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THESIS-Defense_PPT_ EC, BARRIERS, (ABUALROB_Ahmed)

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THESIS-Defense_PPT_ EC, BARRIERS, (ABUALROB_Ahmed)

  1. 1. By Ahmed A. Abualrob ID #: 201375035 Major : MBA in Int. Business Thesis Defense May- 2014 Thesis Committee Prof. Ju Young KANG, – Chair Prof. Jay Ick LIM, – Member Prof. Minje SUNG, - MemberSummer – 2014 The Barriers That Hinder The Adoption of e-Commerce by Small Businesses in Palestine : The Role of Israeli Occupation ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  2. 2. Chapter 1 : Introduction Chapter 2 : Literature Review Chapter 3 : Research Model and Hypotheses Development Chapter 4 : Methodology Chapter 5 : Data Analysis and Results Chapter 6 : Discussion Chapter 7 : Conclusion Outline ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  3. 3. Introduction ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  4. 4. Small business  Most of the Palestinian companies are small-family business. (My Country Feature) Occupation Role The research will tackle the occupation restrictions as a barriers that prevent e- Commerce adoption in PAL. (Research Uniqueness: will be the first of its kind) Why this Topic ? 1 1. Introducti on Research Motivation ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  5. 5.  Palestine one of the developing countries that still in the early stages of ecommerce usage (Qadri, 2013).  This research focus on the external obstacles and Internal by making comparison between them.  One of the external factors had never discussed by previous researches which is the role of the Israeli occupation. 2 Research Background ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 1. Introducti on
  6. 6. Resistance to Adopt EC External Barriers • Government Instability • Occupation Restriction • Logistics Obstacles Internal Barriers • Perceive Losses • Perceive Uncertainty • Perceive Complexity E-Commerce Mediated Factors •Perceive Risk •Perceive Behavioral Control 3 Ecommerce Barriers ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 1. Introducti on
  7. 7. Research Problem  Lack of the studies that had tackled these Obstacles.  Needed to study the external hindrances that affect the adoption of EC in Palestine  Necessity to identify these rampant Problems, to help decision makers to find a proper solution In the near future. Problem Statement ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 4 1. Introducti on
  8. 8.  Increasing the awareness level among business owners in Palestine.  The first step to go beyond these restraints by examining them scientifically.  The wide adoption of EC by SB. in Palestine will have a great impact on the economy.  Induce the government to find solutions. Importance of the Study ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 5 1. Introducti on
  9. 9. Research Objectives B E C D A Explore the factors that hinder e-commerce adoption by small businesses in Palestine. Identify the role of the Israeli Occupation in preventing EC adoption in PAL. Analyze the external and internal variables to determine whether inner or outer factors are more significant. Adding a new study that Formulate the EC barriers In Palestine, as we lack of studies that had tackled this issue so far. Come up with useful Results for PAL. SB. that might help them come over these obstacles. Research Objectives ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 6 1. Introducti on
  10. 10. Literature Review ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  11. 11. Gov. Instability Whenever there is a change of the government; the new administration does not normally continue the policies, projects and programs, instead it lefts behind (Taylor and Owusu 2012) Political Instability The instable political situation does not encourage the ecommerce adoption rather than being an obstacle, and the whole situation in the Middle East is politically instable (Al- Ahram Center for political and strategic studies 2008) . Occupation Restrictions The Palestinian people lived in a stifling siege organized by Israeli occupation and this siege strongly affected the adoption and the use of the new technology (Abu-Rahmeh 2009). Previous Studies The paper will focus specifically on the political obstacles which are crucial hindrances that prevent The adoption of EC by small business in Palestine. ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 7 2. Literature Review
  12. 12. ICT Level in PALEC Level in PAL  The EC level in Palestine is modest, and has an impact on economic activity as a whole. • The knowledge of EC in PAL is : 62.4 % • the confidence in EC is : 51.8 % , (Qadri, 2013)  11.2% of the users conducted EC Transactions.  0.2% of individuals used the internet for EC activities (PCBS, 2012)  ICT sector in Palestine has reported a notable growth in 2011. • 47% Computer users. • 39% Were using internet services. • 11% of the users who carried EC transactions. • 4% of the users who had websites. (PCBS, 2012). An overview of EC in PAL ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 8 2. Literature Review
  13. 13. 9 Services Providing Website Shopping www.tasawaq.ps shopping and develop mobile applications www.sanabel4it.com Wide-products and services Online shopping www.palemart.net Free commercial and business Ads. www.ps.opensooq.com Free Commercial Ads and jobs ad. www.shobiddak.com Free Commercial and jobs Ads. www.market-pal.com Selling products by auctions www.almazad.ps First Palestinian online educational site, in addition to the educational services, also it introduces commercial services, such as showing products online. www.sef.ps/vb Online Services in PAL ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 2. Literature Review
  14. 14. 1st 2nd 3ird Title in hereDOI Theory Title in here IRM Theory Title in here TOE Framework 1. TOE framework (Tornatzky, 1990).  Focused on the Technology, Organization and Environment context. 2. DOI Theory (Rogers, 1995)  Emphasized individual characteristics, and both internal and external characteristics of the organization. 3. The Model of Innovation Resistance (Ram, 1987)  Focused on the factors that resisting EC operations . 10 Theoretical Background ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 Research Theories 2. Literature Review
  15. 15. TOE : Government Stability, Occupation Restriction, Logist TOE : Perceived Losses. TOE : Perceived Uncertainty, Perceived Complexity. DOI : Perceived Complexity, Perceived Behavioral Control, IRM : Resistance to Adopt Technology (EC). Research Theories 11 2. Literature Review Theoretical Background ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  16. 16. Research Model & Hypotheses Development ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  17. 17. 12 Gov. Instability Occupation Restrictions Logistics Obstacles Perceived Losses Perceived Uncertainty Perceived Complexity External Barriers Internal Barriers Perceived Risk Perceived behavior Control Resistance to Adopt EC H1 (+) H2 (+) H3 (-) H4 (- ) H5 (-) H6 (+) H7 (+) H8 (-) H9 (+) H10 (+) ch Model & Hypothesis Development Research Model ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  18. 18. 13 3. Research Model & Hypothesis Development Operational Definitions ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 Construct (Abbreviation) Operational Definition Reference Government Instability (GIS) The propensity of a change in the current government, either by “constitutional” or “unconstitutional” means. Alesina et al. (1996) Occupation Restrictions (ORS) Imposing huge obstacles to prevent Palestinians from accessing much of their land and from exploiting most of their natural resources. Elmusa and El- Jaafari (2011) Logistics Obstacles (LOB) The obstacles that hinder the delivery process of physical items. Kooistra (2008) Perceived Losses (PL) The financial losses extend from existing ways of operating business transactions using e-commerce applications. Ratnasingam (2002) Perceived Uncertainty (PUC) The process by which individuals perceived certain risk from doing certain act. Walker et al. (2003) Perceived Complexity (PCM) The degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand or to use. Aghaunor and Fotoh (2006) Perceived Risk (PRS) The business owner’s concern that occur before e-commerce adoption due to the variables around. Jarupunphol and Mitchell (2002) Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC) Refers to current beliefs about the presence factors that may facilitate or impede performance of the behavior. Ajzen (1991) Resistance to Adopt EC (RTAEC) The attitude to resist the use of (EC) or any kind of innovation due to many factors influencing the individual decision. Lapointe and Rivard (2005)
  19. 19. H2: Occupation restrictions positively affects to perceived H1: Government Instability positively affects perceived risk H3: Occupation restrictions negatively affects perceived be H4: Logistics obstacles negatively affects perceived behavi Hypotheses 3. Research Model & Hypothesis Development External Factors ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 14
  20. 20. H6: Perceived uncertainty positively affects perceived risk H5: Perceived losses negatively affects perceived behavior H7: Perceived complexity positively affects perceived risk. H8: Perceived complexity negatively affects perceived beh Hypotheses 3. Research Model & Hypothesis Development Internal Factors ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 15
  21. 21. H10: Perceived behavioral control positively affects resista H9: Perceived risk positively affects resistance to adopt EC Hypotheses 3. Research Model & Hypothesis Development Perceived Risk and Perceived behavioral control ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 16
  22. 22. Methodology ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  23. 23. 17 Constructs Description Government Instability (GI) I feel the current political situation does not encourage me to invest in e-Commerce. I believe that our government situation is not stable and susceptible to change. If the government has changed, the policies and regulations will be changed too, and that would be risky to invest in any kind of business. I don't feel confident in the government and politics. Occupation Restrictions (OR) The occupation restrictions prevent me to adopt EC. I believe it is hard to adopt EC because of the Israeli occupation. I believe that the occupation siege and the checkpoints would be an obstacle after the adoption of EC. I believe that EC is risky business because the Israeli restrictions. Logistics Obstacles (LO) I believe that Palestine lack of good transportation system. I believe that EC will not succeed under insufficient logistics services. I feel it is risky to adopt EC with inadequate logistics. I believe that the delivery process will take too much time because of the Israeli’s checkpoints on the Palestinian roads. Perceived Losses (PL) I believe that EC is not profitable in Palestine to adopt it in my business. I feel the profit in my business will not change, if I adopt online services. I feel that EC will not increase the financial benefits rather than increase the financial losses in my business. 4. Methodology Measurements ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  24. 24. 18 Constructs Description Perceived Uncertainty (PUC) I believe that EC would be inefficient to adopt in my business. I believe EC would not develop my business efficiently. I feel that EC is not an innovative tool in my business. Perceived Complexity (PCM) I feel EC is complicated and it is adventurous to adopt in my business. I believe that learning EC is too difficult. I believe the employees will not easily learn EC system. Perceived Risk (PRS) I feel EC is a risky system. I feel I cannot adopt technology that I do not know. I feel the adoption of EC in Palestine is chancy. Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC) I’m afraid to take a decision to adopt online transaction in the current political environment. I expect that EC will not make any changes in my business in the future. I’m confident that EC will not be a productive tool in my business. Resistance to Adopt EC (RTAEC) I believe that EC is not a development tool for small business in Palestine. I feel that e-Commerce in Palestine is still immature to adopt it. I feel the current surrounding environment discourage me to invest in e-Commerce. I believe that e-Commerce will not achieve what I expected from in the long run. 4. Methodology Measurements ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  25. 25. Gathering Relevant Data The resistance of small business’s owner to adopt EC Describe and analyze the Data using structural equation Modeling (SEM) & SPSS Come up with a complete understanding of the real obstacles that prevent EC adoption by small Business in Palestine. Research Methodology 4. Methodology ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 19
  26. 26. Primary Data Includes Surveys instrument, by using 7 Likert scale questionnaire, to evaluate each statement of each construct. 20 4. Methodology Data Sources ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  27. 27. Pilot test (Using 20 Sample) Official Survey (Collecting 161 Sample) Analysis Instruments (Using structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and (SPSS) packages. Data Analysis (Analyzing 137 Sample) * Conducting online questionnaire using Docs.google Data Collection 4. Methodology ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 21
  28. 28. Data Analysis & Results ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  29. 29. 5. Data Analysis and Results Measurement Model & Statistics Latent Variables Construct Item Count Mean St. Government Instability GIS 4 5.001 1.277 Occupation Restrictions ORS 4 5.132 1.255 Logistics Obstacle LOB 3 5.003 1.002 Perceived Losses PL 3 4.094 1.104 Perceived uncertainty PUC 3 4.076 1.504 Perceived Complexity PCM 2 4.925 1.315 Perceived Risk PRS 3 4.079 1.471 Perceived Behavioral Control PBC 3 5.026 1.329 Resistance to Adopt EC RTAEC 3 4.926 1.168 ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 22
  30. 30. Types of Analysis and the Instruments Confirmatory Factor Analysis Using SPSS 2.1 & SmartPLS 2.0 Reliability (α,CR) Convergent Validity (FL) Discriminate Validity (AVE) Measurement Model 5. Data Analysis and Results ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 23
  31. 31. Variables Items Factor Loading Cronbach’s alpha (α) CR AVE Government Instability (GIS) GIS1 0.857 0.863 0.899 0.691GIS2 0.875 GIS3 0.853 GIS4 0.732 Occupation Restriction (ORS) ORS1 0.826 0.843 0.894 0.680 ORS2 0.855 ORS3 0.854 ORS4 0.758 Logistics Obstacles (LOB) LOB2 0.908 0.885 0.929 0.813LOB3 0.884 LOB4 0.912 Perceived Losses (PL) PL1 0.969 0.883 0.910 0.772PL2 0.828 PL3 0.831 Perceived Uncertainty (PUC) PUC1 0.922 0.855 0.909 0.770 PUC2 0.887 PUC3 0.821 Perceived Complexity (PCM) PCM2 0.982 0.965 0.982 0.966PCM3 0.983 Perceived Risk (PRS) PRS1 0.815 0.843 0.881 0.712 PRS2 0.846 PRS3 0.869 Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC) PBC1 0.807 0.798 0.872 0.694PBC2 0.886 PBC3 0.803 Resistance To Adopt EC (RTAEC) RTAEC2 0.922 0.901 0.938 0.835RTAEC3 0.888 RTAEC4 0.930 Measurement Model ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 5. Data Analysis and Results 24
  32. 32. Measurement Model Inner Factor Loading & Cross Loading ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 5. Data Analysis and Results Construct Indicator Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 GIS GIS1 .171 .904 .126 -.010 -.064 .047 .116 -.079 .082 GIS2 .173 .937 .102 -.034 -.070 .057 .092 -.011 .079 GIS3 .158 .899 .125 -.057 -.085 .078 .091 .117 .063 GIS4 .303 .709 .107 .052 .030 -.013 .287 .040 .027 ORS ORS1 .163 .127 .754 -.044 -.093 .056 .346 .068 -.039 ORS2 .206 .075 .851 -.090 -.043 .072 .117 -.006 .081 ORS3 .240 .060 .830 -.108 .017 -.004 .110 -.076 .156 ORS4 .033 .264 .795 -.115 .119 .155 .078 .159 .340 LOB LOB2 .766 .256 .145 -.011 .033 .208 .139 .029 .152 LOB3 .734 .153 .189 -.110 .135 .026 .125 .282 .134 LOB4 .799 .135 .280 .007 .073 .150 .099 .050 .127 PL PL1 -.039 -.064 -.130 .836 -.043 .055 -.074 .082 -.149 PL2 .083 -.039 -.064 .921 .063 .030 .037 -.011 -.038 PL3 -.089 .013 -.070 .894 .040 -.076 -.074 .011 .117 PUC PUC1 -.058 -.028 -.060 .005 .882 .094 .128 -.002 -.014 PUC2 .093 -.057 -.014 -.104 .876 .060 .021 .026 -.028 PUC3 .053 -.093 .056 .171 .853 -.086 .023 -.042 .037 25
  33. 33. ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 5. Data Analysis and Results Measurement Model Inner Factor Loading & Cross Loading Construct Indicator Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PCM PCM2 .247 .026 .108 .045 .013 .914 .056 .001 .141 PCM3 .240 .086 .099 -.006 .034 .912 .088 .095 .121 PRS PRS1 .095 .252 -.019 -.087 .109 .550 .603 .251 .282 PRS2 .073 .068 .279 -.085 .083 .099 .831 .084 .136 PRS3 .266 -.034 .334 -.107 .136 .163 .638 .038 .200 PBC PBC1 .285 -.030 .210 -.008 -.046 .024 .227 -.118 .764 PBC2 .182 .116 .194 -.064 -.025 .198 .119 .126 .818 PBC3 .290 .305 -.022 .012 .065 .295 .009 .248 .607 RTAEC RTAEC1 .924 .008 .023 .051 -.018 .069 .074 .298 .064 RTAEC2 .834 .084 .070 .023 -.066 .227 .115 .089 .112 RTAEC3 .788 .056 .070 -.085 .050 .002 .095 .343 .097 RTAEC4 .867 .085 .111 .065 -.045 .123 .120 .102 .141 26
  34. 34. ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 5. Data Analysis and Results Measurement Model Construct Correlation & Discriminant Validity Constructs GIS ORS LOB PL PUC PCM PRS PBC RTAEC GIS 1.00 ORS .404 1.00 LOB .492 .477 1.00 PL -.093 -.093 -.199 1.00 PUC -.049 .092 .009 .028 1.00 PCM .202 .378 .249 .397 .062 1.00 PRS .464 .457 .496 .488 .422 -.145 1.00 PBC .386 .511 .425 -.131 .060 -.051 .171 1.00 RTAEC .383 .820 .348 .479 .367 -.050 .394 .017 1.00 * The elements on the diagonal are the square root of the average variance extracted (AVE). The off- diagonal elements are the correlations among all constructs. 27
  35. 35. 28 Gov. Instability Occupation Restrictions Logistics Obstacles Perceived Losses Perceived Uncertainty Perceived Complexity External Barriers Internal Barriers Perceived Risk Perceived behavior Control Resistance to Adopt EC 0.292*** 0.308*** 0.202** 0.320*** -0.069 0.166** 0.276*** 0.230*** 0.211** 0.377*** ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 5. Data Analysis and Results ***p<0.01, **p<0.05 ( Supported Not Supported ) Structural Model Results of SEM – Research Model
  36. 36. 29 ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 5. Data Analysis and Results Structural Model Testing-Results - Path Coefficient Hypothesis Standardized coefficient T-value Results (H1) GIS->PRS 0.292*** 3.966 Supported (H2) ORS->PRS 0.308*** 3.515 Supported (H3) ORS->PBC 0.202** 1.983 Supported (H4) LOB->PBC 0.320*** 3.156 Supported (H5) PL->PBC -0.069 0.746 Not supported (H6) PUC->PRS 0.166** 2.322 Supported (H7) PCM->PRS 0.276*** 3.412 Supported (H8) PCM->PBC 0.230*** 2.607 Supported (H9) PRS->RTAEC 0.211** 2.036 Supported (10) PBC->RTAEC 0.377*** 3.807 Supported ***p<0.01, **p<0.05
  37. 37. Discussion ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  38. 38. Owner’s Resistance to Adopt EC Occupation restrictions show a strong positive significant and indirect relationship with RTAEC factor mediated by PRS and a strong negative significant and indirect relationship with RTAEC mediated by PBC factor Logistics obstacles demonstrated a significant, negative and indirect impact on RTAEC mediated by PBC factor The indirect significant positive & negative impact of PUC & PCM factors on RTAEC mediated with PRS & PBC factors respectively Occupation Restrictions Logistics Obstacles Internal Factors (Uncertainty, Complexity) Government Instability Government instability factor exhibited a positive significant and indirect relationship with RTAEC mediated by PRS factor ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 6. Discussion Discussion Supported Hypotheses 30
  39. 39. Government Instability Occupation Restrictions Have been confirmed extensively in Qadri (2013), Harb (2009) and Ibrahim and Beaudet (2012) Consistent with previous literature supposition by Studies, A. C. f. P. S. (2008) and Alesina et al. (1996) Empirically supported by literature such as Al-Hudhaif and Alkubeyyer (2011) Internal Factors (Uncertainty, Complexity) Logistics Obstacles ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 Discussion Consistency with Pervious Research 6. Discussion The outcomes are consistent with the findings of prior researchers such (Barki et al. 1993, Corrêa 1994, Huff 1978) for PUC & with Van Akkeren and Cavaye (1999) for PCM 31
  40. 40. Perceived Losses Perceived Losses doesn’t influences the owner’s resistance to adopt EC as the analysis has shown insignificant relationship between (PRS) and (RTAEC) factor mediated with (PBC) Path Coefficient Results The proportion of the path coefficient of perceived losses in this study (standardized coefficient = -0.069; t-statistic = 0.746) and these results is contradicting the findings in previous research like Cloete et al. (2002) who noted that applying e-Commerce caused losses for the business firms. Also contradicting with Thong and Yap (1996) where they have stated that owners will not adopt losses in their business as EC reveals only loss, thus the owner’s perception about this losses will push to resist the adoption. Discussion Rejected Hypothesis 6. Discussion ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 32
  41. 41. Zwass (1996) Has pointed that this losses is totally depends on the business and it is diverse from one to another, the study has handled different sectors in Palestine which means several opinions in terms of EC losses. And this insignificant impact of perceived losses on owner’s behavior emphasizes that the owners have less concern in terms of perceiving losses from EC. In the same context, the results reflects that Palestinian small business owners have an adequate awareness of EC benefits, which can approve that the strongest obstacles that resist the adoption of EC are the political factors including occupation restrictions. In essence, the research supports perceived losses as an important contributor to hinder EC in Palestine based on the previous studies. Nevertheless, the research has shown different results It must however be considered for any future adoption of EC in Palestine. 6. Discussion Discussion Rejected Hypothesis Interpretation ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 34
  42. 42. The findings of this study showed a strong positive and direct impact of PRS on the RTAEC. the greater proportion (43.4%) of the variation of perceived risk. It also showed a significant influence on the resistance to adopt factor support the previous studies such as (Hong and Zhu 2006, McNally and Obied 2014, Qadri 2013) The study confirmed also that PBC has a positive significant and direct influence on RTAEC. The finding is consistent with number of previous studies like (Dutton and Shepherd 2006, Marcus 1981, McElroy et al. 2007, Mutz 2005, Rosa et al. 2006) All those researchers allude to the significant role of the behavioral control on the business owner PRS PBC 6. Discussion Discussion Mediated Factors ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 RTAEC 35
  43. 43. Conclusion ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  44. 44. The study will be a substantial and beneficial for many parties in Palestine The research will be the first of its kind that has tackled the occupation impacts on EC The research will offer additional data regarding the barriers that affect EC adaption by small businesses in PAL. The focus on small business come due to limited and scarce data in this area, therefore this research is a great contribution The study will serve as a guideline for any future research in the related discipline Research Contribution Contributions 7. Conclusion ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 36
  45. 45. 37 IV. The collected data will be available to different stakeholders, such as, business owners, government and policy makers II. The research will help to raise up the awareness level of businesses’ owners about EC obstacles. I. The findings of this study will have significant implications in the perspective of research on e-Commerce business behavior in the future. III. The study will help policy makers in the future to find out solutions to the current obstacles are facing EC in Palestine. 7. Conclusion Implications ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014
  46. 46. Text Research Limitations Text  The sampling pool was restricted to mainly business owner’s circles  The results of the study might also be biased given to people have little experiences of online transactions or have no information about it sometimes  The study depends on few references that have done in this topic due to the lack of research in this discipline in Palestine  there was some difficulties to collect the data as most of the respondents were busy 7. Conclusion Limitations ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014 38
  47. 47. ©Ahmed ABUALROB– Thesis Defense 2014

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