Teri, bangalore & solar passive techniques(rupesh)

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simplest green bldg. I hv ever seen,..

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Teri, bangalore & solar passive techniques(rupesh)

  1. 1. GREEN BUILDING REPORTTHE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI), BANGALORE PRESENTED BY: RUPESH CHAURASIA (882646) B. ARCH. 9TH SEM. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 1
  2. 2. TERI campus at Bangalore Introduction The Energy and Resources Institute, Bangalore is among South India’s first energy-efficient and environmentally sustainable campuses. It houses workspaces for the staff, conference rooms, a library, a laboratory and a guest house. Dining and recreation facilities are shared between the offices and the guesthouse. It has the potential to serve as a model for future development in similar geographical and climatic conditions. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 2
  3. 3. P R O J E C T D E TA I L …NAME OF PROJECT THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI), SOUTHERN REGIONAL CENTRE, BANGALORECLIENT TERIARCHITECT Ar. Sanjay MoheCLIMATE ModerateCOMPLETION YEAR 1990TYPE OF BUILDING InstitutionalTOTAL NO. OF FLOORS G+2BUILT-UP-AREA 26,663 Sq.FtTHE DESIGN DISPLAYS A DEXTEROUS INTERPLAY OF FIVE BASIC NATURALELEMENTS – SUN, AIR, EARTH, WATER AND SKY – WITH THE BUILTFORM, TO MEET THE REQUIREMENT OF THERMAL, VISUAL AND AURALCOMFORT. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 3
  4. 4. Schematic layout of TERI Bangalore showing the surrounding roads and the drain.Location, Orientation & Climate The site is located at Domlur, about 3 km from the Bangalore airport. It is a long and narrow site with roads on the eastern and northern sides, the former being the major road. The western side has an open ground and on the southern side is an open drain about 9 m wide. The buildings are aligned along the east-west axis and entry into the site is from the road on the northern side which is relatively less busier. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 4
  5. 5. The office blocks are placed towards the main road while the guest house is located on the quieter west side. The office block is kept towards the east, close to the main road for high visibility and the guest house is located towards the quieter western side. In a moderate climatic zone like Bangalore where temperatures are not very high, a good ventilation system can easily provide comfortable living conditions. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 5
  6. 6. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 6
  7. 7. Open drain on the southern edge of TERI BangaloreNatural FeaturesPositives and Negatives: The drain on the southern side is a major feature which influences the design. Wind coming from the south over the drain brings in the foul smell into the site. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 7
  8. 8. Architectural DesignThis energy - efficient complex is designed to provide all round comfort for the users.The building opens to the north to take maximum advantage of glare-free light.Continuations of skylight spaces carry natural light into the building Abundant natural light is available in the work spaces. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 8
  9. 9.  Adequate natural lighting and ventilation is provided through an optimized combination of solar passive design, energy-efficient equipment, renewable sources of energy and materials with low embodied energy. The condition of the drain is proposed to be improved into a pleasant landscaped element by using plants that absorb impurities as well as with the help of basic filtration and aeration. This being an ideal long-term solution would be a major civic project. The architecture responds to the present site conditions but the building can eventually open up towards the drain when it turns clean. A fresh environment is maintained inside the building THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 9
  10. 10.  A cavity wall on the southern side insulates the building from solar heat gain. The ground disturbed due to the building is replaced on the rooftop to form terrace gardens at various levels. These gardens along with earth berms provides good heat insulation and moderates fluctuations in temperature. Locally available ‘kadappa’ Trombe walls help in insulating stone used to clad the the hostels southern wallMaterials & Appliances As use of local materials reduces the energy consumed in their transportation, local materials and materials with low-embodied energy have been used wherever possible The southern wall, for instance, is clad in local ‘kadappa’ stone. Energy-efficient lighting devices like CFL lights have also been used. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 10
  11. 11. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 11
  12. 12. TERRACE GARDEN DETAILED SECTION Rooftop gardens are also beneficial in reducing rain run off. A roof garden can delay run off; reduce the rate and volume of run off. Plants have the ability to reduce the overall heat absorption of the building which then reduces energy consumption. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 12
  13. 13. Daylighting Openings have been designed such that requirement of artificial lighting is minimal throughout the day when the building is under maximum usage. Abundant natural light inside due to intelligently designed fenestrations By creating atrium spaces with skylights, the section of the building is such that natural light enters into the interiors of the building, considerably reducing the dependence on artificial lighting. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 13
  14. 14. Section showing natural light penetrating deep into the building through skylights and fenestrations.Ventilation A blank wall towards the south (facing the drain) allows the breeze to flow over the building. This creates a negative pressure which pulls fresh air from the north into the building. The sections are designed such that hot air rises to the top and make the building breathe. Air in the cavity in the south wall on the south creates negative pressure, thereby enhancing the convection currents in the building. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 14
  15. 15. UNHYGENIC FOUL BREEZE FLOWING FROM SOUTH COOL BREEZE DOWN IN BY CONVECTIONAL CURRENT SYSTEM TO EQUALISE PRESSUREON THE SOUTH IS AN ABSORPTIVE DOUBLE WALL WITH A CAVITY, WHICH1. PROVIDES INSULATION FROM THE SOUTHERN SUN &2. HEATS UP THE AIR WITHIN ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) THE 15
  16. 16. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 16
  17. 17. Renewable Energy A 5-kW peak solar photovoltaic system integrated with the roof skylights provides day-light and also generates electricity. Solar water heaters which meet theSolar Photovoltaic integrated with the hot-water requirements of theroof provide natural light and campuselectricity A solar water heating system meets the hot water requirements of the kitchen and the guest rooms. Other energy conservation systems include an effective waste and water management system, a centralized uninterrupted power supply, and a kitchen that reduces internal heat. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 17
  18. 18. WATER MANAGEMENT An efficient rainwater harvesting system preserves water to the maximum possible extent. Water run-off from the roofs and from the paved area is collected and stored in a collection sump below the Amphitheatre. This water is used for various purposes including landscaping and flushing toilets. Schematic section of the building showing the rain water harvesting system THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 18
  19. 19. POST CONSTRUCTION The monthly energy consumption is about Rs. 30,000 for the entire complex. This works out to be around Rs. 1.12 per square foot which is about one-tenth of a conventional building with air conditioning in Bangalore, thus proving the energy-efficiency of the complex. As and when the drain to the south gets cleaned, the complex can also open out towards it. This would provide the complex with its own water-front. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 19
  20. 20. PASSIVE DESIGN,….WHAT IS A PASSIVE DESIGN…?Passive design refers to a design approach that uses natural elementsoften sunlight to heat, cool or light a building. Passive solar or passivecooling designs take advantage of the sun’s energy to maximise heating orcooling based on a building’s sun exposure. Systems that employ passivedesign require very little maintenance and reduce a building energyconstruction by minimizing or eliminating mechanical systems used toregulate indoor temperature. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 20
  21. 21. PASSIVE COOLING Passive cooling systems are least expensive means of cooling a home which maximizes the efficiency of the building envelope without any use of mechanical devices. It rely on natural heat-sinks to remove heat from the building. They derive cooling directly from evaporation, convection, and radiation without using any intermediate electrical devices. All passive cooling strategies rely on daily changes in temperature and relative humidity. The applicability of each system depends on the climatic conditions. These design strategies reduce heat gains to internal spaces.- Natural Ventilation - Earth Air Tunnels- Shading - Evaporative Cooling- Wind Towers - Passive Down Draught Cooling- Courtyard Effect - Roof Sprays THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 21
  22. 22. NATURAL VENTILATION Outdoor breezes create air movement through the house interior by the push-pull effect of positive air pressure on the windward side and negative pressure (suction) on the leeward side. In order to have a good natural ventilation, openings must be placed at opposite pressure zones. Also, designers often choose to enhance natural ventilation using tall spaces called stacks in buildings. With openings near the top of stacks, warm air can escape whereas cooler air enters the building from openings near the ground. The windows, play a dominant role in inducing indoor ventilation due to wind forces. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 22
  23. 23. SHADING Solar control is a critical requirement for both cooling-load dominated and passively solar-heated buildings. The most effective method of cooling a building is to shade windows, walls and roof of building from direct solar radiation. Heavily insulated walls and roofs need less shading. Can use overhangs on outside facade of the building.Each project should be evaluated depending on itsrelative cooling needs: Extend the overhang beyond the sides of the window to prevent solar gain from the side. Use slatted or louvered shades to allow more daylight to enter, while shading windows from direct sunlight. Reduce solar heat gain by recessing windows into the wall. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 23
  24. 24. WIND TOWER In a wind tower, the hot air enters the tower through the openings in the tower, gets cooled, and thus becomes heavier and sinks down. The inlet and outlet of rooms induce cool air movement. In the presence of wind, air is cooled more effectively and flows faster down the tower and into the living area. After a whole day of air exchanges, the tower becomes warm in the evenings. During the night, cooler ambient air comes in contact with the bottom of the tower through the rooms. The tower walls absorb heat during daytime and release it at night, warming the cool night air in the tower. Warm air moves up, creating an upward draft, and draws cool night air through the doors and windows into the building. The system works effectively in hot and dry climates where fluctuations are high. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 24
  25. 25.  A wind tower works well for individual units not for multi-storeyed apartments. In dense urban areas, the wind tower has to be long enough to be able to catch enough air. Also protection from driving rain is difficult. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 25
  26. 26. COURTYARD EFFECT Due to incident solar radiation in a courtyard, the air gets warmer and rises. Cool air from the ground level flows through the louvered openings of rooms surrounding a courtyard, thus producing air flow. At night, the warm roof surfaces get cooled by convection and radiation. If this heat exchange reduces roof surface temperature to wet bulb temperature of air, condensation of atmospheric moisture occurs on the roof and the gain due to condensation limits further cooling. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 26
  27. 27.  If the roof surfaces are sloped towards the internal courtyard, the cooled air sinks into the court and enters the living space through low-level openings, gets warmed up, and leaves the room through higher-level openings. However, care should be taken that the courtyard does not receive intense solar radiation, which would lead to conduction and radiation heat gains into the building. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 27
  28. 28. THERMAL CHIMNEYThe thermal chimney is used to create updrafts and remove heated air. It is builton the sunny side of the building. A black metal heat absorbing panel is used tocreate even more heated air that will naturally rise. This pulls the air up and out. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 28
  29. 29. EARTH AIR TUNNELS (EAT) Daily and annual temperature fluctuations decrease with the increase in depth below the ground surface. At a depth of about 4 m below ground, the temperature inside the earth remains nearly constant round the year and is nearly equal to the annual average temperature of the place. A tunnel in the form of a pipe or otherwise embedded at a depth of about 4 m below the ground will acquire the same temperature as the surrounding earth at its surface. Therefore, the ambient air ventilated through this tunnel will get cooled in summer and warmed in winter and this air can be used for cooling in summer and heating in winter. This technique has been used in the composite climate of Gurgaon in RETREAT building. Two blowers installed in the tunnels speed up the process. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 29
  30. 30.  The living quarters (the south block of RETREAT) are maintained at comfortable temperatures (approx. 20-30 degree Celsius) round the year by the earth air tunnel system, supplemented, when-ever required, with a system of absorption chillers powered by liquefied natural gas during monsoons and with an air washer during dry summer. However, the cooler air underground needs to be circulated in the living space. Each room in the south block has a solar chimney; warm air rises and escapes through the chimney, which creates an air current for the cooler air from the underground tunnels to replace the warm air. The same mechanism supplies warm air from the tunnel during winter. THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 30
  31. 31. EVAPORATIVE COOLING  Evaporative cooling lowers indoor air temperature by evaporating water.  It is effective in hot and dry climate where the atmospheric humidity is low.  In evaporative cooling, the sensible heat of air is used to evaporate water, thereby cooling the air, which, in turn, cools the living space of the building.  Increase in contact between water and air increases the rate of evaporation.  The presence of a water body such as a pond, lake, and sea near the building or a fountain in a courtyard can provide a cooling effect.  The most commonly used system is a desert cooler, which comprises water, evaporative pads, a fan, and pump. 1. Ground cover 2. Water sprinkler 3. Insulated roof 4. Shading trees 5. Water trough THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 31A TYPICAL SECTION SHOWING PASSIVE SOLAR FEATURES OF WALMI BUILDING,BHOPAL
  32. 32. SOURCES TERI, SOUTHERN REGIONAL CAMPUS. http://builditbackgreen.org/bushfires/interactive-green-building-guide.aspx http://www.sustainable- buildings.org/index.php?option=com_cstudy&task=cstudies&submit1=GO&v=a http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/home/construction/solardesign/index. html http://ncict.net/Examples/Examples1.aspx THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 32
  33. 33. THANK YOU,…THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES INSTITUTE(TERI) 33

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