy Council. This Council can act as the sponsor and platform for intellectual inquiry as well as bring together various interdisciplinary initiatives in innovation and research.4.9 In this connection, the Committee recommends the formation of the Malaysian International Higher Education Corporation (MIHEC), to promote Malaysian research efforts internationally by prevailing on foreign researchers to carry out projects in Malaysia jointly with local researchers. It is also recommended that a Malaysian Research Data Clearing House be established as a centre for information storage and reference for local and international researchers.4.10 The Committee has found that a certain amount of overlapping in research projects has occurred in IHE. If such duplication of efforts is avoided, Government funds allocated to these institutions can be more effectively utilised. In other words, each institution should focus on its core fields and thus steer clear of staff-pinching, and implement its programmes guided by the economies of scale. Among the emerging fields that warrant attention are: 4.10.1 Biobased: biotechnology, biomedicine, bioengineering 4.10.2 Micro Technology: nanotechnology, precision engineering 4.10.3 Natural Resources: water, wind, solar energy, oil and gas 4.10.4 Social Science and Humanities: multicultural and intercultural studies 4.10.5 Interdisciplinary Science4.11 It is proper to note that autonomy and academic freedom are important prerequisites to galvanise research and development activities.Universities therefore should be given complete jurisdiction in all decisions that lead to productive and outstanding R&D outcomes.6 The Academy of Science Malaysia which has been established, should be developed into the Academy of ScienceTechnology Malaysia and promote expert collaboration to advance interdisciplinary research. xxx Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  22. 22. Executive Summary5. EXCELLENCE IN CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS ECONOMY AND SOCIETY5.1 Institutions of higher education are critical agents of national wealth promotion and wealth creation and the overall wellbeing of society. The relationship between education and economic development is well documented. Hence, far from distancing itself from society, IHE must integrate themselves and strive to contribute in every way possible to increasing the wealth-creating capacity of the nation. The Committee recommends that IHE should be industry friendly and demonstrate this by forming strategic alliances and collaborative ventures with industries.5.2 In this regard, both IHE and industry have made proposals concerning joint ventures. The IHE have offered the industry various facilities and expertise in research to carry out R&D initiatives. At the same time, the industrial sectors have garnered funds and expertise for commercialising R&D products. The IHE too have proposed the setting up of innovation centres and intellectual property management teams to forge collaborative initiatives between the two parties. Furthermore, IHE have been responsible for the development of innovative entrepreneurs who will jointly commercialise intellectual property and research products.6. ADVANCING INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHS6.1 The Committee has identified a number of critical aspects that must be addressed in order to position IHE to become world class and centres of educational excellence. A priority requirement is a clearly articulated vision and mission statement that IHE can refer to in working out their strategies. The Committee has taken the initiative to prepare a draft version. (Refer to Addenda 8.1 and 8.2)6.2 In the effort to strengthen IHE in the country, the Committee is strongly in favour of the universities being managed as corporate organisations and not be micro-managed by the MoHE. The Committee stands by its conviction that a corporate management style is a very important imperative that should be operationalised if the Government is earnest in promoting the efficiency and effectiveness of the universities. The Committee recommends that the Board of Directors be fully empowered to administer the universities, and that the Minister of Higher Education delegates to the Board of Directors the authority and responsibility to administer the universities, so that all operational and decision-making prerogatives are transferred from the MoHE to the universities. Towards Excellence xxxi
  23. 23. Executive Summary6.3 However, it must be stated that by delegating power to the Board of Directors, the Minister does not surrender his control over IHE. Just as in any corporate entity, the power to hire and fire the Directors of the Board resides solely with the Minister of Higher Education. It should be pointed out that good corporate governance requires that the Board consult the main stakeholder, in this case the Minister, in critical matters that affect the university.6.4 The Committee believes that the above move would free the Minister from the burden of micro-managing the universities and enable him to channel his creative energies in providing leadership in policy matters and, most importantly, provide guidance so that all IHE can be steered towards achieving the National Vision.6.5 In this arrangement, the Vice Chancellor, as the chief executive officer of the institution of higher education would be directly responsible to the Board of Directors. The role of the Vice Chancellor needs to be reinforced by being given responsibility in the context of the high culture which is based on intellectual excellence. At the same time, it is important that the Vice Chancellor is apolitical in order to carry out the responsibility entrusted to him with full dedication.7. EXCELLENCE IN PROMOTING THE DEMOCRATISATION OF EDUCATION: ACCESS AND PARTICIPATION7.1 The Razak Report clearly enunciates the concept of democratisation of education with the declaration that free education should be provided for all Malaysians regardless of race, colour or creed. The preamble of the Education Act 1961 eloquently details the idea of the democratisation of education in the following manner: “And whereas it is considered desirable that regard shall be had, so far as it is compatible with that policy, with the provision of efficient instruction and with the avoidance of unreasonable public expenditure, to the general principle that pupils be educated in accordance with the wishes of their parents…”77.2 The Committee endorses the above principles of democratisation and recommends that no student who has the qualifications, and is offered a place in an institution of higher education at diploma or undergraduate level, should be denied the opportunity to follow the course of study he has been offered. In this connection it is recommended that the conditions for entry into IHE accommodate a multi-tiered system to enable students to gain entry at their convenience.7 Education Act 1961. xxxii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  24. 24. Executive Summary7.3 This recommendation is in line with the concept of life-long education. The pursuit of self-improvement should be an ongoing quest and a person’s opportunity to improve himself should not be hindered by entry conditions which are inflexible and standardised. The Committee is confident that this recommendation opens wide the doors of opportunity to all Malaysians who desire to improve themselves.7.4 This concept of the democratisation of education would be impaired if a student has gained the necessary qualifications but is denied entry because of limited places. The Committee therefore recommends that the Government, public boards, and the private sector cooperate and find the means to provide places to all citizens who wish to develop their potential through higher education.8. GOING FORWARD8.1 The Committee is of the opinion that a number of recommendations cry out for immediate action, not only because of their systemic and critical importance, but also because their implementation would not entail complex and time consuming logistical orchestration. These have been categorised as Priority Recommendations which will need to be implemented within 12 months of submission of this Report.8.2 The Priority Recommendations are: 8.2.1 Recommendation 17: The Committee recommends that there be a moratorium on the awarding of licences for the setting up of private IHE and this be urgently established so that all existing private IHE can be clearly assessed. 8.2.2 Recommendations 35 & 36: The Committee recommends that a Quality Control, Audit and Accreditation Agency (QCAAA) be established under an Act of Parliament. The Committee recommends that the function of the QCAAA be as follows: 8.2.2.1 Audit the quality of IHE every five years 8.2.2.2 Report the findings of the audit to Parliament 8.2.2.3 Summarise, periodically review and update the accreditation criteria for institutions 8.2.3 Recommendation 43: The Committee recommends that the University Scholars Programme be implemented as a mandatory course for all undergraduate and post-graduate students up to Masters level. Towards Excellence xxxiii
  25. 25. Executive Summary 8.2.4 Recommendation 67: The Committee recommends that the Government and the private sector jointly develop and administer a post-graduate institution of higher education based on the oil palm industry to cover all aspects of the industry including planting, agronomy, oil production and advanced oil palm products. This institution could accept students from other countries which are interested to carry out research in palm oil related fields. 8.2.5 Recommendation 68: The Committee recommends that the Government and the private sector jointly work to raise the Malaysian Maritime Academy to the status of a university. It is proper that the Malaysian Maritime Institute be incorporated in the university. 8.2.6 Recommendation 69: The Committee recommends that curriculum development in polytechnics and community colleges be done in partnership with professionals from the industrial and commercial sectors with the professionals in the polytechnics and community colleges making adjustments in line with pedagogical principles. This approach may use the methods, Develop-A- Curriculum (DACUM) and Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID), which were developed by Ohio University, USA. 8.2.7 Recommendation 72: The Committee recommends that Malay, as the National Language, be used for all official purposes. English should be used as the medium of instruction for science, mathematics and professional subjects. Other subjects should be taught in the language that is most effective in the delivery of content. At the same time, students should be encouraged to master other international languages. 8.2.8 Recommendation 75: The Committee recommends newly recruited teaching personnel and lecturers take mandatory training programmes in pedagogy and andragogy. Even professors should be encouraged to be involved in post- doctoral studies. 8.2.9 Recommendation 86: The Committee recommends the establishment of research and post-graduate universities by converting public universities which meet the criteria set by the Ministry of Higher Education, into research, post- graduate and post-doctoral universities. xxxiv Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  26. 26. Executive Summary 8.2.10 Recommendation 95: The Committee recommends the setting up of a Malaysian Research Board in which IHE, research institutions, commercial and industrial institutions, and Government economic agencies are represented. The aim of this body is to cooperate with the National Research and Advancement of Science Council to develop and strengthen research activity as the basis for innovation in science, technology, humanities and learning through collaboration with top-flight researchers across borders. The Malaysian Research Board will enable quality scientists and scholars throughout the world to undertake research in Malaysia together with their Malaysian counterparts. 8.2.11 Recommendation 130: The Committee recommends that project MyBrain15 be structured and implemented as an activity for the development of the model national citizen. MyBrain15 should produce 100,000 Ph.D graduates in the next 15 years.9. CONCLUSION9.1 The Committee has found that higher education in Malaysia has high credibility among the Malaysian public. It also established that society has high expectations with regard to the Government’s aspirations to make higher education world class and Malaysia a centre of excellence in education. Leaders of a variety of establishments, professionals, stakeholders, renowned personalities, community leaders and academicians were consulted by the Committee. All these groups expressed their commitment, together with the Government, to respond and support the call to effect changes aimed at excellence in higher education in the country.9.2 Provided that these expressions of determination and noble intentions, combined with the resources and capabilities that are extant, are fully channelled to bring to fruition the recommendations in this Report, the Committee is confident that within the next 10 years the IHE in this country can proudly take their place with the best in the world. Towards Excellence xxxv
  27. 27. RECOMMENDATIONS1. The Committee proposes that the National Philosophy of Education should be the basis of the Philosophy of Higher Education.2. The Committee proposes that the Vision and Mission of higher education in this country be drafted based on statements shown in Addendum 8.1 and Addendum 8.2.3. The Committee recommends that the laws governing higher education be reviewed and suitable changes be made to formulate an integrated Act which will cover educational institutions, including polytechnics, community colleges and all agencies related to higher education, parallel with the establishment of the Ministry of Higher Education which is responsible for the supervision and governance of the national higher education and for specific recommendations in this Report to be legislated for the purpose of implementation.4. The Committee recommends that student discipline at polytechnics and community colleges be supervised through the same method which is used for university and university college students. The Education Institution Act (Discipline) 1976, First Schedule needs to be amended accordingly.5. The Committee recommends that the University Constitution be amended so that professors can elect twenty members from among themselves to represent the University Senate.6. The Committee recommends that the Minister of Higher Education delegate his power to the Board of Directors so that the latter can play its role as the guardian of autonomy, academic excellence and accountability.7. The Committee recommends that all policies and the governance of universities be the responsibility of the Board of Directors. Towards Excellence xxxvii
  28. 28. Recommendations8. The Committee recommends that the powers of the Board of Directors be widened to enable it to play its role as the guardian of autonomy.9. The Committee recommends that together with the Vice Chancellor, two others be appointed as members of the Board of Directors, one to represent the academic staff society and the other to represent the Senate.10. The Committee recommends that the Government should view higher education as a strategic investment in the development of human capital and continue to finance it.11. The Committee recommends that education funding, especially the funding of higher education should be increased to strengthen and spur the growth of higher education so as to boost the quantity and quality of human capital so that it is at par with that of developed countries.12. The Committee recommends that higher education financing should be focused on the core functions of IHE, namely: (a) to increase opportunities for Malaysians to participate in national higher education; (b) to enhance the quality of teaching and learning; (c) to upgrade the quality of research and development; (d) to increase collaboration with the local communities; (e) to diversify programmes and activities; (f) to increase national competitiveness at the global level; (g) to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of IHE governance.13. The Committee recommends that a State Government Chair be established in IHE to carry out research and development which will contribute towards enhancing the capabilities of state and local governments and the effective implementation of socio- economic and socio-cultural development programmes in the respective states.14. The Committee recommends that polytechnics and community colleges which have been established in the states be utilised to implement life-long learning and continuous education to train the workforce in various fields of specialisation.15. The Committee recommends that public bodies which have links with the Government (i.e.GLC) such as Petronas, Telekom Malaysia, Malaysian International Shipping Corporation (MISC), Tenaga Nasional and Maybank, be encouraged to set up state- of-the-art IHE if they have not already done so. These IHE are also encouraged to admit foreign students into their technical and commercial programmes.16. The Committee recommends that GLC should create Research Chairs in national universities and take the lead in research and the teaching of sectors which are of national importance such as energy, maritime, communication, banking, agriculture and plantation.xxxviii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  29. 29. Recommendations17. The Committee recommends with immediate effect a moratorium on the awarding of new licences for the establishment of private IHE until a thorough evaluation of all existing private IHE has been carried out.18. The Committee recommends that private IHE be continually innovative and responsive towards k-economy, produce skilled human resources relevant to global markets, create links with the international community, generate new knowledge and diversify the curricula.19. The Committee recommends that private IHE be recognised as a sector that generates economic growth while playing a role in increasing access and equity. Therefore, a comprehensive incentive scheme should be established to enhance the effectiveness of private IHE, as has been done for other sectors.20. The Committee recommends that the burden of responsibility of higher education financing should also be borne by the private sector, including the banking sector, so that within a reasonable period of time, the financial strain on the Government can be reduced. This should include loans at a reasonable interest rate to public IHE as well as to students.21. The Committee recommends that an obligatory condition for the recruitment of leaders at all levels in IHE is outstanding achievement, which is reviewed and evaluated annually based on Key Performance Indicators (KPI).22. The Committee recommends that a Higher Education Service Scheme be created for academic staff of IHE. Terms of service, promotion prospects and work ethics for academic staff are as shown in Addendum 11.1.23. The Committee recommends that in the evaluation of academic staff for promotion purposes, proper emphasis be given to the development of globally recognised corpora of indigenous knowledge and local expertise.24. The Committee recommends that the appointment of Vice Chancellors for post-graduate and undergraduate universities be carried out through advertising openly in order to obtain the best candidates. Vice Chancellors should be appointed on two-year terms and be given competitive salaries, with the proviso that their services can be renewed, extended or terminated at any time.25. The Committee recommends the creation of Key Performance Indicators as the instrument to gauge the performance of Vice Chancellors. This evaluation procedure should be included in their service contract.26. The Committee recommends that open, precise and stringent conditions be applied in the selection of professors who would be offered competitive salaries and grades. Towards Excellence xxxix
  30. 30. Recommendations27. The Committee recommends that high calibre professors be given special gratuities based on academic excellence and that they should not hold executive positions.28. The Committee recommends that researchers be permitted to have joint ownership of research findings and be entitled to part of the royalties accrued through the commercialisation of patented products.29. The Committee recommends that at least 15 articles published in international refereed journals be mandatory for the appointment to the position of Professor. This condition for appointment, whether for promotion purposes or otherwise, should apply to all public and private universities.30. The Committee recommends that human resource development funds used for recruitment of staff for public IHE be handled by the institutions concerned. The principles applied for staff recruitment which should be open to all are: academic excellence, appropriate speciality, experience and positive disposition for scholarship.31. The Committee recommends that universities introduce a special Industrial Lecturer Programme to enable those in the industry to deliver lectures. Universities should award credit points to these industrial lecturers to encourage their involvement in the university and assist in the efforts to promote life-long learning.32. The Committee recommends that the post of Reader, with specific functions, as well as other senior posts, be created to increase promotion opportunities for academic staff.33. The Committee recommends that universities take full advantage of the posts of Writer/ Researcher, Guest Lecturer and Fellow to create knowledge and experience as well as enable them to share their expertise.34. The Committee recommends that recipients of the title Professor Emeritus be given proper facilities to enable them to continue contributing their expertise including acting as mentors to younger staff members.35. The Committee recommends that a Quality Control, Audit and Accreditation Agency (QCAAA) be established under an Act of Parliament.36. The Committee recommends that the function of the QCAAA be as follows: (a) Audit the quality of IHE every five years; (b) Report the findings of the audit to Parliament; (c) Summarise, periodically review and update the accreditation criteria for IHE. xl Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  31. 31. Recommendations37. The Committee recommends that the Board of Directors of the QCAAA comprise seven members as follows: (a) five members who are respected, have high integrity, possess in-depth knowledge of higher education and are willing to be devoted and committed to the development of scholarship and higher education as a whole;* (b) Two world renowned foreign scholars;* (c) The Chief Executive of the QCAAA to act as ex-officio. *The MoHE to set up a selection committee for this purpose38. The Committee recommends that a Secretariat be set up by the MoHE for the QCAAA which is to be headed by the Chief Executive who possesses a Ph.D and will hold the position of Premier Grade ‘A’.39. The Committee recommends that every institution of higher education create and develop a Quality Indicator Instrument (IPK) to measure its own attainment of excellence.40. The Committee recommends that the MoHE develop an IPK to gather data to assess the progress of higher education.41. The Committee recommends that the MoHE encourage and support an academic ranking and rating system which is flexible, coherent and reliable in keeping with international criteria for excellence.42. The Committee recommends that Higher Education Statistics Bureau be set up with the aim of collecting and analysing a comprehensive set of data regarding higher education and to initiate the setting up of various databases for strategic use by the Government and IHE.43. The Committee recommends that the University Scholars Programme be implemented as a mandatory course for all undergraduate and post-graduate students.44. The Committee recommends that IHE take the necessary action to benefit from the evaluation of international ranking and rating bodies to strengthen further their competitiveness in the country and also strengthen their ability to become global leaders in their niche areas. Towards Excellence xli
  32. 32. Recommendations45. The Committee recommends that a mechanism be put in place: (a) To build inter-institutional partnership for research and partnership projects among institutions; (b) To increase networking in the areas of business, commerce and industry which are directed towards establishing research collaboration; (c) To build and strengthen relationships with various regional and international institutions; (d) To ensure that all IHE in the country benefit from the different professional bodies and groups in the region and internationally which have the skills and knowledge in the areas of their specialisation; (e) To contribute to the regional and international community by pooling the expertise of IHE so that the country can be recognised and respected by the global community; (f) To systematically implement strategies in the regional and international arena so as to enable national IHE to establish strategic alliances easily and effectively and contribute to the development of the local community.46. The Committee recommends that initiatives to promote our IHE internationally be stepped up by preparing comprehensive short and long term action plans.47. The Committee recommends that national professional bodies endeavour to be in accord with standard professional practices of international bodies so that the professional qualifications of Malaysian IHE are recognised worldwide.48. The Committee recommends that there be incentives to encourage IHE to implement activities for promoting and marketing their programmes to other countries.49. The Committee recommends that a special fund sourced from various sectors be set up for international student and staff exchange activities.50. The Committee recommends that every institution of higher education ensure that total student enrolment is made up of at least 10 to 15 per cent of high achieving foreign students.51. The Committee recommends that a policy be formulated for an integrated eHigher Education (eHiED) environment to ensure the achievement of improved ICT capabilities and enhanced information management.52. The Committee recommends that a centralised Higher Education ICT Council be formed to champion the overall strategy and implementation of eHiED environment. This Council shall be spearheaded by the Ministry of Higher Education and is to be the highest ICT strategic body for the nation’s higher education. xlii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  33. 33. Recommendations53. The Committee recommends that applications for Open Source Solution (OSS) be adopted in the management and development efforts in MoHE, public universities, polytechnics and community colleges to realise the potential economic and practical benefits of open source models.54. The Committee recommends that secure networks be further developed using Gigabyte Ethernet and wireless technology for MoHE, public universities, polytechnics and community colleges in order to improve connectivity among students, faculty and administrators within eHiED.55. The Committee recommends that ICT Shared Service Centres be implemented for all public universities, polytechnics and community colleges. For example, it is proposed that MoHE implement single Shared Service Centre (SSC) for the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia to serve USM, UUM, polytechnics and community colleges.56. The Committee recommends that all public universities, polytechnics and community colleges within eHiED environment implement Data Recovery Centres by leveraging on the services from eHiED ICT Shared Service Centres.57. The Committee recommends that e-learning content development by experts be significantly increased. Incentive-based rewards be drawn up and implemented to promote interests in e-learning content development for public universities, polytechnics and community colleges.58. The Committee recommends that the National Library be the central digital repository for e-journals, e-periodicals, e-books, etc. for use by all stakeholders in private and public universities, private colleges, polytechnics and community colleges.59. The Committee recommends that an integrated Knowledge Management (KM) capability be developed for all public universities, polytechnics and community colleges paving the way for these institutions to implement efficient cross-institution sharing of knowledge and collaboration.60. The Committee recommends that the Ministry of Higher Education be given access to analyse and consolidate real time data from public universities, polytechnics and community colleges through the employment of integrated Executive Information System (EIS), Data Warehouse (DW) and Enterprise Integration (EI).61. The Committee recommends that each institution in eHiED employ an integrated Campus Management System (CMS) to manage student affairs, curricula, library, financials, assets, facilities and human resources.62. The Committee recommends that IHE adopt a standardised smart card system. In order to facilitate this, the MoHE should establish a central Smart Card Centre (SCC) to manage end-to-end process of personalisation and production of the smart cards for IHE. Towards Excellence xliii
  34. 34. Recommendations63. The Committee recommends that the higher education curriculum in the country be drafted and implemented in order to: (a) Develop human resources who can think critically, are able to present their ideas to society and translate and manage these ideas innovatively to benefit themselves as well as society; (b) Develop human resources who are able to comprehend issues in the context of societal realities; (c) Develop human resources who are literate not only in reading, writing and mathematics but also in IT. They should acquire the skills of organising, synthesising, analysing and using knowledge to solve newly emerging problems in society; (d) Develop human resources who are creative, innovative, risk takers, willing individuals and team players, and who have the zest for entrepreneurial commitment; (e) Develop professionals with managerial skills; (f) Develop professionals who are life-long learners.64. The Committee recommends that IHE continually review and update the curriculum and incorporate current developments.65. The Committee recommends that representatives from the corporate and industrial sectors be involved in the curriculum development process especially for the professional and science-based disciplines. They should also be involved in teaching and research.66. The Committee recommends that internships be made mandatory for a minimum period of six months for undergraduates in science and technology, students in pre-diploma, vocational and technical courses, and other disciplines that require practicum.67. The Committee recommends that the Government and private sector jointly develop and administer a post-graduate institution of higher education based on the palm oil industry to cover all aspects of the industry including planting, agronomy, oil production and advanced palm oil products. This institution could function as a centre of excellence and could accept students from other countries who are interested to carry out research in palm oil-related fields.68. The Committee recommends that the Government and private sector jointly work to raise the Malaysian Maritime Academy to the status of a university. It is proper that the Malaysian Maritime Institute be incorporated as part of the university. xliv Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  35. 35. Recommendations69. The Committee recommends that curriculum development in polytechnics and community colleges be carried out in partnership with professionals from the industrial and commercial sectors, with the professionals in the polytechnics and community colleges making adjustments in line with pedagogical principles. This approach may use the methods, Develop-A-Curriculum (DACUM) and Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID), developed by Ohio University, USA.70. The Committee recommends that Islam Hadhari be included in Islamic and Asian Civilisation Course which should be a compulsory subject in the higher education curriculum.71. The Committee recommends that the curriculum in higher education include components on integrity and good character, as well as work and business ethics in corporate management so that the workforce can understand, act on and internalise noble life values and practise accountability as part of their work and business culture.72. The Committee recommends that Malay, as the National Language, be used for all official purposes. English should be used as the medium of instruction for science, mathematics and professional subjects. Other subjects should be taught in the language that is most effective in the delivery of content. At the same time, students should be encouraged to master other international languages.73. The Committee recommends that IHE upgrade their capacity to offer the study of international languages.74 The Committee recommends that each student should master at least two international languages in addition to the Malay language.75. The Committee recommends newly recruited teaching personnel and lecturers take mandatory training programmes in pedagogy and andragogy. Even professors should be encouraged to be involved in post-doctoral studies.76. The Committee recommends that IHE create procedures which encourage new lecturers to refer to and have ongoing discussions with experienced lecturers and professors in order to upgrade their professionalism in teaching-learning activities.77. The Committee recommends that all IHE prepare long-term plans to raise the professionalism of their staff, create suitable awards and give appropriate salaries.78. The Committee recommends that a mentor-mentee system be created to provide opportunities for intellectual and socio-emotional counselling to students in the higher education system. The residential system in teaching and learning should be fully utilised for the attainment of authentic, individual, intellectual and scholarly personalities. Towards Excellence xlv
  36. 36. Recommendations79. The Committee recommends that a mechanism be devised for channelling funds to enable higher education lecturers to upgrade their competencies in teaching, research and service to society as well as sharpen their intellectual skills through cooperative interaction with their colleagues in the same discipline, both local and overseas.80. The Committee recommends that without prejudice to the assumptions, approaches, methods and techniques already in use, higher education lecturers should be encouraged to explore approaches in teaching-learning that are based on constructivism.81. The Committee recommends that leaders in IHE be committed in bringing about innovations in philosophy, policy, teaching-learning practices and assessment as the pillars in creating excellent and prestigious IHE.82. The Committee recommends that all staff members of IHE be given ongoing training to acquire skills in ICT and that they utilise this in teaching-learning, assessment, research and administration.83. The Committee recommends that all IHE take steps to ensure that all students master ICT and other skills relevant to the digital era.84. The Committee recommends that all IHE give serious attention to academic assessment and ensure that all lecturers be given ongoing training to master assessment skills.85. The Committee recommends that the following principles for the funding of higher education research and research training be adopted: (a) The Principles of Excellence. The allocation of public funds should focus on the achievement of world class research and research training to ensure that Malaysian universities develop and maintain high quality and innovative research which is respected in a global context; (b) The Principles of Institutional Autonomy and Responsiveness. Institutions should have the autonomy to determine how they function and contribute to the generation, storage, dissemination, transmission, and application of knowledge; (c) The Principles of Linkages and Collaboration. A policy should be formulated to encourage and reward the development of an entrepreneurial culture in which researchers and the various institutions collaborate among themselves and across the world with other players in the research and innovation system. Universities should have policies and structures in place to facilitate the commercialisation of discoveries and encourage the development of technopreneurs; (d) The Principles of Contestability, Simplicity and Accountability. The process for allocating funds for research and research training should be competitive in nature, simple to administer, and be readily intelligible to researchers, institutions, students and the wider community. All funding allocation decisions should be free from conflicts of interest. xlvi Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  37. 37. Recommendations86. The Committee recommends the establishment of research and post-graduate universities by converting public universities, which meet the criteria set by the Ministry of Higher Education, into research, post-graduate and post-doctoral universities.87. The Committee recommends that each university concentrate on a different R&D focus and that each field selected be in a cutting edge area, for instance: (a) Biobased: biotechnology, biomedicine and bioengineering; (b) Microtechnology: nanotechnology, and precision engineering; (c) Natural Resources: water, wind, solar energy, oil and gas; (d) Social Science and Humanities: multicultural and intercultural studies.88. The Committee recommends that research and post-graduate universities be given responsibility and the means to implement Project MyBrain15.89. The Committee recommends that research and post-graduate universities be given the responsibility to take the lead in founding and activating the following Academies: Academy of Science and Technology, Academy of Engineering Science, and Academy of Social Science and Humanities. These Academies should be grouped under the National Scholars Academy Council which would focus on producing and advancing knowledge in all fields and bringing together these disciplines through research and the application of knowledge.90. The Committee recommends that IHE provide opportunities to enable industries to implement R&D activities in universities while ensuring that the industries provide the funds and market expertise to commercialise the products of the joint R&D projects.91. The Committee recommends that all IHE establish innovation centres, intellectual property management centres and technology licencing offices to increase links and cooperation with the industry while at the same time encouraging entrepreneurs to commercialise innovations from the intellectual property obtained through research.92. The Committee recommends that universities formalise efforts to involve the industry to participate in their research activities through collaborative research programmes.93. The Committee recommends that IHE initiate joint projects with internationally renowned research and industrial centres so as to enhance their R&D capability, make possible technology transfer, and provide publicity to their research products in international markets. Towards Excellence xlvii
  38. 38. Recommendations94. The Committee recommends the formation of an International Higher Education Board to elevate R&D to world standard in the field of Science and Technology thereby promoting the country’s higher education internationally. This Board will be an autonomous body and will be made up of representatives of the Government and IHE. The Board’s mission will be to: (a) Enable post-graduate and post-doctoral students become scholars in relevant fields of knowledge and thus raise Malaysia’s competitive capability; (b) Enable post-graduates from all over the world to become scholars and partners with Malaysia in priority areas of knowledge; (c) Enable scholars in Malaysia to play the role of leaders and pioneers in the academic and research world by strengthening international and intercultural ties; (d) Promote efforts to internationalise higher education in the country by making IHE more attractive to post-graduates and researchers from all over the world.95. The Committee recommends the setting up of a Malaysian Research Board in which IHE, research institutions, commercial and industrial institutions, and government economic agencies are represented. The aim of this body is to cooperate with the National Research and Advancement of Science Council to develop and strengthen research activity as the basis of innovation in science, technology, humanities and learning through collaboration with world class international researchers. This Malaysian Research Board will provide opportunities for renowned scientists and scholars throughout the world to undertake quality research in Malaysia together with their Malaysian counterparts.96. The Committee further recommends that the Malaysian Research Board be given the responsibility to: (a) Act as secretariat to coordinate and organise research projects; (b) Stimulate multidisciplinary research between universities that contributes to the socio-economic development of the country; (c) Consolidate financial resources to sponsor autonomous and independent research work; (d) Act as consultant managers for research contracts, patent ownership, copyright licencing, publishing rights, and the commercialisation of intellectual property on behalf of institutions, industry and researchers. xlviii Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia
  39. 39. Recommendations97. The Committee recommends that the following principles be the fundamental operational guidelines for the Malaysian Research Board: (a) Encourage excellent achievement; (b) Sponsor outstanding personalities in addition to projects; (c) Be autonomous and independent in management; (d) Be neutral and not be purely commercial; (e) Encourage innovation, freedom, truth, tolerance, flexibility and individuality; (f) Maintain cooperative links on a sustainable basis; (g) Identify new challenges and formulate innovative problem-solving strategies especially through cooperative initiatives.98. The Committee recommends a Malaysian Research Information Base be established to compile national research data to provide strong support and up-to-date information in the management of universal and indigenous knowledge in order to be an effective source of reference for academicians, researchers as well as for the local and international communities.99. The Committee recommends that IHE frame an intellectual property policy for themselves to encourage registration of patents of discoveries and inventions resulting from R&D and subsequent developments of innovative products.100. The Committee recommends R&D facilities in eHiED be linked to Malaysian Research and Education Network (MYREN).101. The Committee recommends that the efforts to instil national unity be continued and extended to higher education.102. The Committee recommends that a course of study which focuses on inter-cultural and intra-cultural studies be introduced and undertaken by all students, the teaching- learning of which should be through discussion and participation.103. The Committee recommends that IHE students participate in compulsory community work and that these activities be given credit points.104. The Committee recommends that the Government create greater opportunities including proper infrastructure throughout the country so that every citizen will be given maximum opportunity to take advantage of the life-long learning facilities provided.105. The Committee recommends that community colleges utilise the facilities of the existing educational infrastructure and its resources.106. The Committee recommends that both the public and private sectors set up facilities to create a learning organisation so that their employees are able to upgrade their skills and be motivated to continue learning. Towards Excellence xlix
  40. 40. Recommendations107. The Committee recommends that no eligible student who has been offered a seat at an institution of higher education at diploma or undergraduate level be denied the opportunity to learn because of financial difficulties.108. The Committee recommends that efforts be made to upgrade the quality of private IHE through collaboration with public IHE so that facilities and expertise in teaching- learning can be shared.109. The Committee recommends that to achieve the target set by the Education Development Plan 2001-2010 especially for higher education, various strategies should be employed, for example increasing distance-learning and e-learning programmes, and upgrading the quality of private IHE.110. The Committee recommends that matriculation programmes be continued and expanded.111. The Committee recommends that there be more avenues for entry and access to degree courses, for example, by increasing the intake of diploma holders and by giving due recognition to work experience.112. The Committee recommends that the Government provides adequate financial allocation to those institutions which accept the democratisation of higher education policy and which have the mechanism to provide greater opportunities for indigenous students, rural students, students from low socio-economic backgrounds and students who are physically, socially and mentally challenged.113. The Committee recommends that the Government extend financial allocation to IHE for the purpose of providing the necessary support and infrastructure facilities to students who are physically, socially and mentally challenged.114. The Committee recommends that the Government provide opportunities for students who are physically challenged to obtain a second or post-graduate degree so as to enable them to have added advantages in the job market.115. The Committee recommends that students who are physically challenged and who are knowledgeable and possess the appropriate skills be given opportunities to be employed at IHE in areas like research and other suitable fields.116. The Committee recommends that affirmative action in education be maintained.117. The Committee recommends that the Government take initiatives to strengthen the less established private IHE. l Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia

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