PR and GM

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  • Introduction Public relations people today work to create favorable images—for corporations, public officials, products, schools, hospitals and associations. Scholars have defined three methods to encourage people to do what you want them to do: power, patronage and persuasion. Power involves ruling by law, but it also can mean ruling by peer pressure—someone does something because his or her friends do. Patronage is a polite term for bribery—paying someone with favors or money to do what you want. The third method—persuasion—is the approach of public relations. Like advertising, public relations is not a mass medium.
  • Classic definition of public relations Creating an understanding for, or goodwill towards, a company, a person or a product Public Relations in Ancient Times Feature of government Statues, coins and stamps -- Augustus Caesar, who commissioned statues of himself in the 1st century to be erected throughout the Roman Empire to enhance his image. Many political leaders have ordered heroic images of themselves printed on coins and stamps. Today ’ s public relations Product of journalism Early 20th century
  • The Publicity Bureau 1st publicity firm -- The first publicity firm was called The Publicity Bureau and opened in Boston in 1900 to head off the growing public criticism of the railroad companies. Railroads opposing regulation -- According to This is PR: The Realities of Public Relations : “No longer could the railroads butter up the press by giving free passes to reporters. No longer would the public buy whitewashed statements like that of coal industrialist George F. Baer, who in 1902 told labor to put their trust in ‘the Christian men whom God in His infinite wisdom has given control of the property interests of the country.’” Ivy Lee & George F. Parker New York firm Lee, former journalist Represented coal industry Against workers -- The best-known early practitioner of public relations was Ivy Lee, who began his PR career by opening an office in New York with George F. Parker. Lee and Parker represented coal magnate George F. Baer when coal workers went on strike
  • Lee ’ s Declaration of Principles 1906 Work done in the open Supply news about businesses and public institutions Honest and accurate -- “This [the firm of Lee & Parker] is not a secret press bureau. All our work is done in the open. We aim to supply news. . . . In brief, our plan is, frankly and openly, on behalf of business concerns and public institutions, to supply to the press and public of the United States prompt and accurate information concerning subjects which it is of value and interest to the public to know about.” Most famous clients Pennsylvania Railroad John D. Rockefeller Counterbalance to Ida Tarbell and bad press -- Eventually, John D. Rockefeller hired Lee to counteract the negative publicity that began with Tarbell ’s investigation of Standard Oil. (Lee worked for the Rockefellers until he died in 1934.)
  • Committee on Public Information World War I George Creel Recruited journalists Edward L. Bernays (see next slide) Blurred line between propaganda and publicity Raised money for Liberty Bonds Promoted war effort Roosevelt administration Promoted the New Deal -- FDR “projected an image of self-confidence and happiness—just what the American public wanted to believe in. He talked to them on the radio. He smiled for the cameras. He was mentioned in popular songs. He even allowed himself to be one of the main characters in a Rodgers and Hart musical comedy (played by George M. Cohan, America’s favorite Yankee Doodle Dandy),” according to This is PR . Office of War Information World War II Led by newscaster Elmer Davis
  • Information for business reporters Access to management Knowledge of the company Rapid information Ethical and honest News rather than “ fluff ” -- “Business editors like a PR staff that can provide access to top management,” wrote James K. Gentry in the Washington Journalism Review , “that knows its company well or can find needed information quickly, that demonstrates ethics and honesty and that knows and accepts the difference between news and fluff.” “ Bad ” financial PR “ none of the public ’ s business ” Can ’ t answer questions Outside PR firms “ No comment ” PR No help
  • Selling through PR, rather than advertising -- Public relations “is booming partly because of price,” reports The Wall Street Journal . Coleco Industries, Inc. Cabbage Patch Dolls, 1983 Press parties, etc. $500,000 PR (a bargain) Wieden & Kennedy Tennis shoes 2.5 story shoe Placement at Boston Marathon and March of Dimes Worlwide news coverage -- Wieden & Kennedy agency in Seattle contracted Bigger Than Life, Inc., which makes large inflatables, to manufacture a 21-story pair of tennis shoes. The company attached the shoes to the Westin Copley Place Hotel during the Boston Marathon and to the Westin Hotel in downtown Cincinnati during the March of Dimes walk-a-thon. Pictures of the shoes appeared in The New York Times , the Cincinnati Enquirer and in newspapers as far away as Japan. Wieden & Kennedy estimated that buying the same advertising would have cost $7 million
  • Responding to negativity Johnson & Johnson Tylenol poison tampering, 1982 -- The term crisis public relations has been used to describe the situation facing Johnson & Johnson after its product Tylenol was identified as the carrier of a poison that killed seven people in and near Chicago in 1982. Openness, social responsibility -- “The poisonings called for immediate action to protect the consumer,” explained Johnson & Johnson’s Lawrence G. Foster, who was vice president of public relations at the time, “and there wasn’t the slightest hesitation about being completely open with the news media. For the same reasons, Johnson & Johnson decided to recall two batches of the product, and later to withdraw it nationally. During the crisis phase of the Tylenol tragedy, virtually every public relations decision was based on sound, socially responsible business principles, which is when public relations is most effective.” Product recalls Cost $100 million Televised, 30-city press conference
  • Government Public information Largest employer of PR people Political candidates and lobbyists Education Colleges, universities and school districts Nonprofits Hospitals, churches, museums. charities Industry Regulation, utilities, manufacturers Business -- best-known area of public relations. Large companies keep an in-house staff of public relations people, and these companies also often hire outside PR firms to help on special projects. International Developing businesses overseas
  • Responsibilities of PR people include the following : Writing and Editing Press releases, newsletters, reports Media Relations -- Contacting news media, magazines, Sunday supplements, freelance writers and trade publications Special events -- Arranging and managing press conferences, convention exhibits, open houses, etc. Speaking Production -- Creating art, photography and layout for brochures, booklets, etc. Research Gather data for planning Programming and counseling Establish effective programs Training Management -- Overseeing the costs
  • Attracting attention -- Says Seymour Topping, managing editor of The New York Times : “PR people do influence the news, but really more in a functional manner rather than in terms of giving new editorial direction. We get hundreds of press releases every day in each of our departments. We screen them very carefully for legitimate news, and very often there are legitimate news stories. Quite a lot of our business stories originate from press releases. It’s impossible for us to cover all of these organizations ourselves.” Press releases and news coverage News outlets need news Press releases help Publicity vs advertising Ads are paid for Publicity is free Ads are controlled Publicity is uncontrolled No control over its use -- The Journal ’s executive director, Frederick Taylor: “Ninety percent of daily coverage is started by a company making an announcement for the record. We’re relaying this information to our readers.”
  • “ We’re the first news channel based in the Mideast to bring news back to the west. We want to set a different news agenda.” - Nigel Parsons, managing director of Qatar-based Al Jazeera International
  • First let’s define Global Media so you know what I’m talking about: [POINT 1] This is my personal definition, I couldn’t find a standard one, but I think mine is pretty accurate. The first thing you’ll think of when I say Global Media is [POINT 2] but in my opinion anything that effects the way you think is a part of global media, so it also includes [POINT 2 END] [POINT 3] No one can escape the influence of global media. Unless your parents left you in a cave when you were an infant, and you somehow survived and spent your entire life in that cave, then your ideas are not entirely your own. [POINT 4] One way or another, one of the many types of global media has impacted your ideas, your view on the world, and even your values.
  • Before we move onto the major influences of Global media, let’s take a look at some of it’s tools. Different societies, age groups, and socio-economic groups are influenced by different delivery methods. For example, a relatively rich country like South Korea has the city with the most wireless hotspots in the world – Seoul, 2056. How many wireless hotspots do you think there are in Mogadishu, Somalia? So different people are influenced by different delivery methods. Varied media systems Influence of print Newspapers from [SLIDE 1-A] North America, Europe, Australia represent 2/3 of the world ’ s newspapers [SLIDE 1-B] But the country with the most newspaper readers are Japan Dominance of radio We said earlier that a city in Somalia will not have 2056 wireless hotspot like Seoul but Radio is very popular in [SLIDE 2] Developing nations with scarce resources. It’s cheap to operate and cheap to receive. Influence of television probably breaks all the barriers mentioned earlier. Everyone watches TV, but the content is vastly different, as in developing nations it’s mostly government controlled.
  • Obviously, the way a country ’s political system is organized affects how the media operates in that country. Scholars divided these political systems into four categories: Soviet Theory In which the media is Government owned and operated (these categories were developed in 1956, that’s why it says soviet) Authoritarian Theory In which content may not be necessarily owned the government, but the Government certainly controls and must approve of the media content In Saddam’s Iraq, there was a program called “Youth TV” which was managed by Uday Hussein. They needed their people to think in a certain way, believe in certain things, and this was a powerful tool for delivering that. The program has now been terminated. Libertarian Theory Media freedom and protection -- the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution concisely advocates the idea of freedom of the press. Social Responsibility Theory Government oversight of media – this creates a grey area because you don’t know if a government bans things for what it claims to be social responsibility, or for it’s own agenda. Developmental Theory Mix of theories in developing nations -- Third World theory. Under this system, named for the developing nations where it is most often found, the media can be privately owned, but usually are owned by the government.
  • Now lets take a look at different parts of the world and how the media operates there. In western Europe and Canada : In general the idea is Freedom of the press, but [SLIDE 1] Some British restrictions Stricter libel (Lie-bull) laws in France and Greece In France, the press isn’t allowed to talk about ongoing Judicial trials in fear of influencing public opinion one way or another and causing an unfair trial. Scandinavian press is the most most liberal Up until 1982, Canada did not have its own constitution, and instead operated under the British North America Act. Print Media European press more partisan which means they usually stick to one political party or cause and they’re biased towards it. -- The Globe and Mail of Toronto, The Times of London, Frankfurter Allgemeine of Germany, Le Monde of France and Milan ’s Corriere della Sera enjoy the healthy circulations. Audio and Video Media There’s a Move toward private ownership because of the money to be made in the industry They only watch half the TV Americans watch, but most of their television programming is American. of the One hundred and twenty five thousnad hours of TV broadcasted in Western Europe each year, only 20,000 hours are produced in Europe. The rest comes from the United States, with a few shows imported from Australia and Japan.
  • Media helped bring change Up until 1989, Poland was under communist rule. The man who was on the forefront of the movement that toppled the communist regime was asked how communism fell. He responded by pointing at a TV, and he said “It all came from there.” Audio and Video Media Once government owned But even back in the day, there were no boarders that could stop radiowaves. So during the cold war, it was used a propaganda tool. Stations like Voice of America and Radio Free Europe provided were broadcasted in Russian towards the citizens of communist Russia. So as a Russian citizen in that era, you got to choose whether you wanted to be brainwashed by the Americans or the Soviets Print Media Also government operated Pravda - official Soviet newspaper Glasnost and change Mikail Gorbachev, the last ruler of the soviet union, introduced the Glasnost laws. Western ads allowed Private ownership was allowed 1990, media freedoms granted -- in 1990, one year before the soviet union dissolved, the Gorbachev outlawed media censorship and gave every citizen the right to publish a newspaper. Within five months, more than 100 newspapers began publication. As a result of this free media, in 1996 Pravda would go bankrupt
  • History of European domination Print Media Many carried-over colonial papers Strong advocacy content – AFRICA rarely had information press, they had opinion press. Regionalism makes mass print difficult CHANGE – As in the rest of the world, media has brought change to Afria, a famous example is Argus Group, South Africa -- owns a total of nine major papers, six of them dailies, in several African states. Struggled against apartheid Audio and Video Media Dominance of radio Easily accessible Lower literacy rates Only 2% television ownership -- less than 2 percent of the African public owns a TV set. Television in the region is concentrated in the urban areas, and TV broadcasts last only a few hours each evening. Says L. John Martin, “TV remains a medium of wealthy countries.”
  • Most newspaper readers in the world Tokyo based papers -- Japan ’s three national daily newspapers are based in Tokyo— Asahi Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun and Mainichi Shimbun. These three papers, each of them more than 100 years old, account for almost half the nation’s newspaper circulation. Japanese Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) Licensing like FCC Board like BBC Mix of private and public ownership World ’ s most prosperous broadcasting company Limited cable access -- broadcast scholar Sydney W. Head, “NHK enjoys more autonomy than any other major public broadcasting corporation. In a rather literal sense, the general public ‘owns’ it by virtue of paying receiver fees. The government cannot veto any program or demand that any program be aired. It leaves the NHK free to set the level of license fees and to do its own fee collecting (which may be why it rates as the richest of the world’s fee-supported broadcasting organizations).’’
  • Independence in 1947 Print media explosion 200 publications in 1947 25,000 by 1987 All India Radio (AIR) Doordarshan TV Satellite brings programming to 4 out of 5 Indians “ Bollywood ” Indian film industry, Film City, Bombay 16 studios 800 films a year
  • Print Media Tightly controlled Heavy government restrictions --m ore newspapers and magazines are published in regions with high literacy rates than in regions with low literacy rates. But the exception here is Egypt, where more than 50% of the people can’t read or write, yet Cairo is the Arab world ’s publishing center. Al Ahram and Al Akhbar are Egypt’s leading dailies. Audio and Visual Media Government controlled Private ownership is allowed Foreign language radio Alternative news source BBC Radio Monte Carlo (Paris) VCRs and pirated video Saudi Arabia and some of the gulf countries have the highest VCR penetration levels in the world. Banning cinemas and censored content on Television is the prime reason for this. The fact that there aren’t any copy right laws (except in Egypt, Turkey, Lebanon, and Israel) has really helped the circulation of pirated films. Most watched TV station in the middle east is Al Jazeera
  • The reason I’m focusing on News Channels is because in the middle east they are still the most influential media tools. | Al Jazeera is somewhat of a pioneer in the middle east. They broke all of the trends which Arabic television had set before them. They have been both criticized and complimented by almost everyone in the world. Most middle eastern governments don’t like them very much. Many western governments don’t like them either, but more recently they’ve come to respect – almost fear – their ability in swaying the opinion of the Arab street. A study showed they are still viewed unfavorably in the American mainstream, who associate them with “Al Qaeda” and “Bin Laden”. Bush’s administration didn’t like them because of their anti-american coverage of the Iraqi war in 2003, but the Obama administration has been somewhat complimentary of the station, especially in light of it’s Arab Spring coverage. ---- Actually it has a show called “An eye on Democracy”.
  • Dr. Haydar as a special guest on Al-Hurra’s 3ayn 3ala al demo8ra6iyah
  • Critics of Western media bias Developing nations generally don’t like western media coverage of their countries – usually because western media tell the people more than those governments want their people to hear. New World Information and Communications Order (NWICO) Ethnocentric Western values Political, economic, religious, and social values Developing world media and newly independent governments have been highly critical of this situation, arguing that coverage from the major services contains ethnocentric occidental values that affect its content and presentation. Coverage from these media most often include political, economic, Judeo-Christian religious, and other social values that are not universal. . . . UNESCO ’ s 1978 Declaration Supported national self-determination in media policies -- critics of the statement, especially journalists, felt that some aspects of the declaration supported government control of the flow of information out of a country, because some news services are official government mouthpieces. The MacBride Report, 1983 Inconclusive NWICO resolution
  • MTV International programming (MTV Arabia, MTV Russia, etc) 366 million households w.w. Yahoo, Inc. 40% interest in Chinese online firm -- alibaba.com . China is now the world ’s second largest Internet market. ABC-BBC Newsgathering partnership Competing with CNN Rupert Murdoch British Sky Network for India -- “Our plan is not just to beam signals into India but also to take part in Indian films, make television programs and broadcast them.” Jun Murai Wiring Japan ’ s universities to the Internet -- ultimately, he says, he “wants to connect all the computers in this world.” U.S./British advertising and PR Shandwick, 50% U.S. contracts -- Shandwick is the largest agency in the United Kingdom. More than half of Shandwick ’s business comes from the United States. The number of TV sets in the world has jumped to more than 1 billion—a 50 percent jump in the past five years. According to the Los Angeles Times: “TV sets are more common in Japanese homes than flush toilets. Virtually every Mexican household has a TV, but only half have phones. Thai consumers will buy a TV before an electric fan or even a refrigerator. . . . Vans roam New Delhi streets with miniature satellite dishes on the roof and a megaphone blaring promises of hookups for $150. “
  • Access across borders Some governments try to control through pricing As high as $200/month Some countries still lack technology for access Telephone Cellular or satellite connection Only the wealthy have access Expanding economic uses Future global communications medium -- the Internet is as close as a laptop and an Internet connection, and is becoming an indispensable tool for business and economic growth. More than any other factor, the economic uses of the Internet guarantee its future as a global communications medium.
  • When American lawmakers saw what happened in Egypt, they immediately asked “why didn’t we know about this?” Throughout modern history, the CIA has either known about or instigated most revolutions. They even held a hearing (like a trial) asking the CIA why president Obama didn’t know about it before it happened, and ultimately it was clear that they had underestimated social networks’ ability to break the social and government-imposed security barriers that were present in Egypt. Many people say that the most important role which social networks played in the revolutions was the fact that it broke the “I am not alone” barrier. People who perhaps felt that they represented a very small minority could now see that many others felt the same way they did, and that encouraged them. As mentioned before, many countries in the middle east still have high illiteracy rates, as well as poor economical standards, so internet usage is still low when compared to other regions in the world, but middle eastern presence on social media networks (especially facebook and twitter) is growing at a rapid rate. This is a very recent trend, but many people in the middle east now view social networks as a news source. In fact, almost all international news stations (from CNN to Al-Jazeera) rely heavily on Twitter for videos, pictures, etc.
  • New technologies bring new ideas Nations accustomed to controlling information face change on many fronts Chinese government bans on satellite dishes and foreign programs Difficult to enforce. Coming at you from too many angles. Anonymous proxy websites. Airwaves are borderless It all came from there Global media dialogue -- people see that others aren’t so different, and want to bridge the gaps. Transnational marketplace There’s a lot of money to be made here, it’s opened up an entirely new market place – a global market place.
  • PR and GM

    1. 1. 11. Public Relations J. Matthew Melton, Ph.D. Lee University, Cleveland, TN
    2. 2. Public Relations <ul><li>Classic definition of public relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating an understanding for, or goodwill towards, a company, a person or a product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Relations in Ancient Times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feature of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statues, coins and stamps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today ’ s public relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product of journalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 20th century </li></ul></ul>Augustus Caesar, commissioned statues of himself in the 1st century. The Image is from Wikipedia .Inc http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus
    3. 3. Corporate Public Relations <ul><li>The Publicity Bureau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first publicity firm was called The Publicity Bureau and opened in Boston in 1900 to head off the growing public criticism of the railroad companies . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ivy Lee & George F. Parker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The best-known early practitioner of public relations was Ivy Lee , who began his PR career by opening an office in New York with George F. Parker. Lee and Parker represented coal magnate George F. Baer when coal workers went on strike </li></ul></ul>Ivy Lee, Founder of the modern “public relations”. The Image is from Wikipedia .Inc http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus
    4. 4. Lee ’ s Declaration of Principles <ul><li>Lee ’ s Declaration of Principles 1906 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work done in the open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply news about businesses and public institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest and accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ This [the firm of Lee & Parker] is not a secret press bureau. All our work is done in the open. We aim to supply news. . . . In brief, our plan is, frankly and openly, on behalf of business concerns and public institutions, to supply to the press and public of the United States prompt and accurate information concerning subjects which it is of value and interest to the public to know about” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Government Public Relations <ul><li>Committee on Public Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World War I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Creel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recruited journalists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edward L. Bernays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blurred line between propaganda and publicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised money for Liberty Bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted war effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted the New Deal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Office of War Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World War II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led by newscaster Elmer Davis </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Edward L. Bernays <ul><li>Wrote the first books on public relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystallization of Public Opinion - 1923 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taught the first course on public relations </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in mass psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to influence large groups of people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impressive list of clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procter & Gamble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Motors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Tobacco Company </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrote in 1955 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public relations “ is the attempt, by information, persuasion, and adjustment, to engineer public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution. ” </li></ul></ul>Bettmann/Corbis Bernays
    7. 7. Financial Public Relations <ul><li>Information for business reporters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical and honest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News rather than “ fluff ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Bad ” financial PR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ none of the public ’ s business ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can ’ t answer questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside PR firms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ No comment ” PR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No help </li></ul></ul>The New Yorker Collection 1999 Jack Ziegler from cartoonbank.com
    8. 8. Product Public Relations <ul><li>Selling through PR, rather than advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Wieden & Kennedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wieden & Kennedy agency in Seattle contracted Bigger Than Life, Inc., which makes large inflatables, to manufacture a 21-story pair of tennis shoes . The company attached the shoes to the Westin Copley Place Hotel during the Boston Marathon and to the Westin Hotel in downtown Cincinnati during the March of Dimes . Pictures of the shoes appeared in The New York Times and in newspapers as far away as Japan. Wieden & Kennedy estimated that buying the same advertising would have cost $7 million!!! </li></ul></ul>AP/Wide World Photos
    9. 9. Crisis Public Relations <ul><li>Responding to negativity </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson & Johnson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tylenol poison tampering, 1982 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>killed seven people in and near Chicago. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness, social responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product recalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $100 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Televised, 30-city press conference </li></ul></ul>AP/Wide World Photo Stephen Williamson, Odwalla CEO
    10. 10. Types of Clients <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest employer of PR people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political candidates and lobbyists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colleges, universities and school districts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonprofits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitals, churches, museums. charities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation, utilities, manufacturers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>best-known area of public relations. Large companies keep an in-house staff of public relations people, and these companies also often hire outside PR firms to help on special projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing businesses overseas </li></ul></ul>Library of Congress WWII Office of War Information
    11. 11. Responsibilities of PR people <ul><li>Writing and Editing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Press releases, newsletters, reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contacting news media, magazines, Sunday supplements, freelance writers and trade publications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arranging and managing press conferences, convention exhibits, open houses, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating art, photography and layout for brochures, booklets, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather data for planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programming and counseling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish effective programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul>
    12. 12. Public Relations and the Media <ul><li>Attracting attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ PR people do influence the news, but really more in a functional manner rather than in terms of giving new editorial direction. We get hundreds of press releases every day in each of our departments... Quite a lot of our business stories originate from press releases. It ’s impossible for us to cover all of these organizations ourselves ” - Says Seymour Topping, managing editor of The New York Times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Press releases and news coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News outlets need news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Press releases help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publicity vs advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ads are paid for vs. Publicity is free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ads are controlled vs. Publicity is uncontrolled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No control over its use </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 16. Global Media J. Matthew Melton, Ph.D. Lee University, Cleveland, TN <ul><li>“ We’re the first news channel based in the Mideast to bring news back to the west. We want to set a different news agenda.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Nigel Parsons, managing director of Qatar-based Al Jazeera International </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Preface <ul><li>Any medium that delivers any type of information on a global scale falls under the umbrella of Global Media </li></ul><ul><li>News stations, Newspapers, Radio stations, movies, music, websites, books, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>We are all “victims” of global media. </li></ul><ul><li>Our ideas are not our own. </li></ul>
    15. 15. World Media Systems <ul><li>Varied media systems </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of print </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North America, Europe, Australia 2/3 of world ’ s newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country with most newspaper readers is Japan. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominance of radio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing nations with scarce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence of television </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosperous nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban centers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government controlled </li></ul></ul></ul>New Yorker Collection 1993 Lee Lorenz cartoonbank.com
    16. 16. Political Theories and the Media <ul><li>Soviet Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government owned and operated mass media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government control and approval of media content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Libertarian Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media freedom and protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Responsibility Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government oversight of media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmental Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of theories in developing nations </li></ul></ul>Nicholas Kamm/AFP Getty Images
    17. 17. Western Europe and Canada <ul><li>Press freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some British restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stricter libel laws in France and Greece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scandinavia most liberal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Print Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European press more partisan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audio and Video Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move toward private ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch half the TV Americans watch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly American programming. </li></ul></ul>jmmelton/motleyimage
    18. 18. Eastern Europe <ul><li>Media helped bring change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The journalist was no longer a propagandist for the state. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audio and Video Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once government owned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Print Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also government operated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pravda - official Soviet newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glasnost and change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western ads allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990, media freedoms granted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1996. Pravda goes bankrupt </li></ul></ul>John Lamb/Getty Images/Stone
    19. 19. Africa <ul><li>History of European domination </li></ul><ul><li>Print Media Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many carried-over colonial papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong advocacy content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regionalism makes mass print difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argus Group, South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Struggled against apartheid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Audio and Video Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance of radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easily accessible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower literacy rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 2% television ownership </li></ul></ul>John Chiasson/Getty Images
    20. 20. Japan <ul><li>Most newspaper readers in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tokyo based papers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japanese Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Board like BBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of private and public ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World ’ s most prosperous broadcasting company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited cable access </li></ul></ul>Chung Sung Jun/Getty Images
    21. 21. India <ul><li>Independence in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Print media explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>200 publications in 1947 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25,000 by 1987 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All India Radio (AIR) </li></ul><ul><li>Doordarshan TV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite brings programming to 4 out of 5 Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Bollywood ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian film industry, Film City, Bombay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 studios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>800 films a year </li></ul></ul>AP/Wide World Photos
    22. 22. Middle East and North Africa <ul><li>Print Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tightly controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy government restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audio and Visual Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private ownership allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign language radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative news source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BBC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Monte Carlo (Paris) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VCRs, DVDS, and pirated video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera </li></ul></ul>AP/Wide World Photo
    23. 23. Middle Eastern News Channels <ul><li>Al-Jazeera - popular, powerful, controversial. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opinionated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy influence on Arab street </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study showed they are viewed “unfavorably” in America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bush Administration didn’t like them, Obama’s does. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Al-Arabiya </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saudi response to Al-Jazeera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gained popularity despite initial skepticism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Al-Hurra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American response to Al-Jazeera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular in Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on democracy </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Do you know this man?
    25. 25. Saudi Arabia <ul><li>Print Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It started very early compared to the rest of the region, in 1932, with “ Al Belad Newspaper ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private ownerships, but government controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are about 18 daily newspapers. No official records of circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audio and Visual Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government controlled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 9 governmental channels and many other channels that are Saudi-financed like MBC group. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Charges of Western Cultural Bias <ul><li>Critics of Western media bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing nations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New World Information and Communications Order (NWICO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnocentric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political, economic, religious, and social values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>UNESCO ’ s 1978 Declaration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported national self-determination in media policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The MacBride Report, 1983 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconclusive NWICO resolution </li></ul></ul>Chien-Min Chung/Corbis
    27. 27. Global Media Gurus <ul><li>MTV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International programming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yahoo, Inc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40% interest in Chinese online firm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ABC-BBC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsgathering partnership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing with CNN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rupert Murdoch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky Network (England, India, Australia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fox News (United States) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jun Murai </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiring Japan ’ s universities to the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A few random facts </li></ul>
    28. 28. Global Access to the Internet <ul><li>Access across borders </li></ul><ul><li>Some governments try to control through pricing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As high as $200/month </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some countries still lack technology for access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular or satellite connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the wealthy have access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expanding economic uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future global communications medium </li></ul></ul>Clara Natoli/morguefile.com
    29. 29. Social Networking Impact In Middle East <ul><li>Broke social barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Tool for protestors </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am not alone” </li></ul><ul><li>Still low penetration rates internationally, but notable growth </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative news source </li></ul><ul><li>Emulated in the US with “occupy wall street” and now Russia </li></ul>
    30. 30. New Pathways for Ideas <ul><li>New technologies bring new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Nations accustomed to controlling information face change on many fronts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese government bans on satellite dishes and foreign programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to enforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymous Proxy websites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Airwaves are borderless </li></ul><ul><li>Global media dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Transnational marketplace </li></ul>ABC News Click on image to play video

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