Formation of positive and negative pressure zones when wind flows around rectangular and circular bodies. The pressure coefficient cp can be used with the wind velocity to calculate positive and negative pressure loads
Outlet for water collection
Water utilized for the plants inside
Harsh sunrays from the setting sun in the west
Daytime and night time operation of a wind tower
Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre
Hyderabad is the capital of the state of
Andhra Pradesh and is one of the fastest
growing economic states in India. The city is
situated at an elevation of 544 meters. The
average temperature during the months of
summer is anywhere around 40 'C and in the
months of winters the average temperature is
about 16 'C. Best time to visit the state of
Hyderabad is during the months of
September to March.
Climate: Tropical wet and dry
Average Maximum Temperature: 40 deg C
Average Minimum Temperature: 25 deg C
Average Maximum Temperature: 28 deg C
Average Minimum Temperature: 13 deg C
Annual Rainfall: 79 cm (approximately)
It remains fairly warm most of the year.
Receive less rainfall in the monsoon.
Temperatures come down in the months of December
and January and the nights become quite cool in and
around the Hyderabad city.
During the summer months, the mercury goes as high as
42° C while in winters the minimum temperature may
come down to as low as 12° C.
Rainfall More than 75 per cent of the rainfall is received during the south-west monsoon season, i.e.,
from June to September, July being the month when it rains. September is the month, when there are
rains. The south-west monsoon sets in by the 7th of June. Its advent is sudden and the rainfall increases
from less than 5 per cent (of the annual) in May to 15 per cent in June.
Excessive Rainfall In the case of Hyderabad, out of 6 years of excessive rain, as many as four years
(1903, 1915, 1916 and 1933) were with rainfall of more than 150 per cent. Generally speaking, 1903 was
a year of more than 150 per cent of rainfall.
Cloudiness June to October is the period when more than half of the sky is covered with clouds, while
only about 2/8 of the sky is clouded from January to March. Half of the days in July and August have
overcast skies. About 10 to 13 days in the months of January, February and March, the skies are free
from clouds in clear weather.
June to November are the months of monsoons and temperature goes down at times.
Thus, for most parts of the year the weather and climate of Hyderabad remains fairly moderate.
Humidity in the morning is very high
exceeding 80 per cent from July to September.
In the dry months of March, April and May,
humidity is generally low with an average of
25 to 30 per cent and decreases to 20 per cent
at individual stations.
During the summer months, the mercury
goes as high as 42° C while in winters the
minimum temperature may come down to as
low as 12° C.
Green ArchitectureGreen Architecture
Sohrabji Godrej Green
Business Centre in
Hyderabad. It’s a
commercial building which
consists of office buildings,
research labs and
Materials & Resources
Indoor Environmental Quality
GREEN BUSINESS CENTERGREEN BUSINESS CENTER
Formation of positive and negative pressure zones when wind flows around
rectangular and circular bodies.
The pressure coefficient cp can be used with the wind velocity to calculate
positive and negative pressure loads.
Green Building TourGreen Building Tour
Roof garden - Protects heat penetration, cuts
down heat-island effect
High performance glazing to bring in natural
light while minimizing heat ingress.
Usage of light glazing and vision glazing.
Jali (Perforated) wall for bringing in natural light as well as ventilation .
Energy saving system.
The courtyards act as "light wells,"
illuminating adjacent work areas. When
this light is not sufficient, sensors trigger
the deployment of efficient electric lights.
Dimmers automatically control the
illumination levels, turning the lights off
when they're unnecessary. Also,
occupancy sensors prevent a light from
being switched on at an unoccupied
Lighting: Difficult in the lower storey.
Ventilation: Difficult conduction of
In summer: Danger of over heating in the
Particular characteristics: Access zone.
Open to one side
In summer: Effective shading required.
Particular characteristics: Sound insulation.
In this set of courtyards the wind
enters in one direction. The other
courtyard may be hot because of the
temperature as a result the cool air
replaces it. The hot air being lighter
than cold air rises up making the
place cooler and above the terrace
gardens keep the temperature
down forcing the hot air to rise up
Roof GardenRoof Garden
Absorbing heat and radiating it
into the building. This is
minimized through the roof
gardens covering 55% of the roof
Rain water harvesting.
Seepage into the ground have
been installed in
pedestrian areas and parking.
Rain water absorbed used for different purposes
Slope given for
the water flow
Natural LightingNatural Lighting
Natural light deflection systems
can direct light deep into the room and ensure
better natural lighting provisions.
This material will most significantly reduce
penetration of radiation from the reflecting side to
the non-reflecting side (penetration of 11-37% of
total striking radiation).
Such glazing is used in this building where it is
desir-able to maintain eye contact with the outside
as well as to prevent penetration of radiation and
in areas where it is hot most days of the year.
Reflective glass (mirror)Reflective glass (mirror)
Usage of Light Glazing and Vision GlazingUsage of Light Glazing and Vision Glazing
The double glazed glass will just allow
the diffused sunlight to pass through and
will radiate the solar radiation back. It is
located in the western direction because
the suns rays is highly radiant when it is
This consists of two sheets of glass with
space in between, sometimes filled with air or
other gases, or vacuum.
Variations in thickness have a certain
effect, up to a certain limit, on the percentage of
radiation allowed to penetrate and on thermal
conductance of the composition.
The main advantage of this type of cross-
section is its ability to reduce heat transfer from
one pane to the other, both by conduction and
Double glazed glassDouble glazed glass
Use of Traditional JaliUse of Traditional Jali
Jalis or Lattice walls are
used to prevent glare and
heat gain while ensuring
adequate day lighting and
views. The jali, used in
many historic buildings
such as the Taj Mahal,
gives definition and an
aesthetic appeal to a
Jali [Perforated] for bringingJali [Perforated] for bringing
in Natural Light and alsoin Natural Light and also
Function of Jali in the rains.Function of Jali in the rains.
Section through the jali
Harvesting of solar energy - 20%
of the buildings
energy requirement is catered to
The Solar PV has an installed
capacity of 23.5 KW
Average generation is 100-125
units per day
Solar systemSolar system
The solar panels are placed
on the eastern side and they
are sloping which helps
production of energy
throughout the day and as it
is a commercial building
more amount of energy is
consumed during the
working hours [day]
compared to the evenings.
Wind SystemWind System
Wind tower with evaporative cooling
A combination of
sensible cooling in the
with the flow of air
induced by the wind
tower can be achieved
by a configuration as
shown. The heat loss
from air results in a
temperature, but no
change in the water
vapour content of the
The hot ambient air enters the tower
through the openings in the tower and is
cooled, when it comes in contact with
the cool tower and thus becomes heavier
and sinks down. When an inlet is
provided to the rooms with an outlet on
the other side, there is a draft of cool
air. After a whole of heat exchange, the
wind towers become warm in the
Daytime and night time operation of a Wind TowerDaytime and night time operation of a Wind Tower
During night the reverse happens; due to
warm surface of wind tower and drop in
temperature of ambient air due to buoyancy
effect, warm air rises upwards. As a result,
cooler ambient air is sucked into the room
through the window. As a bye-product of
this process, wind tower loses the heat that
was collected during the day time and it
becomes ready for use in cold condition up
to the morning.
Wind tower design with openings on all four sides Wind tower design with evaporatively cooled system
Due to the unpredictable wind direction, opening on all four sides are provided with an additional
affect due to wind pressure. The rate of heat transfer mainly depends on surface area with which, the
air comes in contact. Here the surface area is increased by having vertical conduits, which gives less
resistance to air flow. Further, the effectiveness is increased by having sprinklers to promote the
Wind DeflectorsWind Deflectors
Interior partitions are provided in the
building for various purposes of privacy,
which may not allow openings in the
partition. In this region, due to the warm
and humid climate ventilation becomes
very essential, cross – ventilation
becomes the major solution. This can be
overcome by providing ridge ventilation
or ventilating ducts or shafts for deeper
The effect of positioning the apertures at various heights above the floor influences the
efficiency of the natural ventilation in a given space.
Inlet higher than outlet. Good
interaction of air layers. Current at
body level. Pocket of warm , still air
over the outlet.
Inlet and outlet are high. Airflow
only near ceiling. No air current at
body level. Good for removing hot
air for warm season. Layers of still
air at low levels.
Root Way Water treatment facility – Natural Way of treating theRoot Way Water treatment facility – Natural Way of treating the
black and grey water.black and grey water.
Zero water discharge building
System35% reduction in potable water use
Low flow water fixtures
Use of storm water & recycled water for irrigation.
Entire waste water in the building is treated biologically through a process called the 'Root
Water systemWater system
Collect rainwater for external use i.e. garden/washing car.
Use water conserving appliances including toilets, shower, taps, washing machine and dish washer
e.g.. Low flow faucets, water saving dual flush tanks
Reduce irrigation and surface water run-off .
Slope given for the
Inlet for water
•A large amount of energy — and pollution — was also
reduced through choices in the production and
transportation of building materials.
•An impressive 77 percent of the building materials use
recycled content in the form of fly ash, broken glass,
broken tiles, recycled paper, recycled aluminum, cinder
from industrial furnaces, bagasse (an agricultural waste
from sugar cane), mineral fibers, cellulose fibers, and
•The building reuses a significant amount of material
salvaged from other construction sites like toilet doors,
interlocking pavement blocks, stone slabs, scrap steel,
scrap glazed tiles, shuttering material and, interestingly,
the furniture in the cafeteria. A waste management plan
ensured that 96 percent of construction waste was
Sustainable MaterialsSustainable Materials
Principles followedPrinciples followed
Select materials using recycled components .
Design for re-use and recycling.
Control and reduce waste and packaging.
Reduce resource consumption.
Waste ReductionWaste Reduction
Meet the basic physical, emotional and spiritual needs of the occupants
Consider healthy lighting, color and sound, controlled temperature and humidity and
good indoor air quality to enhance the living environment
Reduce formaldehyde emissions and use pollution fighting indoor plants
Apply an integrated wiring system for lighting, power, security, fire alarm and audio
Design a safe and user-friendly space.
Health and WellbeingHealth and Wellbeing
Energy EfficiencyEnergy Efficiency
Design-Orientation for maximum day
Avoiding Green wall and Green roof.
Use of neutral glass to reduce heat
Usage of energy efficient white goods.
Use of Zero CFG refrigerators in
refrigerators and air-condition.
Online monitoring system to monitor
the energy performance.
Establishing baseline data for energy
Use of eco friendly electric car for
transport and traveling within the premises
helping in preventing pollution.
The building boasts of lighting energy savings of 88 percent compared to an electrically
lit building of the same size.
Vegetation that was lost to the built area was replaced by gardens on 55 percent of the
The building achieves a 35 percent reduction of municipally supplied potable water, in
part through the use of low-flush toilets and waterless urinals.
Thirty percent of users have shifted to alternative modes of transportation: carpools,
bicycles, and cars that run on liquefied petroleum gas, a low-polluting alternative to
conventional gasoline and diesel.
95 percent of the raw material was extracted or harvested locally.
An impressive 77 percent of the building materials use recycled content.
A waste management plan ensured that 96 percent of construction waste was recycled.
CII – Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre or The Green Business Centre is
located in Hyderabad, India. It won an internationally acclaimed award by the
United States Green Building Council as the most environmentally advanced
building in the world.
It is the Centre of Excellence of the Confederation of Indian Industry for Energy
Efficiency, Green Buildings , Renewable Energy, Water, Environment & Recycling
and Climate Change activities in India.
The Green Institute entered into a strategic partnership with the Confederation of
Indian Industries to establish the Green Business Centre (GBC) at Hyderabad for
promoting Green Activities in India. The GBC has become the basis of an ongoing
partnership with the Phillips Eco-Enterprise Center (PEEC), a project of the
Awards received by CII –Awards received by CII –
Sohrabji Godrej Green Business CentreSohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre
Wind in architecture
Climate and Design
Climate responsive architecture
Practical handbook on energy conservation in buildings.