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Study on effectiveness of training and development


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Study on effectiveness of training and development

  1. 1. STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN SV ltdCHAPTER – 1INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY1.1 Introduction William James of Harvard University estimated that employees could retain theirjobs by working at a mere 20-30 percent of their potential. His study led him to believe thatif these same employees were properly motivated, they could work at 80-90 percent of theircapabilities. Behavioral science concepts like motivation and enhanced productivity couldwell be used in such improvements in employee output. Training could be one of the meansused to achieve such improvements through the effective and efficient use of learningresources.1.1.1. Training and Development Human resources, are the most valuable assets of any organization, with themachines, materials and even the money, nothing gets done without man-power. Theeffective functioning of any organization requires that employees learn to perform their jobsat a satisfactory level of proficiency. Here is the role of training. Employee training tries toimprove skills or add to the existing level of the knowledge so that the employee is betterequipped to do his present job or to prepare him for higher position with increasedresponsibilities. However individual growth is not an end itself. Organization growth needsto be meshed with the individual‘s growth. The concern is for the organization viability, thatit should adapt itself to a changing environment. Employee growth and development has tobe seen in the context of this change. So training can be defined as:Training is a systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required byemployees to perform adequately on a given task or job
  2. 2. The need for improved productivity in organization has become universally acceptedand that it depends on efficient and effective training. However, the need for organizationsto embark on staff development programme for employees has become obvious. Absence ofthese programme often manifest tripartite problems of incompetence, inefficiency andineffectiveness. So training and development aim at developing competences such astechnical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual andorganization growth which makes it a continuous process1.2. Statement of Research Problem Training and development play vital role in any given organizations in the modernday. It is aimed at preparing employees for future or current jobs. The efficiency andproductivity of the firm can be increased considerably with right training methods. This isthe reason why HR department gives Training such a huge importance. So it is essential thatwe conduct studies and experiment s to improvise our training methods. The motive behind this study is to understand the effectiveness of training anddevelopment programs on the employees of Srivirad Systems and Services Pvt ltd, Chennai. The training cannot be measured directly but the change in attitude and behavior thatoccurs as a result of training. By studying and analyzing the response of employeesregarding training, we can make scientific conclusions, which is the core idea of this study.Problem StatementThe intention of this research is to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of training anddevelopment process in Srivirad Systems and Services, Chennai.1.3. Need for the study Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing aparticular job. It utilizes a systematic and organized procedure by which employee learns
  3. 3. technical knowledge and skills. Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carriedon for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization. Training is closely related with education and development but needs to bedifferentiated from these terms. It is aimed at improving the behavior and performance of aperson. Training is a continuous and life long process. Training provides an atmosphere ofsharing synthesizing with the help of the trainers, the information already available on thesubject.1.4. Significance of the study The development of any organization depends on its employees. For organizationalproductivity training and development assumes great significance. Training aims atincreasing the knowledge and skills of the employee whereas organizational developmenton the other hand refers to overall improvement of the organization such as its structure,objectives, policies and procedures including managers and employees. Organizationaldevelopment can be achieved by hiring the services of the professionals consultants.Training and development programs are often viewed as part of organizational development. A better knowledge about these things can facilitate the trainer as well as the traineein conducting and benefiting from the training. But training being a very complex processmakes it a bit difficult. So the best way to achieve it is by studying and analyzing thefeedback of employees as well as managers. The project includes collecting informationfrom staffs of Srivirad Systems and services, analyzing it, interpreting it, and concludinguseful suggestions from it.Some of the benefits of project are listed below. Our project is conducted to know the level of knowledge and skills imparted into employees.
  4. 4. This will help the management to know the efficiency of their training programs as well as the satisfaction level of employees and thus take necessary managerial decisions. The inferences made out of the project can help the employer and employee to contribute for the better training facilities. Any training and development program should meet both primary and secondary objectives of the organization. The study will give light in the designing of better training programs aiming solely at the desired results.1.5. Objectives of StudyPrimary Objective To study the effectiveness of training and development programs in Srivirad Systems and Services, Chennai.Secondary Objectives To study the methods used in training the employees To analyze whether the quality of training and satisfaction of respondents related. To analyze whether the employees are satisfied with their current training methods. To collect and analyze the views of the participants and superior on the training. To study the training program on the basis of relevance, implementation and outcomes.1.6. Methodology Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It maybe understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the
  5. 5. various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problemalong with the logic behind them. Methodology gives us the blueprint of activities to be carried out systematically inorder to complete the study successfully. The methodology of our study has severalsteps[listed below] each of them are explained in chapter IV.  Formulating the Research Problem  Extensive Literature Review  Developing the objectives  Preparing the Research Design including Sample Design  Collecting the Data  Analysis of Data  Generalization and Interpretation  Preparation of the Report or Presentation of Results-Formal write ups of conclusions reached.
  6. 6. 1.7. CHAPTERISATIONChapter I:The first chapter deals about the Introduction Objectives, Scope, Need and Limitationsof the Study.Chapter II:The second chapter deals about the concept of the study.Chapter III:The third chapter reveals about company profile.Chapter IV:The fourth chapter deals about the research methodology.Chapter V:The fifth chapter deals about the data analysis and Interpretation.Chapter VI:The sixth chapter deals about the findings, suggestions and conclusions.
  7. 7. CHAPTER – 2CONCEPTIntroduction Training is the process of assisting a person for enchanting his efficiency andeffectiveness at work by improving and updating his professional knowledge bydeveloping skills relevant to his work and cultivating appropriate behavior and attitudetowards work and people. Training could be designed either for improving present at work or for preparinga person for assuming higher responsibilities in further which would call for additionalknowledge and superior skills. Training is different education particularly formal education. While education isconcerned mainly with enhancement of knowledge, training aims essentially atincreasing knowledge , stimulating attitude and imparting skills related to a specific job. It is a continuous and life long process. Training provides an atmosphere ofsharing and synthesizing, with the help of the trainers, the information already availableon the subject. Training is a time bound activity program. Thus there is a separatespecialized discipline of trainers socializing in the field of human activity.2.1. Meaning A business most important asset is often its people. Training and developingthem can be one of the most important investments a business can make. The righttraining can ensure that your business has the right skills to tackle the future. It can alsohelp attract and retain good quality staff, as well as increasing the job satisfaction ofthose presently with you - increasing the chances that they will satisfy your customers. Thus Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of employee. It isa universal truth that the human resources available in an organization have to be
  8. 8. managed more efficiently than the material resources comprising of machines andmoney. Eloquently putting ―Training is a systematic development of the knowledge,skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job‖.2.2. Definition“Training is the continuous, systematic development among all levels of employees ofthat knowledge and those skills and attitudes which contribute to their welfare and thatof the company‖.- M.C Lord and Efferson―Training may be defined as a process of developing an understanding of someorganized body of facts, rules and methods. This information concerns largely theoperative phases of an applied knowledge‖.- R.C Davis2.3. Theories of training and development2.3.1. Kirkpatrick evaluation model The Kirkpatrick evaluation model or theory was developed in 1959 byUniversity of Wisconsin professor emeritus Donald Kirkpatrick. It consists of four levelsof evaluation: reaction of participants; learning, or the knowledge and skills gained;behavior, or the ability to apply the new skills; and results, or the organizational impact.Each level of evaluation builds upon and adds precision to the previous level.
  9. 9. The reaction: The reaction level measures how training participants react, including their levelof participation; ease and comfort of experience; and the level of effort required to makethe most of the learning. A reaction evaluation is inexpensive and simple to administerusing interaction with the participants, post-training surveys and online questionnaires.The evaluation can be done immediately after the training ends. It is important thatparticipants have a positive reaction to the training sessions because a negative reactionleads to poor learning.The learning: Learning evaluations are usually conducted before and after a training programto assess the impact the program has had on the learning process. Evaluations assesswhether participants have advanced in knowledge, skills and intellectual capacity as aresult of the training. Learning evaluation tools include self-assessment using onlinequestionnaires and tests, and formal assessment through interviews and observations.Learning evaluation is especially relevant for technical training because technical skilllevel changes are usually more quantifiable.Behavior: Behavior evaluation assesses the extent to which training participants apply thelearning in their jobs. The evaluation is usually done over a period of time to determineif the participants use the new skills and knowledge on the job, improve theirperformance and transfer the knowledge to their peers. Tools include observations,questionnaires, tests and interviews. Behavior evaluations take more time and effort thanreaction and learning evaluations. It is important to involve the line managers andimmediate supervisors in the process because they are in the best position to observe andassess participant behavior changes.Results: Results evaluation determines the success of a training program in operationaland strategic terms, such as increased sales, reduced expenses, improved quality and
  10. 10. reduced cases of workplace injuries. However, it may not always be possible to correlateimproved operational performance with training. For example, improvements in productquality may be due to better design tools and more qualified staff, not just a new qualitytraining program. External factors, such as changes in the economy and the competitiveenvironment, may also influence operational results.2.3.2. Theory X and Theory Y Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation created and developedby Douglas McGregor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s that havebeen used in human resource management, organizational behavior, organizationalcommunication and organizational development. They describe two contrasting modelsof workforce motivation.
  11. 11. Theory X In this theory, which has been proven counter-effective in most modern practice,management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can andthat they inherently dislike work. As a result of this, management believes that workersneed to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. Ahierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level.According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without an enticingincentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. According toMichael J. Papa, if the organizational goals are to be met, theory X managers relyheavily on threat and coercion to gain their employees compliance. Beliefs of this theory lead to mistrust, highly restrictive supervision, and apunitive atmosphere. The Theory X manager tends to believe that everything must endin blaming someone. He or she thinks all prospective employees are only out forthemselves. Usually these managers feel the sole purpose of the employees interest inthe job is money. They will blame the person first in most situations, withoutquestioning whether it may be the system, policy, or lack of training that deserves theblame. A Theory X manager believes that his or her employees do not really want towork, that they would rather avoid responsibility and that it is the managers job tostructure the work and energize the employee. One major flaw of this management styleis it is much more likely to cause diseconomies of scale in large businesses.Theory Y In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental andphysical work duties. According to Papa, to them work is as natural as play. Theypossess the ability for creative problem solving, but their talents are underused in mostorganizations. Given the proper conditions, theory Y managers believe that employeeswill learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed.
  12. 12. A Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people willwant to do well at work. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is astrong motivation. Many people interpret Theory Y as a positive set of beliefs aboutworkers. A close reading of The Human Side of Enterprise reveals that McGregorsimply argues for managers to be open to a more positive view of workers and thepossibilities that this creates. He thinks that Theory Y managers are more likely thanTheory X managers to develop the climate of trust with employees that is required forhuman resource development. Its human resource development that is a crucial aspect of any organization. Thiswould include managers communicating openly with subordinates, minimizing thedifference between superior-subordinate relationships, creating a comfortableenvironment in which subordinates can develop and use their abilities. This climatewould include the sharing of decision making so that subordinates have say in decisionsthat influence them.Theory X and Theory Y combined For McGregor, Theory X and Y are not different ends of the same continuum.Rather they are two different continua in themselves.2.3.3. Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs motivational model Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA,and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding humanmotivation, management training, and personal development The Maslows Hierarchy of Needs five-stage model below (structure andterminology - not the precise pyramid diagram itself) is clearly and directly attributableto Maslow; later versions of the theory with added motivational stages are not so clearlyattributable to Maslow.
  13. 13. These extended models have instead been inferred by others from Maslowswork. Specifically Maslow refers to the needs Cognitive, Aesthetic and Transcendence(subsequently shown as distinct needs levels in some interpretations of his theory) asadditional aspects of motivation, but not as distinct levels in the Hierarchy of Needs. Where Maslows Hierarchy of Needs is shown with more than five levels thesemodels have been extended through interpretation of Maslows work by other people.These augmented models and diagrams are shown as the adapted seven and eight-stageHierarchy of Needs pyramid diagrams and models below. There have been very many interpretations of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs inthe form of pyramid diagrams. The diagrams on this page are my own interpretationsand are not offered as Maslows original work. Interestingly in Maslows bookMotivation and Personality, which first introduced the Hierarchy of Needs, there is not apyramid to be seen.
  14. 14. 1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance,prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.5. Cognitive needs - knowledge, meaning, etc.6. Aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.7. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seekingpersonal growth and peak experiences.8. Transcendence needs - helping others to achieve self actualization.2.4. Institutional Training Every organization needs the services of trained persons for performing theactivities in a systematic way. It is in this regard to some extent, training for thestudents of business courses in various functional areas become mandatory beforeentering in to the corporate Jobs. No doubt, the employee training is required in every stage, very frequently.Since, the fast changing technological development makes the knowledge of employeesobsolete. They require constant training to cope with the needs of corporatesector. They require constant training to cope with the needs of jobs. After selecting theemployees the next task of management is to give them proper training. Someemployees may have some previous knowledge of jobs while others may entirely benew. Both types of workers will need some kind of training to acquaint themselves withthe hobs though it is more necessary for the later category of employees.
  15. 15. Large organizations may employ a large number of persons every year. It maynot be possible to recruit already trained persons. Such enterprises require separatetraining departments to prepare training for preparing workers for jobs and also keepingthem acquainted with latest technological advancement. Training of employees is essential because work force is an invaluable asset toan organization. Training is necessary for the following reasons.« Increased Productivity Training improves the performance of employees. Increase skill and efficiencyresults in better quantity and quality of production. A trained worker will handlemachines carefully and will use the materials in an economical way.« Higher Employee Morale A trained worker derives happiness and job satisfaction from his work. He feelshappily when his performance is up to the mark. This also gives him job security andego satisfaction. The employees will properly look after a worker who performswell. All these factors will improve employee‘s morale.« Less Wastages Untrained worker my waste more materials, damage machines and equipmentsand may cause accidents. A trained worker will know the art of operating the machineproperly. He will also use the materials and other equipment in a systematic waycausing less wastage. The control of various wastes will substantially reduce themanufacturing cost. The amount spend on training the workers will prove an asset to theorganizations.
  16. 16. « Reduce Turnover And Absenteeism Labor turnover and absenteeism are mainly due to job dissatisfaction. When aworker is properly trained he will take keen interest in his job and can derive satisfactionfrom it. A satisfied person may not like to leave his job and try at a new place.« Employee Development Training also helps in the development of employees. It first helps in locatingtalent in them and then developing it to the maximum. The adaptability of a worker willhelp him in working on new and improved jobs. If a worker learns fast then be able todevelop his talent and improve his performance.2.5. Needs of Training To enable the new recruits to understand work:A person who is taking up his job for the first time must become familiar with it. Forexample, if a fresh graduate is appointed as a clerk in a bank, he must first of all gainknowledge of work assigned to him. To enable existing employees to update skill and knowledge.Training is not something needed for the newly recruited staff alone. Even the existingemployees of a concern may require training. Such training enables them to update theirskill and knowledge. To enable an employee who has been promoted to understand his responsibilities.Training is essential for an employee who has just been promoted to a higher level job.With an evaluation in his position in the organization, his responsibilities are also goingto multiply.
  17. 17. To enable an employee to become versatile.Sometimes an employee may have to gain knowledge of several related jobs. It will notbe enough if he is only good in the work he does presently.2.6. Purpose of training One of the main purpose of training is to prevent industrial accidents. This is done by creating safety consciousness among workers. When the employees are trained it enables them to achieve the required level of performance which in turns increases the productivity. Training helps in increasing the knowledge and skills of employee When the employees are trained it becomes easy for them to adapt themselves according to the changes made in business. Training reduces the cost of supervision. Trained employees needs less guidance which in turns reduces the needs for supervision.2.7. Importance of Training Improvement in skill and knowledge:Such training helps the employees to perform his job much better. This benefits theenterprise as well. Higher production and productivity:
  18. 18. If an enterprise has a team of well trained employees there will be rise in production aswell as increase in productivity. Productivity is the input- output ratio Job satisfaction:Trained employees will be able to make better use of the making of their skill. Thisincreases their level of self confidence and commitment to work. Such employees arebound to have higher job satisfaction. Better use of resources:Trained employees will be able to make better use of materials and machines. Thisreduces the rate of wastage and spoilage of materials and also breakage of tools andmachines Reduction in accidents:Trained employees are aware of safety precautions and so they are alert and cautious.This is bound to bring down the number of accident in the works place. Reduced supervision:Well trained employees do not need much supervision. They can do their work withouthaving to approach their superior often for guidance. Reduction in complaints:‗Only bad workers blame their tools‘. An employee who has acquired the necessary skilland job knowledge would certainly love his job. Adaptability:Trained workers have the capacity to adapt themselves to any kind of situation. They areodd in crisis management too. This indeed is beneficial for the organization. Scope for management by exception:
  19. 19. With trained workers working under them, it becomes easy for the managers to getthings done by delegating authority. This enables the managers to concentrate more onimportant issues confronting the organization. Stability:―The employees of today are going to be the managers of tomorrow‖. The retirement ofkey managers may not affect the stability of an organization if it has a team of trained,efficient and committed employees who are ever ready to take over management.2.8. Features of trainingThe features of good training programs are as follows:- Clear purpose:The objective of the programme should be clearly specified. The training should beresult oriented. Training needs:The training needs of employees should be clearly defined. The methods selected forimparting training should be appropriate and effective. Relevance:The training programme and its contents must be relevant to the requirements of the jobfor which it is intended. Balance between theory and practice:A good training programme should provide a balanced mix of theory and practice thetheoretical framework should be backed by practical application to provide all roundtraining
  20. 20. Management support:Top management must actively support the training programme so that the trainingprogramme may help the employees to yield better results. Once the employees get thesupport form management support the perform there job more effectively.2.9. Steps involved in training: Step1:Define the chart part of the organization in which the work has to be done. It is to have afocused approach of the study. It could either be a particular department, a section, aunit, a specific group or a staff category. Step2:Use various data collection measures to collect both qualitative as well as quantitativedata. Step3:Analyze the entire data collected in order to find out causes of problem areas andpriorities areas, which need immediate attention. Step4:Priorities the different training programmes according to the responses collected. Step5:Record and file the entire data so that it can be used for future reference while designingtraining programmes/ training calendar.
  21. 21. 2.10. Methods and Types of Training and their Advantages and Disadvantages. Following chart illustrates advantages and disadvantages for the different training methods.Training Method Type of Training Advantages DisadvantagesInstructor-Led Classroom Revised easily Scheduling is difficultTraining Developed quickly Travel costs Differences from class Face-to-face contact to class On-line Group Requires computer No travel costs Training equipment No face-to-face Developed quickly contact Supports large Videoconferencing groups and multiple High equipment costs and Video/On-line sites Logistically No travel costs challenging
  22. 22. Differences from Effective knowledge On-the Job Coaching instructor to instructor, transfer session to session. Costly in terms of Related to trainees instructor-to-trainee job ratio Face-to-face contactOn-line Self- Consistent training High development All On-line TrainingDirected Training content costs Convenient access to Lengthy development training time Trainee sets own Requires computer pace equipment Reuse does not require trainer participation Limited bandwidth Web-Based Training Easy to modify causes slow download times. Supports complex CD-ROM/DVD Difficult to modify multimedia
  23. 23. Off-line Self- Printed Material Portable Less InterestingDirected Training Trainee sets own Difficult to modify pace Developed quickly Video DVD or Consistent training Requires playback Audio CD content equipment Can be costly to Can share copies develop Trainee sets own Difficult to modify pace Electronic Available whenJust-In-Time Performance Support needed at trainees Costly to developTraining System (EPSS) convenience Related to trainees Requires computer job equipment Requires training Continuous Promotes employee resources that are Improvement involvement readily available on a continuous basis
  24. 24. Promotes creative Differences from solutions instructor to instructorComputer-Mediated Accessible at the Requires computerAsynchronous trainees equipmentCollaboration convenience Promotes creative Can require computer solutions software Promotes employee involvement
  25. 25. 2.11. Training Design
  27. 27. CHAPTER - 4RESEARCH METHODOLOGYIntroductionResearch methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may beunderstood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we studythe various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his researchproblem along with the logic behind them.Research methodology has many dimensions and research methods do constitute a partof the research methodology. The scope of research methodology is wider than that ofresearch methods. Thus, when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of theresearch methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context ofour research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique andwhy we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated eitherby the researcher himself or by others. Why a research study has been undertaken, howthe research problem has been defined, in what way and why the hypothesis has beenformulated, what data have been collected and what particular method has been adopted,why particular technique of analyzing data has been used and a host of similar otherquestions are usually answered when we talk of research methodology concerning aresearch problem or study.
  28. 28. 4.1. Topic of StudyThis study focuses on the effectiveness of training and development processes inSrivirad Systems and Services Pvt ltd. Training is the process of increasing theknowledge and skills of the employee. A better knowledge about these things canfacilitate the trainer as well as the trainee in conducting and benefiting from the training.But training being a very complex process makes it a bit difficult. So the best way toachieve it is by studying and analyzing the feedback of employees as well as managers.The project includes collecting information from staffs of Srivirad Systems and services,analyzing it, interpreting it, and making observation and providing useful suggestionsfrom it.This study helps to know the impact of training process on employees in theorganization. And also it enables to know the attitude of employees towards training,satisfaction of employees, efficiency of training programs and trainers, and impact oftraining on the productivity of the organization.This study provides the management with information regarding the effectiveness oftheir training process and the satisfaction level of their employees with which they canunderstand the areas of strengths and weaknesses of their training program and their bytake necessary managerial decisions.The study mainly deals with the efficiency of training processes which has to bincreased. The objective, relevancy of training, methods, materials, environment andtime duration of training, personal satisfaction of employees all affect the effectivenessof training. The study tries to cover as many areas as possible in order to come with thebest and accurate conclusions. The feedbacks of the participants and trainers of trainingprocess have contributed a lot to achieve this.
  29. 29. 4.2. Sources of DataData refers to information or facts however it also includes descriptive facts, nonnumerical information, qualitative and quantitative informationData could be broadly classified as Primary data Secondary data4.2.1. Primary dataPrimary data is the data collected for the first time through field survey. It is collectedwith a set of objectives to assess the current status of any variable studied. Primary datareveals the cross-section picture of the object under scruting. Therefore primary data arethose collected by the investigator (or researcher) himself for the first time and thus theyare original in character.Advantages of primary data They are the first hand information. The data collected are reliable as they are collected by te researcher for himself. The primary data are useful for knowing opinion, qualities and attitudes of respondents.4.2.2. Secondary dataSecondary data refers to the information or facts already collected. It is collected withobjective of understanding the part status of any variable or the data collected andreported by some source is accessed and used for the objective of a study. Normally in
  30. 30. research, the scholars collect published data analyze it in order to explain therelationship between variables.Advantages of secondary data The information can be collected by incurring least cost. The time required for obtaining the information is very less. Most of the secondary data are those published by big institutions. So they contain large quantity of information4.2.1 Sources of informationPrimary data i. Questionnaire or schedule ii. Observation iii. Feedback form iv. Interview v. Projective techniques vi. Content analysisvii. Consumer panelsSecondary data i. Book ii. Periodicals or journals iii. Research thesis and dissertations iv. Footnotes
  31. 31. v. Encyclopedias vi. Statistical data sourcesvii. Websites/blogs4.3. Tools Used for Data CollectionData collection tools are instruments used to collect information for performanceassessments, self-evaluations, and external evaluations. The data collection tools need tobe strong enough to support what the evaluations find during research. The researcherhas used the method of interview to collect the information in that organization andother techniques like observation to collect primary data.4.3.1. QuestionnaireThe questionnaire contains two parts; Part A and Part B. Part A contains personalquestions. The question about name is avoided to get true answers from respondents.The questions such as marital status, age, gender are asked because they have individualinfluence on the study.Part B contains 20 questions. All questions are provided with options and all of themwere given with checkbox such that the employees can easily record their response.4.3.2. Observation technique It is well known that observation is a method of collecting data with sensibleorgans in understanding less explained or explained phenomena. In this method researcher observes some of the data like utilization of resources,level of performance of workers, idle time given for workers, training frequency etc.
  32. 32. 4.4. Research design A research design is the assignment of conditions for collection and analysis ofdata in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the search purpose formidableproblem that follow the fact defining the research is the preparation in this study theresearcher has made use of the descriptive research design this is used to determinesome definitive purpose with the help of structured questionnaire to further primaryinformation to focus on the accurate description of the variable present in the problem4.5. Sampling Sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within apopulation to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Researchers rarely survey the entire population because the cost of a census istoo high. The three main advantages of sampling are that the cost is lower, datacollection is faster, and since the data set is smaller it is possible to ensure homogeneityand to improve the accuracy and quality of the data. In the study researcher has usedprobability sampling.4.5.2. Sample size The total number of population [employees] is 150. It would be time consumingas well as difficult to interview all 150 employees. So he researcher has selected 30% ofpopulation for sampling. The samples were selected using simple random samplingtechniques ie every individual in the total population had equal chances of beingselected.
  33. 33. 4.6. Selection of Sample Respondents4.6.1. Simple random sampling A simple random sample is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from alarger set (a population). Each individual is chosen randomly and entirely by chance,such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen at any stage duringthe sampling process, and each subset of k individuals has the same probability of beingchosen for the sample as any other subset of k individuals. This process and technique isknown as simple random sampling.In our study the total population (employees who participated in training ) is 150. Everyemployee of the population had equal chances of being selected among which 45 (30%)employees were chosen to conduct the study.4.7. Tools Used for Data Analysis For this research researcher has used some of the tolls like probability, graphicalmethods, pie charts, bar diagram etc for doing the data analysis.4.7.1. Chi square Pearsons chi-squared is used to assess two types of comparison: tests of goodness offit and tests of independence. A test of goodness of fit establishes whether or not an observed frequency distribution differs from a theoretical distribution. A test of independence assesses whether paired observations on two variables, expressed in a contingency table, are independent of each other—for example, whether people from different regions differ in the frequency with which they report that they support a political candidate.
  34. 34. The first step in the chi-squared test is to calculate the chi-squared statistic. In orderto avoid ambiguity, the value of the test-statistic is denoted by Χ2 rather than χ2 (whichis either an uppercase chi instead of lowercase, or an upper case roman X); this alsoserves as a reminder that the distribution of the test statistic is not exactly that of a chi-squared random variable. However some authors do use the χ2 notation for the teststatistic. An exact test which does not rely on using the approximate χ2 distribution isFishers exact test: this is substantially more accurate in evaluating the significance levelof the test, especially with small numbers of observations. The chi-squared test statistic is calculated by finding the difference between eachobserved and theoretical frequency for each possible outcome, squaring them, dividingeach by the theoretical frequency, and taking the sum of the results. A second importantpart of determining the test statistic is to define the degrees of freedom of the test: this isessentially the number of observed frequencies adjusted for the effect of using some ofthose4.7.1. MS excel Microsoft Excel is a commercial spreadsheet application written and distributedby Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. The application was used toorganize and analyze the raw data collected from survey. Excel was also helpful inmaking graphical representations of the organized data.4.7.2. SPSS SPSS is a computer program used for survey authoring and deployment (IBMSPSS Data Collection), data mining (IBM SPSS Modeler), text analytics, statisticalanalysis, and collaboration and deployment. The program was helpful in conducting thechi square test..
  35. 35. 4.8. Definition of Important Terms4.8.1. Training This term is often interpreted as the activity when an expert and learner worktogether to effectively transfer information from the expert to the learner (to enhance alearners knowledge, attitudes or skills) so the learner can better perform a current taskor job. Heres another perspective.4.8.2. Development This term is often viewed as a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities(training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to anotherthreshold of performance. This development often includes a wide variety of methods,e.g., orienting about a role, training in a wide variety of areas, ongoing training on thejob, coaching, mentoring and forms of self-development. Some view development as alife-long goal and experience.4.8.3. Information At its most basic form, a piece of information about something is a "unit ofawareness" about that thing. (A field of philosophy, epistemology, includes analysis ofwhat is really information and what isnt. This field might visit the question: "If a treefalls in the forest, does it make a sound?") Some people think that this awareness occursonly in the brain and, therefore, usually comes from some form of thought. Other peoplealso accept information as a form of realization from other forms of inquiry, e.g.,intuition.4.8.4. Knowledge Knowledge is gleaned by organizing information. Typically, information evolvesto knowledge by the learners gaining context, perspective and scope about theinformation.
  36. 36. 4.8.5. Skills Skills are applying knowledge in an effective and efficient manner to getsomething done. One notices skills in an employee by their behaviors.4.8.6. Task A task is a typically defined as a unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed toproduce some result, e.g., vacuuming a carpet, writing a memo, sorting the mail, etc.Complex positions in the organization may include a large number of tasks, which aresometimes referred to as functions.4.8.7. Job A job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsibleto conduct. Jobs have titles.4.8.8. Role A role is the set of responsibilities or expected results associated with a job. Ajob usually includes several roles.4.8.9. Learning Typically, learning is viewed as enhancing ones knowledge, understanding orskills. Some people see learning as enhancement to ones knowledge, awareness andskills. Some professionals view learning as enhancing ones capacity to perform. Someview learning as a way of being that includes strong value on receiving feedback andincreasing understanding. Its important to note that learning is more than collecting information -- morethan collecting unreferenced books on a shelf. Depending on the needs of the learner,knowledge is converted to skills, that is, the learner knows how to apply the knowledgeto get something done. Ideally, the skills are applied to the most appropriate tasks andpractices in the organization, thereby producing performance -- results needed by theorganization. Heres another perspective.
  37. 37. 4.8.10. Continuous Learning Simply put, continuous learning is the ability to learn to learn. Learning need notbe a linear event where a learner goes to a formal learning program, gains areas ofknowledge and skills about a process, and then the learning ceases. If the learner canview life (including work) as a "learning program", then the learner can continue to learnfrom almost everything in life. As a result, the learner continues to expand his or hercapacity for living, including working.4.8.11. Education This term seems to be the most general of the key terms in employee training.Some professionals view education as accomplishing a personal context andunderstanding of the world, so that ones life and work are substantially enhanced, e.g.,"Go get an education." Others view the term as the learning required to accomplish anew task or job. Heres another perspective.4.9. HypothesisA hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. The term derives from theGreek, ὑποτιθέναι – hypotithenai meaning "to put under" or "to suppose". For ahypothesis to be put forward as a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requiresthat one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previousobservations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories.Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, ascientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is aprovisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.
  38. 38. 4.10. Period of the Study This study was conducted in Srivirad Systems and Services with a period of 30days.  Initial five days were spent on data collection.  Next 6 days were engaged with the employees to have a personal contact with them.  The next 15 days were used to help up in the HR department concerns such as conducting meetings, applications arranging and informing meeting etc.  The last 5 days were used to circulate the questionnaire and collect reply from employees.4.11. Limitations of StudySome difficulties were encountered while doing the project. The limitations were listedbelow. The employees of the Srivirad systems and services found it difficult to answer questions properly due to their busy and heavy workload. Some were reluctant to answer some question thinking that might affect their job negatively. The primary collection of data was time consuming, as the employees were busy. Sample size was 20% of total population. The total time allowed by company to do the project. Being a very lengthy and complex process it is difficult to analyze the details of training and process. The working personals are not proffered to give complete information
  39. 39. CHAPTER – 5DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONIntroduction Analysis and interpretation is the one of the important stage of a project. In thisstage the recorded responses are coded into symbols, for making counting, edited,tabulated and represented in appropriate pictorial form. The responses in the questionnaire have its own value in making a trueinterpretation. There are 45 respondents for the study. The questions are created in a waythat the ambiguity is avoided. After preliminary scrutiny of the filled questionnaires, it isnoticed that all the respondents marked their responses to important questions which willlead the study. The responses of the questionnaires are tabulated and represented in percentagesto get a clear cut picture about the responses. It made the interpretation quite easier onthe basis of percentages chart is drawn. The selected pie chart was very useful for theinterpretation. The interpretation for questions which seeks Yes or No answers was easybecause comparative majority can be identified by the percentage. Diagrammaticrepresentations are given for each question in order to make the finding s more clearly tothe reader. Along with simple bar diagrams and pie charts new 3D representationmethods are also used to make the presentation more interactive. The questionnaire contains two parts. Part A is about personal data and Part Babout the necessary questions
  40. 40. Personal Data: Part ATable 1.1AGE OF RESPONDANTSAge Group No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents18-23 15 33.3324-28 18 4029-33 9 2034-39 3 6.67total 45 100Table 1[a] shows the age group of respondents and their respective percentage.Table 1.2GENDER OF RESPNDENTSGender No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondentsmale 39 86.67female 6 13.33total 45 100
  41. 41. Table 1[b] shows the gender of respondents and the percentage of respondents in eachgender.Table 1.3MARITAL STATUS OF RESPONDANTSstatus No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondentssingle 30 66.67married 15 33.33total 45 100Table 1[c] shows the marital status of the respondents and the percentage ofrespondents in each group.Table 1.4EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDANTS IN SRIVIRAD SYSTEMS SERVICESexperience in years No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents0-3 33 73.334-6 9 207-9 3 6.67
  42. 42. total 45 100Table 1[d] shows the experience of respondents in years in Srivirad systems andservices.Part BTABULATION OF RESPONSES OF EMPLOYEES 1. Opinion about the regular assessment of training needs at the company.Table 2.0 Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Yes 32 72 No 13 29 Total 45 100
  43. 43. Inference From the table 2.0, 71.11% of respondents agreed that training needs areassessed regularly at Srivirad Systems and Services. While 28.8 percent respondents areof the opinion that training needs aren‘t assessed properly.Figure 1.0 1. Opinion about the regular assessment of training needs at the company
  44. 44. 120 100 80 60 Percentage Of Respondents 40 20 0 Yes No Total 2. Opinion about training process as a learning experience.Table 3.0
  45. 45. Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Very Good 5 11 Good 20 44 Satisfactory 13 29 Bad 5 11 Very Bad 2 4 Total 45 100Inferences: From table 3.0, we can see that 11% of respondents say that training process as alearning experience is very good at Srivirad Systems and Services. While 44% are of theopinion it is Good and 29 percent are just satisfied with the training process as far as thelearning experience is concerned. 11% percent rated training process as very bad andjust 4% stated training as very bad.Figure 2.0Opinion about the regular assessment of training needs at the company.
  46. 46. 120100806040 Percentage Of Responden ts20 0 Very Good Good Satisfactory Bad Very Bad Total3. Opinion about the performance of trainer/guest faculty/instructor.
  47. 47. Table 4.0 Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Very Good 5 11 Good 21 47 Satisfactory 12 27 Bad 5 11 Very Bad 2 4 Total 45 100Inference: From the table 4.0, we can see that 11% percent of the respondents are of theopinion that performance of trainer/guest faculty/instructor is very good. 47% said itsgood and 27% find the performance of trainer satisfactory. And 11% voted it as bad and45 voted it as very bad.Figure 3.0
  48. 48. Figure 3.0Opinion about the performance of trainer/guest faculty/instructor. 120 100 80 60 40 Percentage Of Respondents 20 0 Very Good Good Satisfactory Bad Very Bad Total
  49. 49. 4. Achievement of learning objective from training program.Table 5.0 Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Yes 31 69 Partially 8 18 No 1 2 Cant say 5 11 Total 45 100Inference: 69% percent of the respondents claim that they have achieved the learningobjective from the training program. 18% respondents were of the opinion that theyachieved the learning objective partially. 2% percent couldn‘t achieve the trainingobjective and 13 percent of respondents refused to answer.
  50. 50. Figure 3.0Achievement of learning objective from training program 120 100 80 60 Percentage Of Respondents 40 20 0 Yes Partially No Cant say Total
  51. 51. 5. Relevancy of training program with the jobTable 6.0 Answer No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Very Good 5 11 Good 29 64 Satisfactory 8 18 Bad 3 7 Very Bad 0 0 Total 45 100Inference: From table 6.0 and figure 5.0 we can observe that 11percent of respondentsreveal that the training provided is very much relevant to the job while majority ie 64%revealed that it is good and 18 percent revealed that its satisfactory. And 7% voted it asirrelevant. The above diagram shows the opinion of employees about the relevancy oftraining process to the job.
  52. 52. Figure 5.0Relevancy of training program with the job
  53. 53. 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Very Good Good Satisfactory Bad Total 6. There is well designed and widely shared training policy in the companyTable 7.0
  54. 54. Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Very Good 6 13 Good 12 27 Satisfactory 20 44 Bad 5 11 Very Bad 2 4 Total 45 100Inference: From table 7.0 and figure 6.0 we can see that 13% percent of the respondentsreveal that the company‘s training policy is designed very good. 27% said its good and44% said its satisfactory. 11% percent rated it as bad and Rest 4% reveal that they arevery dissatisfied with company‘s training policy.Figure 6.0
  55. 55. There is well designed and widely shared training policy in the company Very Bad Bad Very Good Good Satisfactory7. Opinion about the content and methodology used in the training program.
  56. 56. Table 8.0 Answer No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Very Good 3 7 Good 20 44 Satisfactory 15 33 Bad 5 11 Very Bad 2 4 Total 45 100Inference: 7 percent of the respondents revealed that the content and methodology used inthe training program is very good. 44 percent were of the opinion that it was good. 33percent responded that training methodology and content was satisfactory. 11% said itsbad and 4% said its really very bad.
  57. 57. Figure 7.0Opinion about the content and methodology used in the training program Very Bad Very Good Bad Good Satisfactory
  58. 58. 8. Usefulness of training materials.Table 9.0 Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Very Good 6 13. Good 21 47 Satisfactory 15 33 Bad 3 7 Very Bad 0 0 Total 45 100.Inference: From table 9.0 and figure 8.0 we can see that 13 percent of the respondentsrevealed that training materials were really useful, 47% stated it as good and 33 percentrespondents found training material satisfactory. Only 6 percent respondents declaredtraining materials to be bad.
  59. 59. Figure 8.0 Opinion about Usefulness of training materials. Bad , 3 Very Good, 6 Satisfactory, 15 Good , 21
  60. 60. 9. Opinion about the use of audio-visual aidsTable 10.0 Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Very Good 3 7 Good 6 13 Satisfactory 24 53 Bad 12 27 Very Bad 0 0 Total 45 100Inference: From the above table 10.0 and figure 9.0 we can observe that 53% of respondentare satisfied with the use of audio-visual aids. 13% were stated the use of audio-visualaids to be good and 7% percent declared it very good. 27 percent of respondentsdeclared the use of audio-visual aids to be bad.
  61. 61. Figure 9.0 Opinion about the use of audio-visual aids Very Good 7% Bad Good 27% 13% Satisfactory 53%
  62. 62. 10.Opinion about the practical sessions in the training program.Table 11.0 Answer No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Very Good 4 9 Good 10 22 Satisfactory 28 62 Bad 2 4 Very Bad 1 2 Total 42 100Inference: From the above give table 11.0 and figure 10.0 we can observe that 9% and 22%respondents responded that practical sessions are very good and good respectively. 62%of respondent are satisfied with the practical sessions conducted in the training process.4% and 2% respondents stated practical sessions of training process at Srivirad systemsand services is bad and very bad respectively.
  63. 63. Figure 10.0 Opinion about the practical sessions in the training program. Very Bad Bad Very Good Good Satisfactory
  64. 64. 11.Opinion about the working environmentTable 12.0 Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Strongly satisfied 3 6 Satisfied 24 54 Dissatisfied 18 40 Strongly dissatisfied 0 0 Total 45 100Inference: From the above table 12.0 and figure 11.0 we can observe that 54% respondentsare satisfied about the working environment provided with training and 6% werestrongly satisfied. We can also observe that 40 percent of respondents are dissatisfiedabout the working environment. None were strongly dissatisfied about the workingenvironment of training process conducted at Srivirad systems and services
  65. 65. Figure 12.0Opinion about the working environment 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total
  66. 66. . 12. Opinion about the time duration given for the training period.Table 13.0 Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Sufficient 12 27 Good 24 53 Fair 8 18 Poor 1 2 Very poor 0 0 Total 45 100Inference: The above table 13.0 and figure 12.0 clearly shows that 26.67 percent ofrespondents are satisfied with the time given for training. While 53.3% respondentsexplained the time allotment as good. 17.77% found the time allotment to be fair and2.22% respondent revealed that they aren‘t satisfied with the time given for training andvoted bad.
  67. 67. Figure 12.0 Opinion about the time duration given for the training period.
  68. 68. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sufficient Good Fair Poor Total 13. Opinion about the preferences given to the participants’ suggestions.Table 14.0
  69. 69. Answer No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Excellent 6 13 Good 22 48 Fair 11 24 Poor 3 7 Very Poor 3 7 Total 45 100Inference: The above table 14.0 and figure 13.0 shows that 13% respondents said that theparticipants suggestions are really taken into account. 48% respondents found thatpreferences given to participants suggestion to be good, 24% opinioned it to be fair[average] but 7% declared the acceptance of participant‘s suggestion as poor another 7%said its very poor.Figure 13.0Opinion about the preferences given to the participants’ suggestions.
  70. 70. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 Percentage Of Respondents 30 20 10 0 Excellent Good Fair Poor Very Poor Total14. Opinion about the motivation given to the participants.
  71. 71. Table 15.0Answer No. Of Respondents Percentage Of RespondentsStrongly agree 1 2Somewhat agree 24 52Disagree 18 40Strongly disagree 3 6Total 45 100Inference: From the table 15.0 and figure 14.0 we can observe that 53.33 percentrespondents somewhat agree they have given with motivation to participate in thetraining process. 40% respondents disagreed with this and 6.67 % respondents stronglydisagreed.
  72. 72. Figure 14.0Opinion about the motivation given to the participants. 100 90 80 70 60 100 50 40 30 52 40 20 10 6 2 0 Strongly agree Somewhat Disagree Strongly Total agree disagrree Percentage Of Respondents
  73. 73. 15.Are employees permitted times off from work to attend trainingTable 16.0 Answer No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Yes, with 0 0 pay Yes, without 0 0 pay No 27 60 No, such 18 40 thing Total 45 100Inference: We can observe that, from table 16.0 and figure 15.0 , 60 percent of respondentsanswered no when asked if they are permitted time offs from work to attend training.And 40% respondents said they aren‘t aware of any such thing.
  74. 74. Figure 15.0 Are employees permitted times off from work to attend training? 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3
  75. 75. 16.Does training process affect normal working hours?Table 17.0 Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Yes 9 20 No 30 66 Cant say 6 14 Total 45 100Inference: From table 17.0 and figure 16.0 we can see that 20%,ie majority, of respondentsare of the opinion that training process affect the normal working hours of Sriviradsystems and services. 66% respondents don‘t think working hours are affected. And14% respondents refused to answer.
  76. 76. Figure 16.0 Does training process affect normal working hours?
  77. 77. 100908070605040302010 0 Yes No Cant say Total Percentage Of Respondents17. Do you think employees apply the new concepts taught at the training program in their job?
  78. 78. Table 18.0 Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Yes 9 20 Somewhat 24 53 No 0 0 Cant say 12 27 Total 45 100Inference: From table 18.0 and figure 17.0 we can observe that 53% respondents thinkemployees somewhat apply their newly learned skills. While 20 % respondentsconfidently stated employees apply their new skills. 27% respondents choose not to say.Figure 17.0
  79. 79. Do you think employees apply the new concepts taught at the training program intheir job? 100 90 80 70 60 50 Series1 40 30 20 10 0 Yes Somewhat Cant say Total 18. Opinion about overall quality of the training program
  80. 80. Table 19.0Answer No. Of Respondents Percentage Of RespondentsVery Good 14 31Good 23 52Poor 7 15Very Poor 1 2Total 45 100Inference: From table 19.0 and figure 18.0 we can observe that 31% employees said thequality of training program is very good and 52% said its good. 15 and 2 percentrespondents rated quality as poor and very poor respectively.Figure 18.0
  81. 81. Opinion about overall quality of the training program 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Very Good Good Poor Very Poor Total Percentage Of Respondents
  82. 82. 19. Have your personal goals been benefiting out of training?Table 20.0 Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Yes 1 2 Somewhat 9 20 No 11 25 Cant say 24 53 Total 45 100Inference: 25% respondents said no when asked if their personal goals have been benefitingout of company training. 20% said they somewhat achieve their personal goals throughtraining. 2% percent said they certainly benefit from training. And 53% choose not toanswer.
  83. 83. Figure 19.0Have your personal goals been benefiting out of training? 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes Somewhat No Cant say Total Percentage Of Respondents
  84. 84. 20. Opinion about the satisfaction of the training program conducted as per the schedule.Table 21.0 Opinion No. Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents Strongly satisfied 15 33 satisfied 19 42 Dissatisfied 7 16 Strongly Dissatisfied 4 9 Total 45 100Inference: From the table 21.0 and figure 20.0 we can see that 33% respondents are stronglysatisfied with the training program conducted as per the schedule. 42% respondents aresatisfied. 16% respondents are dissatisfied with the training program while 9%respondents are strongly dissatisfied.
  85. 85. Figure 20.0Opinion about the satisfaction of the training program conducted as per theschedule.
  86. 86. 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Strongly satisfied satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly Total DissatisfiedeeCHI SQUAREAim:To find out whether there is an association between quality of the training programconducted and satisfaction of the training program conducted.
  87. 87. Null hypothesis: [H0]There is no significant indifference between quality of the training program conductedand satisfaction of the training program conducted.Alternative hypothesis: [H1]There is an indifference between quality of the training program conducted andsatisfaction of the training program conducted.OBSERVED FREQUENCYQuestion Quality of the training provided Option Very Good Poor Very Total Good poorSatisfaction Stronglyof the satisfied 5 8 2 0 15training Satisfied 8 12 2 0 22provided Dissatisfied 1 3 2 1 7 Strongly dissatisfied 0 0 1 0 1 Total 14 23 7 1 45E=
  88. 88. EXPECTED FREQUENCYQuestion Quality of the training provided Option Very Good Poor Very poor Total GoodSatisfaction StronglyOf satisfied 4.67 7.66 2.33 0.33 15the training Satisfied 6.84 11.24 3.42 0.048 22provided Dissatisfied 2.17 3.57 1.08 0.156 7 Strongly dissatisfied 0.311 0.511 0.15 0.022 1 Total 14 23 7 1 45O E O-E [O-E]^2 [[O-E]^2]/E5 4.67 0.33 0.1089 0.0233198 6.84 1.16 1.3456 0.1967251 2.17 -1.17 1.3689 0.6308290 0.311 -0.311 0.096721 0.311
  89. 89. 8 7.66 0.34 0.1156 0.01509112 11.24 0.76 0.5776 0.0513883 3.57 -0.57 0.3249 0.0910080 0.511 -0.511 0.261121 0.5112 2.33 -0.33 0.1089 0.0467382 3.42 -1.42 2.0164 0.5895912 1.08 0.92 0.8464 0.7837041 0.15 0.85 0.7225 4.8166670 0.33 -0.33 0.1089 0.330 0.048 -0.048 0.002304 0.0481 0.156 0.844 0.712336 4.5662560 0.022 -0.022 0.000484 0.022TOTAL 13.03332Calculated Value of X2 = 13.03DF= [r-1]*[c-1] where r: Number of rows c :Number of columns = [4-1]*[4-1] = 3*3 =9Table value of x2 for dof =16.91 @ 5% level of significanceRESULT:
  90. 90. Calculated Value of x2 is less than table value of x2. Hence null hypothesis isaccepted.INFERENCE: The calculated value is 13.27 is lesser than tabulated value is 16.91. There for.we Accept null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis is rejected and therefore there is asignificance relation between the quality of the training program conducted andsatisfaction of participants.
  91. 91. CHAPTER 6SUMMARY AND FINDINGS6.1. Observations and FindingsThough by and large, substantial number of employees are content with the way thetraining is conducted, still there is a scope to analyze at micro level whether thenegatives respondents were either non attentive confronted confused or otherwise. Basedup on the data there is a scope to take corrective action.  Majority of the employees who have attended the training program were well educated. Their level of education was from diploma holders to engineering graduates  Majority of the employees stated that they were informed about the purpose of training, its intended results and significance of training. This reflects that the management was keenly interested in achieving the objective for which the training programs were conducted.  As far as the infrastructure facilities are concerned, majority of employees have stated that the learning atmosphere was quite all right and the facilities provided during the process of training were adequate and conductive to learning.  Majority of the employees have expresses satisfactory opinion about the training faculty and their ability to train but a few numbers of the respondents were neither satisfied with the way in which the training programs were conducted by the trainer /faculty.  With regards to the enhancement of skills and knowledge of the employee who have attended the training program, eighty percent of them have cited there was an enhancement in their knowledge and skills compared to the other employees who have not attended the training program. The skill and knowledge learned through training were helpful to them in exercising on the job.
  92. 92.  Only a few members of the respondents have the opinion of significance of training in developing the personality of the individual. This shows that the training programs conducted were related only with their job but not concerned with the personal development of the employees.  Te training expectations of the respondents were found to be moderate. It could be observed from these facts that the employee‘s expectations were not completely fulfilled trough training6.2. Suggestions  In today‘s competitive world attitude is the factor which is the dividing line between failure and success. Thus recruitment of the employees must be made not only on skills and attitude but also the attitude of the employee. If an employee has a positive attitude then training for him can be more effective, he has a positive effect on the climate.  The training needs should be assessed regularly by observing the performance of employees and also from feedback.  The training records must be maintained, preserved properly and updated timely.  Proper care should be taken while selecting the trainers.  Trainers must be given continuous feedback and the training should be performed as a continuous planned activity.  New and different trainers should be invited so that the maximum impact can be got from the training programmes.  Co –ordination and interaction of the employees of all levels must be encouraged to locate new talents among employees. Individual care should be given as much as possible in case of practical sessions
  93. 93.  Try to consider the personal goals of participants also when designing the training module. By which the interest and satisfaction of participants can be increased.  Try to use more visual and audio aids to make trainings more interactive and active.6.3. Conclusions Analysis of all the facts & figures, the observations and the experience during thetraining period gives a very positive conclusion/ impression regarding the trainingimparted by the Srivirad Systems and Services trainers. The Srivirad Systems andServices is performing its role up to the mark and the trainees enjoy the trainingimparted especially the practical sessions and simulations.The training imparted meets the objectives like: o Effectiveness of the training and its resultant in the performance of the employees. o Assists the employees to acquire skills, knowledge and attitude and also enhance the same. o Helps to motivate employees and helps in avoiding mistakes.It becomes quite clear that there is no other alternative or short cut to the development ofhuman resources. Training when used in a planned and purposeful manner can be anextremely effective management tool as they increase the knowledge and skills ofworkers and thereby increasing the productivity and wealth of the organization.