UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
MR. JITEN H MENGHANI
ROLL NO 32
ACADEMIC YEAR 2013-2014
PROF.MRS.PARVEEN. NAGPAL & DR.MADHAVI PETHE
PARLE TILAK VIDYALAYA ASSOCIATION’S
M.L.DAHANUKAR COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
DIXIT ROAD, VILE PARLE (EAST)
I, MR. JITEN H MENGHANI OF PARLE TILAK VIDYALAYA
ASSOCIATION’S, M.L.DAHANUKAR COLLEGE OF
COMMERCE of M.COM (PART-1) (Semester 2) hereby
Declare that I have completed this project on
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
The Academic year 2013-2014. The information
Submitted is true & original to the best of knowledge.
(Signature of student)
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To list who all have helped me is difficult because they are so
numerous and the depth is so enormous.
I would like to acknowledge the following as being idealistic
channels and fresh dimensions in the completion of this
I take this opportunity to thank the University of Mumbai for
giving me chance to do this project.
I would like thank my Principal, Dr. Madhavi.S.Pethe
for providing the necessary facilities required for completion of
I would also like to express my sincere gratitude towards my
project guide PROF.MRS.PARVEEN. NAGPAL & DR.MADHAVI
PETHE whose guidance and care made the project successful.
I would like to thank my college library, for having provided
Various reference books and magazines related to my project.
Lastly I would like to thank each & every person who directly
or indirectly helped me in completion of the project especially
my parents & peers who supported me throughout my project.
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a) Introduction To Human Resource Management
b) Introduction Of The Training And Development
c) Traditional And Modern Approach Of Training And Development
d) Importance Of Training And Development
e) Training And Development Objectives
f) Models Of Training
g) System Model Training
h) Instructional System Development Model(Isd)Model
i) The ISD Model
j) Learning And Training
k) Best Time To Impart Training To Employee
l) Benefits Of Training
m) The Evaluation Of Training
n) A Training Tool: Inspiring Others
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p) Training Implementation
q) Conclusion & Suggestions
Introduction To Human Resource Management
Human Resource Management is concerned with human beings, who are energetic
elements of management. The success of an enterprise will depend upon the ability, strength and
motivation of persons working in it. Human Resource Management refers to systematic approach to
problems in any organization. Human Resource Management is concerned with all aspects of
managing the human resources of an organization.
According to Likert,’’ Every aspect of firm’s activities is determined by the competence, motivation
and general effectiveness of its human organization. Of all the tasks of management, managing the
human component is the central and most important task because all depends upon how well it is
done.’ This quotation sums up the importance of human component in an organization and need for
managing it effectively. Human Resources are the most important assets of an organization. Its
objective is the maintenance of better human relations in the Organization by the development,
application and evaluation of policies, procedures and programmes relating to human resources to
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optimize their contribution towards the realisation of organizational objectives.It is concerned with
getting better results with the collaboration of people.
Human Resource Management has been defined by various eminent authors. Some of
them are mentioned below:-
‘’The policies and practices needed to carry out the people or human resources aspects of a
management position including recruiting, screening, training, rewarding and appraising.’’
Dictionary of Human Resource Management and Personnel Management.
‘’Human Resource Management is that part of the management’s process which is primarily
concerned with the human constituents of an organization.’’
Introduction Of The Training And Development
One of the most talked subjects in corporate circles, in recent times is how to optimize the
contributions of human resources in achieving organizational goals. An efficient and satisfied
workforce is the most significant factor in organizational effectiveness and marginal excellence. But
experiences in business and service organizations however indicate that management, comparatively
speaking, bestows more time and attention to policies and systems relating to production, technology,
investment, inventory, marketing, etc than to human resources.
Compulsion of modern business environment is however promoting corporate managements to
systematically review their current attitudes, beliefs and policies towards human resources for they
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contribute most significantly to the survival and growth of organization. Enlightened and progressive
managements have therefore come to believe that people are not problems but opportunities. Training
and Development activities are important part of exploring these opportunities.
Training and Development activities are designed to impart specific skills, abilities and knowledge to
employees. Training is a planned effort by an organization to facilitate employee’s learning of job
related knowledge and skills for the purpose of improving performance. Development refers to
learning opportunities designed to help employees grow and evolve a vision for future.
Traditional And Modern Approach Of Training And Development
Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were
holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that
training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive
pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.
The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the
importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost.
The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the
It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts,
rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees.
Training is activity leading to skilled behavior:
• It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it.
• It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there.
• It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off.
• It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome.
• It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it.
• It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve it.
•Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks)
at present, and where you will be after some point of time.
•Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional
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Importance Of Training And Development
• Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the
utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as
well as their individual goals.
• Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity
and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an
organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.
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• Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job
knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect
and an overall personality of the employees
Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that
helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal
• Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit,
and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees
• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the
organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the
• Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and
feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and
• Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work
• Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working
environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with
• Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the
organization thus preventing obsolescence.
• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.
• Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.
• Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive
attitudes towards profit orientation.
• Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more
effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out
• Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better
attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.
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Training And Development Objectives
The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a
skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives:
Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.
Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn enhances the
individual contribution to an organization.
Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual
Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the
Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs
and challenges of the society.
Importance of Training Objectives
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Training objective is one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think
of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are
always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear
guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on
needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of
him at the end of the training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of
Trainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure
the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to
establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.
Trainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of
the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates
anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of
the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise. Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which
is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training
program in trainee’s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be
challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the
situation in which no goal is to Set. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability
that the participants will be successful in training.
Designer – The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is
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aware what is to be achieved in the end then he’ll buy the training package according to that only.
The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training
content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing
effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of one training program is
to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer
will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as
verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a
product or when a customer is angry. Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be
Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees
because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important
to tool to judge the performance of participants.
Training and Human Resource Management-
The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training
function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are
now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was
considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now-a-days, training is an investment
because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training
for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization,
then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually
provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization. To increase
the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior
management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful
planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education.
Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate
because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing
the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and
covers a multitude of courses.
Role of HRD Professionals in Training-
This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR
professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is:
1. Active involvement in employee education.
2. Rewards for improvement in performance.
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3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth.
4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment
support for advanced education and training.
5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training.
Models Of Training
Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales,
HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process
that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes
THE TRAINING SYSTEM-
A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular
function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. The System
Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to
examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between
the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and
evaluating. There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system
to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order
to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’s requirement. A
system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step
procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned
basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained
Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces,
that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may
impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various
demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest
The three model of training are:
1. System Model
2. Instructional System Development Model
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System Model Training
The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further
improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to
required standards. The steps involved in System
Model of training are as follows:
1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees
requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The
next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance
would be evaluated.
2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives
of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.
3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the
participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating
information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives.
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4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure
of whole training program.
5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work
performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy
or improve failure practices.
Instructional System Development Model(Isd)Model
Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems.
• This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the
training need on the job performance.
• Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on
the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in
determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering
media for the types of training objectives to be achieve.
The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:
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1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, andtarget audience
2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional
objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material,
media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to
impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.
3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of
developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids,
demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary.
4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers,
equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training
5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has
achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying
strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order
to remedy or improve failure practices.
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The ISD Model
The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also
highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this
model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase. Transitional model focuses on the
organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the
organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed.
Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point
of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A
vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be
promising to meet some other deadlines
Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community.
The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees
regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization
would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.
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Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held
values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values
may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc. The mission, vision, and values
precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The
objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further
Learning And Training
Irrespective of the type or method of training, a trainer has to keep in mind some of the principles of
learning or motivation, which would enhance internationalization of what is taught.
A trainee needs to have a desire to learn and benefit from the programme. If the is not interested, or is
de-motivated, the learning outcome is going to be insignificant and the company will have spent its
money badly. On the other hand, being too intense about learning and outcome may result in setting
over ambitious goals for the individual.
Following on the concept of motivation is that of reinforcement. For learning to take place and be
internalized to the desired extent, a trainee is rewarded or given some encouragement. This
reinforcement, or the acknowledgement that what has been acquired is desirable, can be either an
extrinsic or intrinsic reward-external praise or some tangible reward, or the individual’s feeling of a
sense of progress. Current stress is on positive support and helpful behavior, even when mistakes are
During the training process, it is useful for the trainee to be told how he is progressing. Several
researchers have confirmed that knowledge of results is an effective motivator. Constant and periodic
feedback has positive effects on the trainee’s learning. Unless the trainee knows how close his
performance comes to the desired standard, he will not have an opportunity to improve. Feedback
therefore provides a basis for correcting oneself. Secondly, feedback helps to sustain the trainee’s
interest in the task, or in each learning that is taking place, by bringing greater involvement with the
learning process. If feedback is to be meaningful, it should follow a learning segment as quickly as
Transfer of Learning-
The maximum use of training can be made if the trainee is able to transfer his learning to his actual
work role. This is possible if identical elements are incorporated in the training situation from the job
role, either existing or proposed. The more similar the learning situation is to the job situation, the
higher the degree of transfer the trainee can expect, and hence the grater the relevance of the training
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Repetition etches a pattern into our memory, e.g., when one studies for an examination, it is necessary
to repeatedly to over ideas so that they can be recalled later.
Relevance relates to the meaningful fuse of material, which aids learning, e.g., trainers usually
explain in the overall purpose of a job to trainees before assigning them a particular task.
Best Time To Impart Training To Employee
1. New Recruits To The Company-
These have a requirement for induction into the company as a whole in terms of its business activities
and personnel policies and provisions, the terms, conditions and benefits appropriate to the particular
employee, and the career and advancement opportunities available.
2. Transferees Within The Company-
These are people who are moved from one job to another, either within the same work area, i.e. the
same department or function, or to dissimilar work under a different management. Under this heading
we are excluding promotions, which take people into entirely new levels of responsibility.
Although similar to the transferee in that there is a new job to be learned in new surroundings, he is
dissimilar in that the promotion has brought him to a new level of supervisory or management
responsibility. The change is usually too important and difficult to make successfully to permit one
to assume that the promotes will pick it up as he goes along and attention has to be paid to training in
the tasks and the responsibilities and personal skills necessary for effective performance.
4. New Plant or Equipment-
Even the most experienced operator has everything to learn when a computer and electronic controls
replace the previous manual and electro-mechanical system on the process plant on which he works.
There is no less a training requirement for the supervisors and process management, as well as for
technical service production control and others.
5. New Procedures-
Mainly for those who work in offices in commercial and administrative functions but also for those
who we workplace is on the shop floor or on process plant on any occasion on which there is a
modification to existing paperwork or procedure for, say the withdrawal of materials from stores, the
control of customer credit the approval of expense claims, there needs to be instruction on the change
in the way of working in many instances, a note bringing the attention of all concerned the change is
assume to be sufficient, but there are cases, such as when total new systems in corporating IT up
dates are installed, when more thorough training is needed.
6. New Standards, Rules and Practices-
Changes in any one these are likely to be conveyed by printed note or by word of mouth by the
manager to his subordinates, and this can be the most satisfaction way of dealing with the change
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from the point of view of getting those affected to understand their new responsibility. However not
all changes under this heading can be left to this sort of handling. Even the simplest looking
instruction may be regarded as undesirable or impracticable by whoever has to perform it he may not
understand the purpose behind the change and lose confidence in a management which he now
believes to be ‘messing about’, or he may understand the purpose and have a better alternative to
offer if it is not too late.
7. New Relationship and Authorities-
These can arise, as a result of management decisions, in a number of ways. In examples, the
recognition of the accounts department can result in a realization of responsibilities between the
section leaders of credit control, invoicing and customer records, although there is no movement of
staff between the sections (i.e. no transfers). Although the change in work content for each clerk and
supervisor is defined clearly for each person in the new procedures, there is nevertheless a need for
each person to know where he stands in the new set up, which is responsible for what, and where to
direct problems and enquiries as they arise in the future.
8. Maintenance of Standards-
We are here concerned with maintenance of standards through training, for it must be remembered
that supervision and inspection and qualify control are continuously responsible for standards and
exercise their own authorities to this end. Although it is generally agreed that some retraining from
time to time, taking varied forms even for the on group of employees, does act as both a reminder and
a stimulus, there is not much agreement on the next frequency and form that such retraining should
take, of there is as yet little scientific knowledge on this subject which is of much use in industrial
9. The Maintenance of Adaptability-
Again, whilst there is little scientific study of the loss of ability to learn new skills in those cases
where people spend a long time without change, and without the need to learn, there is increasing
evidence in current experience to suggest that this is the case in industrial employment. Add, of
course, there is the inference arising from the laboratory experiments of psychologists.
10. The Maintenance of Management Skills & Standards -
Skills in supervising, employee appraisal, communications, leadership etc are important in all
companies. Some of these skills are seen to be critical to major developments in company
organization, culture, employee empowerment and so on. Initial training in these skills is not
uncommon in the largest companies on appointment into management and supervision. But
continuous training and performance monitoring is rare, despite the common knowledge that
standards are as varied as human nature.
11. Retirement and Redundancy-
Employees of any position in the company who are heading towards retirement will benefit from
learning about health, social life, work opportunities money management
etc. Internal or external courses are best attended a year or two before retirement date, in a few
companies a member of Personnel will act as a counselor as required.
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Benefits Of Training
Employees and the organization need to realize the importance of contribution and learning for
mutual growth and development. Training is the answer to deal with stagnation stage by constantly
updating it in every field. Other benefits of training include:
Hiring appeal: companies that provide training attract a better quality Workforce.
Assessing and addressing any performance deficiency.
Enhancing workforce flexibility. Cross-cultural training is essential for them for better
adjustment in the new environment.
Increasing commitment: Training acts as a loyalty booster. Employee motivation is also
enhanced when the employee knows that the organization would provide them opportunities
to increase their skills and knowledge.
It gives the organization a competitive edge by keeping abreast of the latest changes; it acts as
a catalyst for change.
Higher customer satisfaction and lower support cost results through improved service,
increased productivity and greater sufficiency.
Training acts as benchmark for hiring promoting and career planning.
It acts act as a retention tool by motivating employee to the vast opportunities for growth
available in an organization.
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The Evaluation Of Training
There are a number of expressions used to describe steps taken by management and by training
offices at the conclusion of training and during the days or weeks afterwards. These expressions
include validation, evaluation, follow-up and implementation, as well as cost benefit, which have
appeared in more recent years. We are interested in all of these and have already tackled one of the,
implementation, and we start by giving our definitions in order to establish a clearer picture of what
each is, and how they relate to each other.
Evaluation of training, or, indeed of anything, consists simply of putting a value to it. To evaluate
training means undertaking a search for the effect that it has had on the people and the situations,
which it influences, and then trying to measure or estimate whether this is advantageous or
We shall see that at the level of pure training there is an evaluation to be made, but that the principal
evaluation is at a higher level in the chain.
First the chain of intentions is clear at the outset
1. The forecourt attendants were to receive training to a defined level of competence.
2. They were then to apply their new capability correctly during the service that they gave to
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3. The motorists would respond to this with a reaction of pleasure and would tend to use that
particular station rather more, thus increasing the amount of gasoline sold.
4. The increased sales, and negligible increased costs, would improve the revenue and the
A Training Tool: Inspiring Others
In the new era new era, challenges for the trainer are to create learning environment. Trainer needs to
innovate new ways design and deliver the training inputs. Wide range of technique like interactive
methods like teaching, experiential learning cases inventories games, including humour. Where as we
have the ancient way of storytelling as a powerful tool to create learning for adult managers of
industry. Sharing one’s own perception, experience and ideas learning value can be increased
Methods of Training-
There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral
methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees
keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training. Cognitive methods are more of
giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the
rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among
concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating
The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:
LECTURES – A Method of Training
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It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to
influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is
telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give
him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the
trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be
used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training
without lecture format. There are some variations in Lecture method. The variation here means that
some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not.
Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee
attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not
involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form
of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed
material is the trainer’s intonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer.
The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on the signals
from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed. A good lecture
consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order
in which the topic will be covered.
Main Features of Lecture Method-
Some of the main features of lecture method are:
• Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings
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• Less expensive
• Can be reached large number of people at once
• Knowledge building exercise
• Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity
Demonstration Training Method
This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As an example,
trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. In order to be more
effective, demonstration method should be should be accompanied by the discussion or lecture
method. To carry out an effective demonstration, a trainer first prepares the lesson plan by breaking
the task to be performed into smaller modules, easily learned parts. Then, the trainer sequentially
organizes those modules and prepares an explanation for why that part is required. While performing
the demonstration, trainer:
Demonstrates the task by describing how to do, while doing
• Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects of the task
• Tells the trainees what you will be doing so they understand what you will be showing them
• Explains why it should be carried out in that way
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The difference between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level of
involvement of the trainee. In the lecture method, the more the trainee is involved.
The financial costs that occur in the demonstration method are as follows:
• Cost of training facility for the program
• Cost of materials that facilitate training
• Food, travel, lodging for the trainees and the trainers
• Compensation of time spent in training to trainers and trainees
• Cost related to creating content, material
• Cost related to the organization of the training
After completing the demonstration the trainer provide feedback, both positive and or negative, give
the trainee the opportunity to do the task and describe what he is doing and why.
Discussion Training Method
This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported, elaborated,
explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees and between the trainer and the
trainees. The interaction and the communication between these two make it much more effective and
powerful than the lecture method. If the Discussion method is used with proper sequence i.e. lectures,
followed by discussion and questioning, can achieve higher level knowledge objectives, such as
problem solving and principle learning.
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• The Discussion method consists a two-way flow of communication i.e. knowledge inthe form
of lecture is communicated to trainees, and then understanding is conveyed back by trainees to
• Understanding is conveyed in the form of verbal and non-verbal feedback that enables the
trainer to determine whether the material is understood. If yes, then definitely it would help
out the trainees to implement it at their workplaces and if not, the trainer may need to spend
more time on that particular area by presenting the information again in a different manner.
• Questioning can be done by both ways i.e. the trainees and the trainer. When the trainees ask
questions, they explain their thinking about the content of the lecture. A trainer who asks
questions stimulates thinking about the content of the lecture. Asking and responding
questions are beneficial to trainees because it enhance understanding and keep the trainees
focused on the content. Besides that, discussions, and interactions allow the trainee to be
actively engaged in the material of the trainer. This activity helps in improving recall.
Computer-Based Training (CBT)
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With the world-wide expansion of companies and changing technologies, the demands for knowledge
and skilled employees have increased more than ever, which in turn, is putting pressure on HR
department to provide training at lower costs. Many organizations are now implementing CBT as an
alternative to classroom based training to accomplish those goals
Some of the benefits of Computer-Based Training are:
According to a recent survey, about 75% of the organizations are providing training to employees
through Intranet or Internet. Internet is not the method of training, but has become the technique of
delivering training. The growth of electronic technology has created alternative training delivery
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systems. CBT does not require face-to-face interaction with a human trainer. This method is so varied
in its applications that it is difficult to describe in concise terms.
The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are :
INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS)
PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI)
Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under
Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for
The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:
GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means.
Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD –
Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate
performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more than
4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These coaches are experts most of the time
A coach is the best training plan for the CEO’s because
It is one-to-one interaction
It can be done at the convenience of CEO
It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat
It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert
It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement This method
best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a person reaches the
top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It helps in finding out the
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executive’s specific developmental needs. The needs can be identified through 60 degree performance
PROCEDURE OF THE COACHING-
The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. Theprocedure is
followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive’s convenience by the coach.
1. Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required
to meet the desired expectation
2. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved
3. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule
4. At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and
then provide feedback
5. Repeat step 4 until performance improves.
For the people at middle-level management, coaching is more likely done by the
supervisor; however experts from outside the organization are at times used for up-and-
coming managers. Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on definite
needs and improvement
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Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee.
Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its
vision and mission to the junior employee. The meetings are not as structured and regular than in
coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can
learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee’s, the executive is given the chance to
grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with
diverse background, culture, and language and personality types. Executives also have mentors. In
cases where the executive is new to the organization, a senior executive could be assigned as a mentor
to assist the new executive settled into his role. Mentoring is one of the important methods for
preparing them to be future executives. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required
to improve mentee’s performance. Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area
that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor can also provide
opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency.
Some key points on Mentoring
• Mentoring focus on attitude development
• Conducted for management-level
• Mentoring is done by someone inside the
• It is one-to-one interaction
It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on
the area that needs improvement
For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually not simply
going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where the
supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier to see
how the business operates from the supplier point of view. Learning how the organization is
perceived from the outside broadens the executive’s outlook on the process of the organization. Or
the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. For managers being
developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out.
This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that
crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study
indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader’s achievement was the variety of
experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries.
An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the
organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace
someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the
effective and efficient functioning of the organization.
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Benefits of Job Rotation-
Some of the major benefits of job rotation are:
• It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and
abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries
• Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required
• It determines the areas where improvement is required
• Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position
OFF THE JOB TRAINING
There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The
few popular methods are:
STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES
Training Need Analysis (TNA)
An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The
purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for
effective performance and present level of performance.
• Why training need analysis?
Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not. It
helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the
occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action.
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Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organization performance ultimately
depends on the performance of its individual employee and its sub group.
Organizational Level – Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic
planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the
organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external
environment such as opportunities and threats. After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be
dealt with the training interventions, while strengths can further be strengthened with continued
training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And,
opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs. For this approach to be successful, the
HR department of the company requires to be involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR
develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge,
Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level
Individual Level – Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every
individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is
performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the
expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need
of training. However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that
are used to analyze the individual need are:
• Appraisal and performance review
• Peer appraisal
• Competency assessments
• Subordinate appraisal
• Client feedback
• Customer feedback
• Self-assessment or self-appraisal
Operational Level – Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being
assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly
understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical interview,
observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended
questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees need to prepare
for these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the
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tasks that will be required in the future. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis
(TNA) is done.
The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been
produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program
i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training objectives
assist trainers to design the training program.
The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal,
judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers
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The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles.
Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect
Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive
perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but
when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.
Trainees’ learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees
must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program
Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into
specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be
included, what could be included.
Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered.
Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then
classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:
• From simple to complex
• Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance
• From known to unknown
• From specific to general
• Dependent relationship
Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear,
trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method
selection depends on the following factors:
• Trainees’ background
• Time allocated
• Style preference of trainer
• Level of competence of trainer
• Availability of facilities and resources, etc
Support facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements
in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.
Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:
• Accommodation, facilities and their availability
• Furnishings and equipments
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• Design of the training, etc
To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called training
implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step
can lead to the failure of whole training program. Even the best training program will fail due to one
Training implementation can be segregated into:
• Practical administrative arrangements
• Carrying out of the training
Once the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented.
Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementationphase
requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the most important factor to
taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept in mind while implementing
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The trainer – The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. Trainer
prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds before meeting with
participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his approach.
Physical set-up – Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and successful training
program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms should not be very small or
big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and
psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to every participant.
Establishing rapport with participants – There are various ways by which a trainer can establish good
rapport with trainees by:
• Greeting participants – simple way to ease those initial tense moments
• Encouraging informal conversation
• Remembering their first name
• Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another
• Listening carefully to trainees’ comments and opinions
• Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed
• Getting to class before the arrival of learners
• Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time
• Using familiar examples
• Varying his instructional techniques
• Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down
Reviewing the agenda – At the beginning of the training program it is very important to review
the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program, what is expected
out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how the program will run. The following
information needs to be included:
• Kinds of training activities
• Setting group norms
• Housekeeping arrangements
• Flow of the program
• Handling problematic situations
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1. The firms follow an effective training process.
2. The training is given to those employees who need it.
3. But the barrier for the training process in the organization is the
non-availability of skilled trainers.
4. There are gaps between the training sessions organized by the
company that’s why trainees lost touch with that.
5. As the work load is much on employees therefore less attention is
given to training sessions by the employees.
6. The Organization also appoints trainers from outside or from
different firms to ensure better training to its employees.
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Conclusion & Suggestions
Under noted few suggestions cum conclusion can be taken as for implementation to reap furtherest
Making training and development process and entirely in house activity to reduce cost.
It is found that the average age group of trainees are in their twenties or early thirties
which signifies that the consumer durable industry need more of young blood as
enthusiasm is an integral part of the industry.
The maximum emphasis is given to job instruction methods where the trainee are made to
understand their job thoroughly and the role they are going to play in performing their
Lecture as well as the presentation is the major part of imparting the education and
The training objective are in keeping with needs and abilities of the trainee and it is this
that proves to be the major reason for success of the training as whole...
The trainee fill the feedback form and from time to time test are conducted to know the
gauge the effectiveness of training to employee to check their memory if they retain
anything or not.
We think that time management is one of the thing on which Reliance Mobile team must
emphasis so that there employee can be more productive as it was found during the visit
to the corporate office people they lack in managing
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David A. Decenzo/Stephen P. Robins (2004) Personal and Human Resource Management
A. Monappa (2004), Personal Management
Allan Pepper (1999) A Handbook on Training and Development
www.naukrihub/training and development.com
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