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Project report on training and development


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Project report on training and development

  1. 1. A PROJECGT REPORT ON Training and Development AT Sonia forging Bhiwari Project report submitted in the MR. DINESH KUMAR MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) BY Yogendra Raghav RAFFLES UNIVERSITY, NEEMRANA (RAJ).
  2. 2. Details of the Trainee:Name of Trainee Yogendra raghav Father’s Name Mr. Daleep Singh Raghav Date of Birth 01/06/1990 Course Name M.B.A Name of Institute / Collage Raffles University Session 2012-2014 Permanent Address V.P.O-Khohar, TEH- Behror, DIST- Alwar (RJ) E mail Contact No. 9694422555 Details related to project:Project Name Training and Development Dept. / Section HR Training Duration 45 Days
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank almighty for bestowing upon me his choicest blessing and running all the things in the right direction. I do hereby thanks GOD for vesting this opportunity and thanks SONIA FORGINGS INDIA PVT LTD. For providing this for me and for everything I have learned in the complete tenure of my training. My endeavor stands incomplete without dedicating my gratitude to a few people who have contributed a lot towards the successful completion of my project work. I would like thanks all the employees for their kindness and invaluable support they provide me throughout my training. I present my heartiest regards and wishes to my training Mr. DIGHAVNESH R (HR) showing his kind involvement in my training programme. “Words are inadequate to express my indebtness and gratitude to my parents for their unending support, blessings and tireless efforts that kept me motivated throughout the completion of this project.” THANKS TO ALL (YOGENDRA RAGHAV)
  4. 4. DECLARATION I am “YOGENDRA RAGHAV” a student of MBA, RAFFLES UNIVERSITY, NEEMRANA (RAJ). Declare that the project entitled “TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT”. In partial fulfillment of MBA degree course in SONIA FORGING PVT LTD is my original work. (YOGENDRA RAGHAV)
  5. 5. PREFACE Partial knowledge is an impotent suffix to theoretical knowledge; one cannot merelyrely upon the theoretical knowledge. Classroom make the fundamental concept clear, b u t p r a c t i c a l s u r v e y i n a f i r m h a s significant role to play in a subject of B u s i n e s s Ma n a g e me n t t o d e v e l o p ma n a g e r i a l s ki l l s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e y c o mb i n e t h e i r classroom's learning with the knowledge of real business environment. I am extremely happy to place before the esteemed Teachers/Management the Report of the project entitled "Training and Development". It has not only helped me to enhance my knowledge about various fields of HumanR e s o u r c e s & Co mp a n y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o w a r d s t h e i r w e l f a r e b u t a l s o g a v e n e w dimension to my knowledge about psychology & attitude of the Employees towards the work & their duties.
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION As a part of the curriculum of MBA (II) semester, I underwent my……… Summer training project at Sonia forging pvt ltd . This 45 day training in an industrial organization seems to be necessary for the complete understanding of the phenomenon related with Training and development. This study prescribes add situation before the researcher, there by he/she gets perfection. This short of study injects flavors of confidence in heart and mind of the researcher. It provides ample opportunity to comprehend the phenomenon and suggest best solution of it . I was assigned the title "Training and development". My topic is Concern with the employee's development at Sonia forging pvt ltd Employees training tries to improve skills, or add to the existing level of knowledge so that employees is better equipped to do his present job, or to prepare him for higher position with increased responsibilities. However individual growth is not and ends in itself. Organizational growth need to be measured along with individual growth. Training refers to the teaching or learning activities done for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the same. Broadly speaking training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. In today’s scenario change is the order of the day and the only way to deal with it is to learn and g r o w . E mp l o y e e s h a v e b e c o me c e n t r a l t o s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f o n o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e y a r e t h e cornucopia ideas. So it high time the organization realize that “train and retain is the mantra of new millennium.”
  7. 7. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The specific objectives of the study are: ➢To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of workforce. ➢To examine the impact of training on workers. ➢To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training. ➢To find out new methods of training and development in Sonia forging. I h a v e t r i e d t o t a ke a v i ew o n t h e t o p i c i n a p r a c t i c a l ma n n e r , s o t h a t t h e f e e d b a c k c a n b e provided to the organization
  8. 8. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet these requirements, training’s not important. When this not the case, it is necessary to raise the skills levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. I t i s b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g c o mmo n f o r i n d i v i d u a l t o c h a n g e c a r e e r s s e v e r a l t i me s d u r i n g t h e i r working lives. The probability of any young person learning a job today and having those skills go basically unchanged during the forty or so years if his career is extremely unlikely, may be even impossible. In a rapid changing society empl oyees training is not only an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force. T h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t t a l ks a b o u t t h e t r a i n i n g a n d d e v e l o p me n t i n t h e o r e t i c a l a s w e l l a s n e w concepts, which are in trend now. Here we have discussed what would be the input of training if w e ever go for and how can it be good to any organization in r e a p i n g t h e b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e money invested in terms like (ROI ) i.e. return on investment. What are the ways we can identify the training need of any employees and how to know what kind of training he can go for? Training being in different aspect likes integrating it with organizational culture. The best and latest available trends in training method, the benefits which we can derive out of it. How the evaluation should be done and how effective is the training all together. Some of the companies practicing training in unique manner a lesson for other to follow as to how train and retain the best resource in the world to reap the best out of it. Development is integral part of training if somebody is trained properly and efficiently the developments of that individual and the company for whom he is working. Here we discussed about
  9. 9. development of employees, how much to identify the needs, and after developing how to develop executive skill to sharpen their knowledge. Learning should be continues process an done should not hesitate to learn any stage. Learning and developing is fast and easy at SONIA FORGING PVT LTD . METHODOLOGY Methodology can be defined as•“ T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f m e t h o d s , r u l e s , a n d p o s t u l a t e s e m p l o y e d b y a discipline”. •“ T h e s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f m e t h o d s t h a t a r e , c a n b e o r h a v e b e e n a p p l i e d w i t h i n a discipline”. •“A particular procedure or set of procedures”.
  10. 10. Methodology includes a collection of theories, concepts or ideas as they relate to a particular discipline or field of inquiry: Methodology refers to more than a simple set of methods; rather it refers to the rationale and the philosophical assumptions that underlie a particular study relative to the scientific method. This is why scholarly literature often includes a section on the methodology of the researchers. This section does more than outline the researchers’ methods might explain what the researchers’ ontological or epistemological views are .Another key (though arguably imprecise) usage for methodology does not refer to researchortot h e s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s o f t e n r e f e r s t o a n y t h i n g a n d e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c a n b e encapsulated for a discipline or a series of processes, activities and tasks. Examples of this are found in software development, project management and business process fields. This use of the term is typified by the outline who, what, where, when, and why. In the documentation of the processes that make up the discipline, that is being supported by "this" methodology, that is where we would find the "methods" or processes. The processes themselves are only part of the methodology along with the identification and usage of the standards, policies, rules, etc Researchers acknowledge the need for rigor, logic, and coherence in their methodologies, which are subject to peer review RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Primary data was collected through •Questionnaires •Personal observations Secondary data was collected through •Newspapers •Magazines •Internet
  11. 11. Data collection: Data was collected through both primary and secondary sources. Theprimaryd a t a w a s c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h a d mi n i s t r a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n . Secondary source includes article from Company's manual and Internet was also used to collect data (secondary). SCOPE OF STUDY In this project I havetriedto present details about the training a n d d e v e l o p me n t programs being presently followed in SONIA FORGING and the feedback, I collected from different employees during my interaction with them
  12. 12. The scope of training and development can be explained with th e help of following points – 1 exact position of performance of employees through their feedback 2 Development of the employees through various training and development programs. 3 Developing altered of unbiased treatment to all employees LIMITATION OF STUDY During my training period although the management and plant personnel were very co-operative & extended their full support, yet there were following limitations associates with my study which I would like to mention: Due to the busy schedule of an organization I was unable to grasp the precious words of the HRD Manager HISTORY OF THE COMPANY SONIA FORGINGS (P) LIMITED is the most eminent manufacturer and exporter of Steel Forging & Precision Turned Components, CNC Machined Components and
  13. 13. Automotive Components. Since our inception in the year 1981, we have grown tremendously and emerged out as the most ideal company to satisfy the requirement and specification of customers spread all over the Globe. Our premium Quality products at the most affordable rates have propelled us to achieve maximum degree of customer satisfaction and a respectable name among the customers. Its over pro-active services, customer care and impeccable quality products which places us far ahead of our competitors. We intend to enhance this success through regular improvements and satisfactory feed-backs. OUR INFRASTRUCTURE  We have a state of the art infrastructure clubbed with requisite technology and superb working environment. We incorporate well equipped manufacturing plants capable of carrying out customized as well as bulk orders in accordance with the client specifications. Our manufacturing unit is complacent with the modern machineries which yield excellent results at low cost. Skillful and highly qualified workers and professionals are our pillars of success. Our comprehensive set-up has help us to become the most renowned manufacturer and exporter of Forging Precision Turned Components, CNC Machined Components and auto engineering Components. Business Type OEM Supplier, Manufacturer & Exporter Turn Over Rs. 100 Crore Annually No. of Employees 700
  14. 14. Year of Establishment 1981 No. of Forging Lines 12 No. of OEM Customers 10 Forging Capacity/Year 40000Tones PRODUCT RANGE        Closed Die Hammer Forging (0.500 -20 Kg) Screw Press Forging (0.100 - 4.0 Kg) Ring Rolling Machine (Ø 200mm) Precision Turned Components CNC / VMC Turned Components Grounded Parts Auto Engineering Components QUALITY POLICY W e , a t S o n i a f o r g i n g w i l l t a r g e t t o e x c e e d c u s t o me r s a t i s f a c t i o n b y d e v e l o p i n g q u a l i t y i n a l l t h e processes. We will consistently adhere to our basics of Q.C.D.Q. Excellence in quality as core.S. Market leadership
  15. 15. through cost competence.D. On time delivery through innovative business processes. Strict quality controls adhering to national and international standards are adapted from procurement stage to final stage of dispatch of finished products. All products are sourced from the superlative quality of raw material to ensure flawless manufacturing. Our quality control unit is clubbed with all the latest market machineries and equipments. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY We at sonia are committed to achieve continual improvement in our environment performance by following the basic principle of •Complying with statutory and corporate requirements. •Prevention of pollution & conservation of natural resources. •Prevention of generation of waste by 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. • SAFETY & HEALTH POLICY Sonia is committed to achieve and maintain world class health and safety standards for all its employees by:
  16. 16. •Proper design of all the processes. •Develop, Improve and Sustain processes for systematic elimination of Health & Safetyhazards. •Minimizing risks involved. SONIA VISION We, the proud member of SONIA family, shall strive vigorously to delightour customerands t a k e h o l d e r s w h o a r e o u r v e r y p u r p o s e , b y p u r s u i n g e x c e l l e n c e a n d i n n o v a t i o n t h r o u g h committed team work. To this end we shall promote continues learning, achievement orientation and ethical business practice, which will make us shine as a global player STRENGTHS
  17. 17. We are dedicated to achieving excellence in our work. Sonia forging maintains the highest ethical and professional standards and strives to stay on the leading edge in technology, in an ever-changing environment .While our greatest strength is the ability to understand the client goals, our success is very much attributed to strong teamwork, continuous R&D and the dedication and commitment of each and every member of the Sonia family to deliver unsurpassed quality and reliable products &services to the total satisfaction of all our customers. We believe that our historical success and future prospects are directly related to a combination of strengths, including the following : »Best 'Speed to Market' in Industry »Cost efficiency »World class technology »Global scale of operations »Largest single location capacity worldwide »Product range and expansion lend scalability to operations »Comprehensive CNC/MNC/CAE and product development capability »High Quality, motivated Human Resources These extensive resources combined with our dedication to the highest professional standards enables us to support a wide range of our clients' business needs. Sonia forging became an ISO 9002 certified company in 1981, attained its QS 9000 certification in the year 1998 and achieved the ISO/TS 16949 : 2002
  18. 18. And ISO 14001 in 2003. Being Quality as our backbone, we are continuously thriving towards 'Customer Delight' and our products see the light of most developed OEM's and after markets of the world TQM (TOTAL QUALITU MANAGEMENT) Customer Satisfaction through manufacturing excellence .The ongoing TQM journey has been very learning and fruitful exercise for the whole organization and has given positive impact to the top and bottom line .We are unendingly striving towards Improvement of our Quality Management Systems with our objective of doing the things right, the first time and every time. Our growing markets and Customer base is an indicator of our continuous efforts towards the achievement of our goal of Customer Delight. Our "Quality Centered" team approach of manufacturing ensures Products of the finest Quality, giving drive to some of the most advanced Vehicles manufactured globally .We aim at achievieng all this through: Continual improvement of manufacturing processes with emphasis on consistent quality and cost effectiveness. Advancement of process ownership concept throughout the organization thereby improving and innovating the business process. Doing right, the first time and every time. Improving quality by enhancing competence of all personne
  19. 19. SONIA CLIENTS Automobile Clients of Sonia Industries: Sonia Industries also deals in the manufacture of electrical appliances for automobiles. The client-base of the company in this sector includes Honda, and The twowheeler section caters to the requirements of Ho n d a motorcycles and scooters, Bajaj Auto, and so on. Some more clients are there they are as follows • Domestic clients Hi-Tech Gears Ltd.  Tafe Motors and Tractors Ltd.  Vulcon Electro Control Ltd.  New Holland Tractors  Boss Gear  Ocap Chassis Parts (P) Ltd  Micro Turner Ltd.  Dynamic Forge Ltd.  Spun Micro Ltd.  Talbros Automotive Components Ltd.  Shivam Autotech Ltd.  International Tractors.Ltd.
  20. 20. BOARD OF DIRECTOR Mr. .krishan lal (managing director) Mr. .Manish thakur (director) Input: Competency Requirement(Job Description)
  21. 21. Sub Process / Activity Responsibility Document Reference Record Generated Manpower Manpower Requirement Head HR Business Plan Requisition Form Identification Section 09 Personnel Profile Recruitment, Selection & Head HR & Job Description Card Appointment Respective HOD Section 06 Job Description & Personnel Profile Induction Training Head HR Personnel Profile Card Card Competency Mapping for all Skill Matrix,Section Respective HOD Training Procedure the Employees 08 Training Need Identification Respective HOD Job Description Skill matrix Training Plan cum Training Plan Preparation Head HR Skill Matrix Status,Section 07 Communication about Plan Training Plan / Communication Head HR & Details Schedule Details Attendance & Training Plan Execution Head HR Training Details Feedback Details Section 10,11& 12 Personnel Profile Effectiveness Evaluation Respective HOD Training Procedure Card Yearly Performance Respective HOD Personnel Profile Personnel File Appraisal & Head HR Card Section 04,Employee Motivation, Involvement & Motivation & Head HR Empowerment & Empowerment Empowerment Policy Motivation Policy Process Output: Competent, Empowered & Motivated Employees Process Manual Process Code: HRD Process Owner Team Member Head – H.R Respective Process Owners Category of Process (COP/MOP/SOP) SOP
  22. 22. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT It is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioural change takes place in structured format. TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT TRADITIONAL APPROACH – Most of the organizations before never used to believe entraining. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. MODERN APPROACH – Training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results.
  23. 23. TRAINING DEFINED It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behaviour It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it It’s not where you want to go, but it knows how to get there It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it It's not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve it
  24. 24. Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current Situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.
  25. 25. Importance of Training and Development • Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. • Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide inopportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioural skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth • Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees
  26. 26. • Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work handwork-life. • Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. • Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. • Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. • Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. • Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.
  27. 27. • Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there’re four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal. Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization. Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness. Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs. Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible tithe needs and challenges of the society. Importance of Training Objectives
  28. 28. Training objective is one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here’s that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on sneeds. It helps in adhering to a plan. Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training Program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives. 1. 2. 3. 4. Trainer Trainee Designer Evaluator 1. Trainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.
  29. 29. 2. Trainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise. Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee’s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal asset. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training.
  30. 30. 3. Designer– The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he’ll buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. 4. Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants. Training and Human Resource Management The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now-a-days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance,
  31. 31. etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization to increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given one variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses. Role of HRD Professionals in Training This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is: 1. Active involvement in employee education 2. Rewards for improvement in performance
  32. 32. 3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education And post employment support for advanced education and training Models of Training Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing& sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. THE TRAINING SYSTEM A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of Training needs analysis (TNA), formulating,
  33. 33. delivering, and evaluating. There are 4necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon to Organization’s requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below. Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies. The three model of training are: 1. System Model 2. Instructional System Development Model 3. Transitional model System Model Training The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to
  34. 34. required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows: 1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, 2.employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. 3. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. 4. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. 5. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. 1. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. SYSTEM MODEL
  35. 35. Instructional System Development Model (ISD) Model Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the
  36. 36. organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favourable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages: 1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis. 2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behaviour of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc. 3. DEVELOPMENT– This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. 4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. ISD MODEL
  37. 37. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase. Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed.
  38. 38. Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role model, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders. Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc. The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented.
  39. 39. TRAIN AND RETAIN TO STOP THE DRAIN In today’s competitive world, where margins are constantly under pressure, training budgets are the first to axe. So it becomes imperative that the training model that is evolved should be less capital intensive and not dependent upon profit margins and profitability. Although training needs are identified much before training programmed actually commence but still some crucial points are left some un-addressed. •
  40. 40. BENEFITS OF TRAINING Employees and the organization need to realize the importance of contribution and learning for mutual growth and development. Training is the answer to deal with stagnation stage by constantly updating it in every field. Other benefits of training include: Hiring appeal: companies that provide training attract a better quality Workforce. Assessing and addressing any performance deficiency. Enhancing workforce flexibility .Cross-cultural training is essential for them for better adjustment in the new environment. Increasing commitment: Training acts as a loyalty booster. Employee motivation is also enhanced when the employee knows that the organization would provide them opportunities to increase their skills and knowledge. It gives the organization a competitive edge by keeping abreast of the latest changes; it acts as a catalyst for change. Higher customer satisfaction and lower support cost results through improved service, increased productivity and greater sufficiency.
  41. 41. THE EVALUATION OF TRAINING There are a number of expressions used to describe steps taken by management and by training offices at the conclusion of training and during the days or weeks afterwards. These expressions include validation, evaluation, follow-up and implementation, as wells cost benefit, which have appeared in more recent years. We are interested in all of these and have already tackled one of the, implementation, and we start by giving our definitions in order to establish a clearer picture of what each is, and how they relate to each other .Evaluation of training, or, indeed of anything, consists simply of putting a value to it. To evaluate training means undertaking a search for the effect that it has had on the people and the situations, which it influences, and then trying to measure or estimate whether this is advantageous or disadvantageous. We shall see that at the level of pure training there is an evaluation to be made, but that the principal evaluation is at a higher level in the chain .First the chain of intentions is clear at the outset. 1. They were then to apply their new capability correctly during the service that they gave to motorists. 2. The motorists would respond to this with a reaction of pleasure and would tend to use that particular station rather more, thus increasing the amount of gasoline sold. 3. The increased sales, and negligible increased costs, would improve the revenue and the profits.
  42. 42. A TRAINING TOOL: INSPIRING OTHERS In the new era new era, challenges for the trainer are to create learning environment .Trainer needs to innovate new ways design and deliver the training inputs. Wide range of technique like interactive methods like teaching, experiential learning cases inventories games, including humour. Where as we have the ancient way of story telling as a powerful tool to create learning for adult managers of industry. Sharing one’s own perception, experience and ideas learning value can be increased exponentially. Methods of Training There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioural methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training .Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning .The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:
  43. 43. Method of Training It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behaviour, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. Features of lecture method are: Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise
  44. 44. Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity Demonstration Training Method This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As an example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. In order to be more effective, demonstration method should be should be accompanied by the discussion or lecture method. To carry out an effective demonstration, a trainer first prepares the lesson plan by Breaking the task to be performed into smaller modules, easily learned parts. Then, the trainer sequentially organizes those modules and prepares an explanation for why that part is required. While performing the demonstration, trainer: Demonstrates the task by describing how to do, while doing
  45. 45. Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects of the task Tells the trainees what you will be doing so they understand what you will be showing them The difference between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level of involvement of the trainee. The demonstration methods are as follows: Cost of training facility for the program Cost of materials that facilitate training Food, travel, lodging for the trainees and the trainers Compensation of time spent in training to trainers and trainees Discussion Training Method
  46. 46. This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported, elaborated, explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees and between the trainer and the trainees. The interaction and the communication between these two make it much more effective and powerful than the lecture method. If the Discussion method is used with proper sequence i.e. lectures, followed by discussion and questioning, can achieve higher level knowledge objectives, such as problem solving and principle learning. Questioning can be done by both ways i.e. the trainees and the trainer. When the trainees ask questions, they explain their thinking about the content of the lecture. A trainer who asks questions stimulates thinking about the content of the lecture. Asking and responding questions are beneficial to trainees because it enhance understanding and keep the trainees focused on the content. Besides that, discussions, and interactions allow the trainee to be actively engaged in the material of the trainer. Computer-Based Training (CBT)
  47. 47. With the world-wide expansion of companies and changing technologies, the demands for knowledge and skilled employees have increased more than ever, which in turn, is putting pressure on HR department to provide training at lower costs. Many organizations are now implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom based training to accomplish those goals Some of the benefits of Computer-Based Training are:
  48. 48. COACHING Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants. A coach is the best training plan for the CEO’s because It is one-to-one interaction It can be done at the convenience of CEO It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement This Method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It helps in finding out the executive’s specific developmental needs. The needs can be identified through 60 degree performance review.
  49. 49. PROCEDURE OF THE COACHING The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive’s convenience by the coach. Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback Repeat step 4 until performance improves. Mentoring Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee the meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. Mentoring focus on attitude development Conducted for management-level employees
  50. 50. Mentoring is done by someone inside the company It is one-to-one interaction It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement Job Rotation For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier To see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. Learning how the organizations perceived from the outside broadens the executive’s outlook on the process of the organization. Benefits of Job Rotation Some of the major benefits of job rotation are: It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required It determines the areas where improvement is required Assessment of the employees who have the potential and calibre for filling the position OFF THE JOB TRAINING - The few popular methods are: Sensitivity Training Transactional Training Straight Lectures/Lectures Simulation Exercises
  51. 51. Training Need Analysis (TNA) An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. Why training need analysis? Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action.
  52. 52. Individual Level – Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are: Appraisal and performance review Peer appraisal Competency assessments Subordinate appraisal Client feedback Customer feedback Self-assessment or self-appraisal Operational Level – Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical
  53. 53. interview, observation, and psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst Also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis (TNA) is done. Training-Design – The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program. The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design. Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Trainees’ learning style– the learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program
  54. 54. Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included. Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner: • From simple to complex • Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance • From known to unknown • From specific to general • Dependent relationship Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors: • Trainees’ background • Time allocated • Style preference of trainer • Level of competence of trainer • Availability of facilities and resources, etc
  55. 55. Support facilities– It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc. Training Implementation To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called training implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. Even the best training program will fail due to one wrong action. Training implementation can be segregated into: • Practical administrative arrangements • Carrying out of the training Implementing Training Once the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented. Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation phase requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the most important factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept in mind while implementing training program: The trainer – The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds before meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his approach.
  56. 56. Physical set-up – Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and successful training program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms shouldn’t be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to every participant. Establishing rapport with participants – There are various ways by which a trainer can establish good rapport with trainees by: • Greeting participants – simple way to ease those initial tense moments • Encouraging informal conversation • Remembering their first name • Pairing up the learners and have they familiarized with one another • Listening carefully to trainees’ comments and opinions • Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed • Getting to class before the arrival of learners • Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time • Using familiar examples • Varying his instructional techniques • Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down Training Evaluation The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular work routines. Purposes of Training Evaluation the five main purposes of training evaluation are:
  57. 57. Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training. Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly. Power games : At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes. Process of Training Evaluation Before Training:
  58. 58. The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and Learning style During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. The various methods of training evaluation are: • Observation • Questionnaire
  59. 59. • Interview Quality Particularly in those industries, which have to compete in international markets, the management made clear links between training policies and the quality of work. Change in Corporate culture Continuous training was used to transmit new business strategies and new organisation culture. Organisational Development In some organisation where financial responsibilities were being decentralized, the training function was also getting decentralized. In other training dept was abolished altogether and all manager’s were made responsible for instruction and training. Flexible working practices Company made a major training program after making two third work forces redundant. This involved both vocational training and encouraging employee to take educational courses in their free time. Training and employment package In certain companies training formed part of the pay packet offered to employees. It also had a bearing on the Lab our turnover percentage of employee. In other way we can say its like cost to company. Corporate structure In some instances I became difficult for managers to meet business objectives because they had in sufficient control over recruitment and
  60. 60. training decision. In some other cases rivalries between different divisions of same company, prevented the integration of coherent training and personal policies at central level. The role of professional trainers The findings suggest that the role of the professional trainer had undergone significant changes. He is today not only a mere provider or organiser of training but also is being seen as an agent or facilitator of change. This because today the management is integrating training into the very culture of their organisation. In some organisation the trainers now have access to key decision-makers and have established greater legitimacy for training and development activities TYPES OF TRAINING ADRESSING VARIOUS TRAININGNEEDS; Entry training involving new recruits and employees required to take a new job.
  61. 61. Problem resolution training to meet a shortfall or deficiency in job performance. Training for change to prepare employees for job identified in near future. Development to equip employees to meet organizational changes in future. Training in Global Business World With the expansion of the organization, Human Resource job in no longer limited to their native country but has extended worldwide. Localization is a key to successful expansion that helps in improving upon workforce connections, doing the work effectively and Efficiently, and reducing global turnover. As the organizations are expanding globally, training has become quite an essential ingredient to improve performance. However, unavailability of budget necessary to achieve goals results the training function to be at the bottom of priority list. Besides that, managers do not fully adapt according to the local environment for the transfer of training. Very often, managers use minimum of locally suitable resources or the most critical material like employee Handbooks. Training success in various countries requires cross cultural literacy i.e. understanding of how cultural differences across nations can affect the way training is given. At the sometime, different
  62. 62. cultures may or may not be supportive in the transfer of training, in the sense that cultural factor may lower or raise the cost of training. Problem in International Training and Development language Programs Language comprises of both spoken and unspoken means of communication. Bests of the best training program will fail if trainer is not well versed in communicating trainees’ language. Language is one of the most important ingredients of culture. Spoken Language – Trainees’ receiving training prefer to speak in their own language and trainer being able to speak the local language can help establishing rapport among trainees, which may be very important for the transfer of training. Language is one of the major barriers when it comes to giving training in cross-cultural environment. Chinese is the mother tongue of the largest number of people (shown below), followed buy English and Hindi Percentage of the people speaking their first language
  63. 63. THE TRAINING SYSTEMS ARE: • • • • • • • What type of training is required? Why the training is required? What is the budget of the training? What are the most sensitive and critical areas? How the training will be carried out? By whom the training program will be carried out? Where and when will the training program be carried out?
  64. 64. ROLE OF ORGANIZATION IN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Questionnaire on Study on Effectiveness of Training & Development An organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the trainer because it is the first contact for both.
  65. 65. The demand for the training in the organization increases when the organization wants: • To hire new people – training as a means of training new recruits • To Expand – When the company wants to increase its headcount • To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date • To enhance the performance of employees • Organization’s name to be a part of training unit. Organization goes through the following steps for the transfer of training to the field TRAINEE – ROLE OF TRAINEE IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING
  66. 66. Participant’s willingness to invest in the program is directly proportional to the benefits of the learning that the trainee could expect. Each participant forms their own perception towards training. Some perceptions remain the same during the program, while some faded depending upon the assessment of a program by the participant Some personal factors that affect the trainee’s learning are: Family Situation Personal Problems Relation between the training program and personal objective Level of self esteem Benefits expected from training Comfort level with the trainer Learning style of trainee KSA of trainee Previous training experiences Desire for professional growth and development Some environmental factors that affect the trainee’s learning are: Relationship with colleagues and subordinates Training team Trainer team Training objective Content of training Training design i.e. methods, techniques, and strategies Environment in the program Composition of training group Importance of Trainer, Role of Trainer
  67. 67. The effective transfer of training depends a lot on the trainer because it is the trainer only who can remove the mental block of trainee, motivate the trainee to learn, delete the negative perception of the trainee regarding the training. Besides all that, a lot depends on personality of trainer also. The major competencies that are required to be present in a trainer are: Presentation Skills Business Skills i.e. budgeting, time management, negotiation, etc. Content Development i.e. material production, graphics, layouts, etc Self development i.e. interpersonal skills, good listening skills, flexible, accepting the share of accountability, etc Trainer’s Skills The skills that need to be present in a trainer are: Training Design Evaluating the training program Training need analysis Worksheet design Exercises design
  68. 68. Role of Trainer Facilitation of Training Facilitation of Transfer of Training through Focus on Trainee and Organization Intervention Focus on Trainee Focus on Organization Intervention Focus on Trainee Training is successful not only with good training design and training objectives but also with the readiness and willingness of the trainees. For the training to be successful, three things are required,
  69. 69. 1. Motivation 2. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs) 3. Expectations towards Training Expected Performance is directly proportional to the multiplication of Motivation, required KSAs, and expectations towards training I.e. Motivation – If the trainee is not motivated to learn, no learning is likely to occur no matter how good the training methods are, or how talented the trainees are. Therefore, it is important to intervene before training and provide them the information about the learning outcome
  70. 70. that they can expect and how the learning outcome will help in achieving the objectives. This increases the motivation to learn and to be successful in training. Expectations – Positive expectations matter a lot in a training program. If the trainee perceives the training as waste of time, and waste of resources, no learning is likely to occur. No learning is possible with negative perception. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs) – It is important that the selected Trainees should have the right KSAs for the training because even if the methods and contents of the training are good but the candidates do not have the right KSAs, the training program will fail. Also the training methods would not be effective if the candidates are lacking the desired skills. Therefore, proper selection techniques must that would ensure that hired have the requisite KSAs to be successful in training. Facilitation of Training through Organization Intervention Failure of training is not always because of lack of KSAs but sometimes it is because of the organizational forces also. These forces also hold back the transfer of training, and learning. Therefore,
  71. 71. it is important to keep in check those forces. For the successful transfer of training, it is necessary to have supervisor support, trainer support, peer support, reward system, climate and culture. PEERS SUPPORT – Peer support can also help in transfer of training, for example, if the trainee is the only one who is receiving training in the department then probably the experienced peers might put pressure on trainee to forget the training and work. This situation also hampers in transfer of training. However, this situation can be avoided by involving the entire department in training, peer support Reward systwm Facilitation of training Supervisor support Trainor support SUPERVISOR SUPPORT– can affect their employees’ learning in number of ways, for example, if the trainee is motivated to learn and
  72. 72. receives full support from their supervisor, then this support in turn encourages the employee to learn as much as possible. TRAINER SUPPORT– can also have a positive impact on the transfer of training. Gone are the days, when the trainers’ role used to get over once the training program is done. CLIMATE– Apart from supervisor support, peers support, trainer support, Climate factor also comprises of company polices, attitude of upper management towards employee, towards training. If these factors are positive then the climate will also support the transfer of training. It is the organizations foremost duty to make the employees realize through these factors that adequate amount of time and resources are spent on them for their professional and personal development. CULTURE– also has the impact over the transfer of training. If the culture of the organization provides enough opportunities to its employees to implement what they have learnt in the workplace and provide them variety of others fact or such as, social support, challenging jobs, etc then the likelihood of the transfer of training increases. REWARD SYSTEMS – If the learning outcome that helps in achieving the objectives is linked to reward system then the probability of the success of training would increase
  73. 73. Conclusion The purpose of this learning material is to explain to the reader issues and concepts that should be understood in order to think constructively about the application of the psychology of training to real work issues. It is not presented as a literature review you will need to read further for that information². Instead, the material has been written in an informal way to explain key principles and concepts and how they relate to each other in dealing with applied training issues. It does not deal in detail with the research literature underpinning these ideas. This is left for you to examine using the Readings provided as a starting point to exploring wider literature. This learning material offers one perspective with a view to providing a coordinated story, but there are other perspectives in occupational psychology that you will encounter in a professional capacity and which you must try to accommodate. How Training Benefits Sonia industries ltd: • Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profitorientation. • Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization • Improves the morale of the workforce. • Helps people identify with organizational goals. • Helps create a better corporate image. • Fosters authenticity, openness and trust.
  74. 74. • Improves relationship between boss and subordinate. • Aids in organizational development. • Learns from the trainee. • Helps prepare guidelines for work. • Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. • Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization. • Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skill.l • Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work. • Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g. production, personnel, administration, etc. • Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for bein g c o mp e t e n t a n d knowledgeable. • Improves Labour-management relations Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation. • Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires. • Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools). • Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication. • Aids in improving organizational communication. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AS SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: SONIAderive competitive advantage from training and d e v e l o p m e n t . T r a i n i n g a n d d e v e l o p me n t p r o g r a m, a s w a s p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r , h e l p r e mo v e p e r f o r ma n c e d e f i c i e n c i e s i n employe e. This is particularly true when – (1) The deficiency is caused by a lack of
  75. 75. ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform,(2) The individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better,and(3) Supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation. • Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires. • Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools). • Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication. • Aids in improving organizational communication. References 1. WWW.Google.Com 2. WWW.Wikipedia.Com
  76. 76. THANK YOU