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Journalism Book


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Journalism Book

  1. 1. What is JOURNALISM? journalists who do their job, who push back screens, peer behind façades, and lift rocks. Opprobrium from Journalism- is the craft of conveying news, on high is their badge of honor." descriptive material and comment via a widening spectrum of media. These include newspapers, Censorship, governmental restriction or even active magazines, radio and television, the internet and even, repression of individual journalists and non-state more recently, the cell phone. They are also a writers, organs of communication continue to cause, at best, editors or photographers; broadcast presenters or intermittent friction in most countries. Few formal producers—serve as the chief purveyors of information democracies and no authoritarian governments make and opinion in contemporary mass society According provision for protection of press freedom implied by to BBC journalist, Andrew Marr, "News is what the the term Fourth Estate. consensus of journalists determines it to be." The INTERNET TECHNOLOGY From informal beginnings in the Europe of the 18th century, stimulated by the arrival of mechanized The rapid rise of Internet technology, in particular the printing—in due course by mass production and in the advent of blogging and social networking software, 20th century by electronic communications technology further destabilize journalism as traditionally —today's engines of journalistic enterprise include understood and its practitioners as a distinct large corporations with global reach. professional category. Combined with the increasing leakage of advertising revenue from pre-existing The FORMAL JOURNALISM journalistic media into the internet, the full impact of the arrival of the citizen journalist—potentially positive The formal status of journalism- has varied historically (proliferation having thus far proved more difficult to and, still varies vastly, from country to country. The police) as well as negative—is yet to be seen. modern state and hierarchical power structures in general have tended to see the unrestricted flow of THE ELEMENTS OF JOURNALISM information as a potential threat, and inimical to their own proper function. Hitler described the Press as a According to The Elements of Journalism, a book by Bill "machine for mass instruction," ideally, a "kind of Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel, there are nine elements school for adults." [2] Journalism at its most vigorous, of journalism. In order for a journalist to fulfill their by contrast, tends to be propelled by the implications duty of at least of the attitude epitomized by the Australian journalist John Pilger: "Secretive power loathes
  2. 2. providing the people with the information they need to more likely to have a small number of reporters be free and self-governing. They must follow these covering all areas of interest. Investigative reports guidelines: may cover lengthy stories that require days or weeks to gather sufficient information. Articles must be 1. Journalism's first obligation is to the truth. produced to meet a limited deadline determined by 2. Its first loyalty is to the citizens. the broadcast or print time of the specific publication 3. Its essence is discipline of verification. and working hours may vary according to the 4. Its practitioners must maintain an independence deadlines set and depending on projects or last-minute from those they cover. developments may be long or irregular. 5. It must serve as an independent monitor of power. Styles 6. It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise. Newspapers and periodicals often contain features 7. It must strive to make the significant (see Feature style) written by journalists, many of interesting, and relevant. whom specialize in this form of in-depth journalistic 8. It must keep the news comprehensive and writing. proportional. 9. Its practitioners must be allowed to exercise Feature articles are usually longer forms of writing; their personal conscience. more attention is paid to style than in straight news reports. They are often combined with photographs, In the April 2007 edition of the book, they have added drawings or other "art." They may also be highlighted one additional element, the rights and responsibilities by typographic effects or colors. of citizens to make it a total of ten elements of journalism. Writing features can be more demanding than writing straight news stories, because while a journalist must Article topics and writing apply the same amount of effort to accurately gather and report the facts of the story, he or she must also Articles- are written about topics that are considered find a creative and interesting way to write it. The lead notable by the editors of the publication, with (or first two paragraphs of the story; see Nut graph) notability varying depending on the focus and must grab the reader's attention and yet accurately audience of the publisher. Large agencies or embody the ideas of the article. companies may have reporters that are specialized to discuss specific topics (a beat); smaller agencies are
  3. 3. In the last half of the 20th Century the line between Western culture has justified the attention of straight news reporting and feature writing has journalists to not just the competitive events in sports, blurred. Journalists and publications today experiment but also to athletes and the business of sports. with different approaches to writing. Tom Wolfe, Gay Talese, Hunter S. Thompson are some of these Sports journalism in the United States has traditionally examples. Urban and alternative weekly newspapers been written in a looser, more creative and more go even further in blurring the distinction, and many opinionated tone than traditional journalistic writing; magazines include more features than straight news. the emphasis on accuracy and underlying fairness is still a part of sports journalism. An emphasis on the Some television news shows experimented with accurate description of the statistical performances of alternative formats, and many TV shows that claimed athletes is also an important part of sports journalism. to be news shows were not considered as such by traditional critics, because their content and methods Science journalism do not adhere to accepted journalistic standards. National Public Radio, on the other hand, is considered Science journalism- is a relatively new branch of a good example of mixing straight news reporting, journalism, in which journalists' reporting conveys features, and combinations of the two, usually meeting information on science topics to the public. Science standards of high quality. Other US public radio news journalists must understand and interpret very organizations have achieved similar results. A majority detailed, technical and sometimes jargon-laden of newspapers still maintain a clear distinction information and render it into interesting reports that between news and features, as do most television and are comprehensible to consumers of news media. radio news organizations. Scientific journalists also must choose which STYLE OF JOURNALISM developments in science merit news coverage, as well as cover disputes within the scientific community with Sports journalism a balance of fairness to both sides but also with a devotion to the facts. Sports journalism -covers many aspects of human athletic competition, and is an integral part of most journalism products, including newspapers, magazines, and radio and television news broadcasts. Investigative journalism While some critics don't consider sports journalism to be true journalism, the prominence of sports in
  4. 4. Investigative journalism,- in which journalists meaning by Tom Wolfe in a 1973 collection of investigate and expose unethical, immoral, and illegal journalism articles. behavior by individuals, businesses and government agencies, can be complicated, time-consuming and It is typified by using certain devices of literary fiction, expensive — requiring teams of journalists, months of such as conversational speech, first-person point of research, interviews (sometimes repeated interviews) view, recording everyday details and telling the story with numerous people, long-distance travel, computers using scenes. Though it seems undisciplined at first, to analyze public-record databases, or use of the new journalism maintains elements of reporting company's legal staff to secure documents under including strict adherence to factual accuracy and the freedom of information laws. writer being the primary source. To get "inside the head" of a character, the journalist asks the subject Because of its high costs and inherently what they were thinking or how they felt. confrontational nature, this kind of reporting is often the first to suffer from budget cutbacks or interference Because of its unorthodox style, new journalism is from outside the news department. Investigative typically employed in feature writing or book-length reporting done poorly can also expose journalists and reporting projects. media organizations to negative reaction from the subjects of investigations and the public, and Many new journalists are also writers of fiction and accusations of gotcha journalism. When conducted prose. In addition to Wolfe, writers whose work has correctly it can bring the attention of the public and fallen under the title "new journalism" include Norman government to problems and conditions that the public Mailer, Hunter S. Thompson, Joan Didion, Truman deem need to be addressed, and can win awards and Capote, George Plimpton and Gay Talese. recognition to the journalists involved and the media outlet that did the reporting. Gonzo journalism New journalism Gonzo journalism- is a type of journalism popularized by the American writer Hunter S. Thompson, author of New Journalism- was the name given to a style of Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Fear and Loathing on 1960s and 1970s news writing and journalism which the Campaign Trail '72 and The Kentucky Derby is used literary techniques deemed unconventional at Decadent and Depraved, among other stories and the time. The term was codified with its current
  5. 5. books. Gonzo journalism is characterized by its punchy Weekly, syndicated television shows like style, rough language, and ostensible disregard for Entertainment Tonight, Inside Edition, The Insider, conventional journalistic writing forms and customs. Access Hollywood, and Extra, cable networks like E!, More importantly, the traditional objectivity of the A&E Network and The Biography Channel, and journalist is given up through immersion into the story numerous other television productions and thousands itself, as in New Journalism, and the reportage is taken of websites. Most other news media provide some from a first-hand, participatory perspective, sometimes coverage of celebrities and people. using an author surrogate such as Thompson's Raoul Duke. Gonzo journalism attempts to present a multi- Celebrity journalism differs from feature writing in that disciplinary perspective on a particular story, drawing it focuses on people who are either already famous or from popular culture, sports, and political, are especially attractive, and in that it often covers philosophical and literary sources. Gonzo journalism celebrities obsessively, to the point of these journalists has been styled eclectic or untraditional. It remains a behaving unethically in order to provide coverage. feature of popular magazines such as Rolling Stone Paparazzi, photographers who would follow celebrities magazine. It has a good deal in common with new incessantly to obtain potentially embarrassing journalism and on-line journalism (see above). photographs, have come to characterize celebrity journalism. "Celebrity" or "people" journalism "Convergence journalism" Another area of journalism that grew in stature in the 20th Century is 'celebrity' or 'people' journalism, which An emerging form of journalism, which combines focuses on the personal lives of people, primarily different forms of journalism, such as print, celebrities, including movie and stage actors, musical photographic and video, into one piece or group of artists, models and photographers, other notable pieces. Convergence journalism can be found in the people in the entertainment industry, as well as people likes of CNN and many other news sites. The who seek attention, such as politicians, and people Washington Post has a notable amount of this. thrust into the attention of the public, such as people who do something newsworthy. Ambush journalism Once the province of newspaper gossip columnists and Ambush journalism refers to aggressive tactics gossip magazines, celebrity journalism has become practiced by journalists to suddenly confront and the focus of national tabloid newspapers like the question people who otherwise do not wish to speak to National Enquirer, magazines like People and Us a journalist. The practice has particularly been applied
  6. 6. by television journalists, on news shows like The includes points like respecting people's privacy and O'Reilly Factor [7] and 60 Minutes and by Geraldo ensuring accuracy. However, the Media Standards Rivera and other local television reporters conducting Trust has criticized the PCC, claiming it needs to be investigations. radically changed to secure public trust of newspapers. [ The practice has been sharply criticized by journalists and others as being highly unethical and sensational, This is in stark contrast to the media climate prior to while others defend it as the only way to attempt to the 20th Century, where the media market was provide those subject to it an opportunity to comment dominated by smaller newspapers and pamphleteers for a report. This can usually be discerned by the level who usually had an overt and often radical agenda, of physical aggression the journalist displays and in with no presumption of balance or objectivity. the time allowed for an uninterrupted answer. Recognition of excellence in journalism Other There are several professional organizations, • Advocacy journalism universities and foundations that recognize excellence • Citizen journalism in journalism in the USA. The Pulitzer Prize, • Social news administered by Columbia University in New York City, • Participatory Media is awarded to newspapers, magazines and broadcast • Community journalism media for excellence in various kinds of journalism. • Environmental journalism The Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism • Fashion journalism gives the Alfred I. DuPont-Columbia University Awards • Innovation journalism for excellence in radio and television journalism, and • Online journalism the Scripps Howard Foundation gives the National • Parachute journalism Journalism Awards in 17 categories. The Society of • Service journalism Professional Journalists gives the Sigma Delta Chi • Video journalism Award for journalism excellence. In the television • Trade journalism industry, the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences gives awards for excellence in television Professional and ethical standards journalism. In the UK, all newspapers are bound by the Code of Failing to uphold standards Practice of the Press Complaints Commission. This
  7. 7. Such a code of conduct can, in the real world, be Self-censorship is a growing problem in journalism, difficult to uphold consistently. Journalists who believe particularly in covering countries that sharply restrict they are being fair or objective may give biased press freedom. As commercial pressure in the media accounts—by reporting selectively, trusting too much marketplace grows, media organizations are loath to to anecdote, or giving a partial explanation of actions. lose access to high-profile countries by producing (See Media bias.) Even in routine reporting, bias can unflattering stories. For example, CNN admitted that it creep into a story through a reporter's choice of facts had practiced self-censorship in covering the Saddam to summarize, or through failure to check enough Hussein regime in Iraq in order to ensure continued sources, hear and report dissenting voices, or seek access after the regime had thrown out other media. fresh perspectives. CNN correspondent Christiane Amanpour also complained of self-censorship during the invasion of A news organization's budget inevitably reflects Iraq due to the fear of alienating key audiences in the decision-making about what news to cover, for what US. There are claims that the media are also avoiding audience, and in what depth. Those decisions may covering stories about repression and human rights reflect conscious or unconscious bias. When budgets violations by the Israeli and Iranian regimes in order to are cut, editors may sacrifice reporters in distant news maintain a presence in those countries. bureaus; reduce the number of staff assigned to low- income areas, or wipe entire communities from the publication's zone of interest. Reporting versus editorializing Publishers, owners and other corporate executives, especially advertising sales executives, can try to use Generally, publishers and consumers of journalism their powers over journalists to influence how news is draw a distinction between reporting — "just the facts" reported and published. Journalists usually rely on top — and opinion writing, often by restricting opinion management to create and maintain a "firewall" columns to the editorial page and its facing or "op-ed" between the news and other departments in a news (opposite the editorials) page. Unsigned editorials are organization to prevent undue influence on the news traditionally the official opinions of the paper's department. One journalism magazine, Columbia editorial board, while op-ed pages may be a mixture of Journalism Review, has made it a practice to reveal syndicated columns and other contributions, examples of executives who try to influence news frequently with some attempt to balance the voices coverage, of executives who do not abuse their powers across some political or social spectrum. over journalists, and of journalists who resist such pressures.
  8. 8. The distinction between reporting and opinion can public opinion for or against governments, their break down. In the UK, the Press Complaints officials and policies, as well as the perception that the Commission states that "the Press, whilst free to be press often represents their consumers. These partisan, must distinguish clearly between comment, privileges extend from the legal rights of journalists conjecture and fact" but some commentators have but are not guaranteed by those rights. Sometimes suggested there can sometimes be a blurring of government officials may attempt to punish individual opinion and fact. Complex stories often require journalists who irk them by denying them some of summarizing and interpretation of facts, especially if these privileges extended to other journalists. there is limited time or space for a story. Stories involving great amounts of interpretation are often Nations or jurisdictions that formally license journalists labeled "news analysis," but still run in a paper's news may confer special privileges and responsibilities along columns. The limited time for each story in a broadcast with those licenses, but in the United States the report rarely allows for such distinctions. tradition of an independent press has avoided any imposition of government-controlled examinations or LEGAL STATUS AS a JOURNALIST licensing. Some of the states have explicit shield laws that protect journalists from some forms of Journalists around the world often write about the government inquiry, but those statutes' definitions of governments in their nations, and those governments "journalist" were often based on access to printing have widely varying policies and practices towards presses and broadcast towers. A national shield law journalists, which control what they can research and has been proposed. write, and what press organizations can publish. Many Western governments guarantee the freedom of the In some nations, journalists are directly employed, press, and do relatively little to restrict press rights controlled or censored by their governments. In other and freedoms, while other nations severely restrict nations, governments who may claim to guarantee what journalists can research and/or publish. press rights actually intimidate journalists with threats of arrest, destruction or seizure of property (especially Journalists in many nations have enjoyed some the means of production and dissemination of news privileges not enjoyed by members of the general content), torture or murder. public, including better access to public events, crime scenes and press conferences, and to extended Journalists who elect to cover conflicts, whether wars interviews with public officials, celebrities and others between nations or insurgencies within nations, often in the public eye. These privileges are available give up any expectation of protection by government, because of the perceived power of the press to turn if not giving up their rights to protection by
  9. 9. government. Journalists who are captured or detained Reporters- are one type of journalist. They create during a conflict are expected to be treated as civilians reports as a profession for broadcast or publication in and to be released to their national government. mass media such as newspapers, television, radio, magazines, documentary film, and the Internet. Reporters find sources for their work, their reports can be either spoken or written, and they are often expected to report in the most objective and unbiased way to serve the public good. A columnist is a journalist who writes pieces that appear regularly in newspapers or magazines. Depending on the context, the term journalist also includes various types of editors and visual journalists, such as photographers, graphic artists, and page designers. Journalists put the information in their own words, making it creative in their own way so it will catch the reader's or viewer's attention. ROLES OF… REPORTER JOURNALIST A reporter - is a type of journalist who researches and A journalist- is a person who practices journalism, the presents information in certain types of mass media. gathering and dissemination of information about current events, trends, issues, and people while Reporters gather their information in a variety of ways, striving for viewpoints that aren't biased. including tips, press releases, sources (those with newsworthy information) and witnessing events. They perform research through interviews, public records,
  10. 10. and other sources. The information-gathering part of appear on a daily basis and later reprint the same the job is sometimes called "reporting" as distinct from material in book collections. the production part of the job, such as writing articles. Reporters generally split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or PHOTOGRAPHER interview people. A photographer- is a person who takes photographs Most reporters working for major news media outlets using a camera. A professional photographer uses are assigned an area to focus on called a beat or photography to make a living whilst an amateur patch. They are encouraged to cultivate sources to photographer does not earn a living and typically takes improve their information gathering. photographs for pleasure and to record an event, place or person for future enjoyment. EDITOR Photographers are often categorized based on the Editing - is the process of preparing language, subjects they photograph. Some photographers images, sound, video, or film through correction, explore subjects typical of paintings such as condensation, organization, and other modifications in landscape, still life, and portraiture. Other various media. A person who edits is called an editor. photographers specialize in subjects unique to In a sense, the editing process originates with the idea photography, including street photography, for the work itself and continues in the relationship documentary photography, fashion photography, between the author and the editor. Editing is, wedding photography, war photography, therefore, also a practice that includes creative skills, photojournalism and commercial photography. human relations, and a precise set of methods. Paparazzi are photographers who take candid COLUMNIST photographs of celebrities. A columnist- is a journalist who writes for publication FIELDS OF PHOTOJOURNALISM in a series, creating copy that can sometimes be strongly opinionated. Columns appear in newspapers, Photojournalism- is a particular form of journalism magazines and other publications, including blogs on (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news the Internet. Readers often open a publication with an material for publication or broadcast) that creates expectation of reading a new essay by a specific writer images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually who offers a personal point of view. Some columnists understood to refer only to still images, and in some
  11. 11. cases to video used in broadcast journalism or for training in this field. In 2005, Syracuse University personal use. Photojournalism is distinguished from founded the Gold ring Arts Journalism Program, the other close branches of photography (such as first arts masters program at an accredited school to documentary photography, street photography or teach journalists to write about arts and culture. celebrity photography) by the qualities of: Look at this site: • Timeliness — the images have meaning in the context of a recently published record of events. FIELDS OF BUSINESS JOURNALISM • Objectivity — the situation implied by the Business journalism-is the branch of journalism that images is a fair and accurate representation of tracks, records, analyzes and interprets the economic the events they depict in both content and tone. changes that take place in a society. It could include anything from personal finance, to business at the • Narrative — the images combine with other local market and shopping malls, to the performance news elements to make facts relatable to the of well-known and not-so-well-known companies. viewer or reader on a cultural level. This form of journalism covers news and feature Like a writer, a photojournalist is a reporter but he or articles about people, places and issues related to the she must often make decisions instantly and carry field of business. Most all newspapers, magazines, photographic equipment, often while exposed to radio, and television news channels carry a business significant obstacles (physical danger, weather, segment. However, detailed and in depth business crowds). journalism can be found in publications, radio, and television channels dedicated specifically to business and financial journalism. FIELDS OF ART JOURNALISM Business journalism began as early as the middle Ages, to help well-known trading families communicate Arts journalism -is a branch of journalism concerned with each other. Business coverage gained with the reporting and discussion of the arts. This can prominence in the 1990s, with wider investment in the include, but is not limited to, film, literature, music, stock market. The Wall Street Journal is one prominent theater, and architecture. Traditionally, journalists and example of business journalism, and is among the critics writing about the arts had a background in United States of America's top newspapers in terms of writing and the arts; there was no formal advanced
  12. 12. both circulation and respect of the journalists whose Environmental journalism is the collection, work appears there. verification, production, distribution and exhibition of information regarding current events, trends, issues A journalist who works in this branch is considered a and people that are associated with the non-human business journalist. Their main purpose is gathering world with which humans necessarily interact. To be information about current events in the economic life an environmental journalist, one must have an of the country. They may also cover processes, trends, understanding of scientific language and practice, consequences, and important people, in business and knowledge of historical environmental events, the disseminate their work through all types of mass ability to keep abreast of environmental policy media. decisions and the work of environmental organizations, a general understanding of current FIELDS OF ENTERTAINMENT JOURNALISM environmental concerns, and the ability to communicate all of that information to the public in Entertainment journalism is an umbrella term used such a way that it can be easily understood, despite its to describe all forms of journalism that focus on the complexity. entertainment business and its products. Like fashion journalism, entertainment journalism covers industry- Environmental journalism falls within the scope of specific news while targeting general audiences environmental communication, and its roots can be beyond those working in the industry itself. Common traced to nature writing. One key controversy in forms include television and film criticism, music environmental journalism is a continuing disagreement journalism, video game journalism and celebrity over how to distinguish it from its allied genres and coverage. disciplines. FIELDS OF FASHION JOURNALISM Fashion journalism- is an umbrella term used to describe all aspects of published fashion media. It includes fashion writers, fashion critics or fashion FIELDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL JOURNALISM reporters. The most obvious examples of fashion journalism are the fashion features in magazines and
  13. 13. newspapers, but the term also includes books about FIELDS OF SCIENCE JOURNALISM fashion, fashion related reports on television as well as online fashion magazines, websites and blogs. Since Science journalism- is a branch of journalism that pieces more often than not deal with "tendencies" and uses the art of reporting to convey information about "trends", which are subjective by nature, and due to a science topics to a public forum. The communication of sometimes tenuous relation with facts, the term scientific knowledge through mass media requires a "journalism" is used as monikers, but does not carry special relationship between the world of science and the overall procedural and deontological aspects of news media, which is still just beginning to form. professional journalism. The first task of a science journalist is to render the The work of a fashion journalist can be quite varied. very detailed, specific, and often jargon-laden Typical work includes writing or editing articles, or information produced by scientists into a form that the helping to formulate and style a fashion shoot. A average media consumer can understand and fashion journalist typically spends a lot of time appreciate, while still communicating the information researching and/or conducting interviews and it is accurately. Science journalists often do not have essential that he or she has good contacts with people advanced training in the particular scientific disciplines in the fashion industry, including photographers, that they cover — they may have been scientists or designers, and public relations specialists. medical doctors before becoming journalists — or have at least exhibited talent in writing about science Fashion journalists are either employed full time by a subjects. publication or are employed on a freelance basis. In recent years, the amount of scientific news has grown rapidly with science playing an increasingly central role in society, and interaction between the FIELDS OF MEDICAL JOURNALISM scientific community and news media has increased. The differences between the methodologies of these Medical journalism -is the dissemination of health- two "pillars" of modern society, particularly their related information through mainstream media outlets. distinct ways of developing their realities, have led to Medical issues are widely reported, and these reports some difficulties. Journalism tends to have a stronger influence doctors, the general public, and the bias towards sensationalism and speculative theories government. The coverage is often criticized for being than science, whereas science focuses more on fact misleading, inaccurate, or speculative. Several web and empirical measurement. sites and journals review medical journalism.
  14. 14. Science journalists regularly come under criticism for interpreted, and discussed by news media pundits and falsely reporting scientific stories. Very often, such as editorialists. with climate change, this leaves the public under the impression that the scientific community is divided. Science is based on experimental evidence, testing and not dogma, and disputation is a normal activity. FIELDS OF TECHNICAL JOURNALISM FIELDS OF POLITICAL JOURNALISM Technical journalism -is a branch of journalism that uses the art of reporting to convey information about Political journalism-is a broad branch of journalism technology to the public. that includes coverage of all aspects of politics and political science, although the term usually refers FIELDS OF TECHNICAL JOURNALISM specifically to coverage of civil governments and political power. Trade journalism- reports on the movements and developments of the business world by way of articles Political journalism is a frequent subject of opinion or analysis. Trade journalism also refers to industry- journalism, as current political events are analyzed, specific news, such as exclusive focus on commodities interpreted, and discussed by news media pundits and (e.g. oil, gas and metals) or sectors (finance, travel, editorialists. food). Due to its business nature, trade journalism is often expected to process and interpret a substantial amount of market commentary. FIELDS OF POLITICAL JOURNALISM WRITING NEWS TECHNIQUES Political journalism- is a broad branch of journalism NEWS STYLE that includes coverage of all aspects of politics and political science, although the term usually refers News style- (also journalistic style or news specifically to coverage of civil governments and writing) is the prose style used for news reporting in political power. media such as newspapers, radio and television. News style encompasses not only vocabulary and sentence Political journalism is a frequent subject of opinion structure, but also the way in which stories present the journalism, as current political events are analyzed, information in terms of relative importance, tone, and intended audience.
  15. 15. News writing attempts to answer all the basic questions about any particular event in the first two or three paragraphs, the Five Ws. This form of structure Lead or intro is sometimes called the "inverted pyramid," to refer to the decreased importance of information as it The most important structural element of a story is the progresses. lead or "intro" (in the UK) —the story's first, or leading, sentence. (Some American English speakers News stories also contain at least one of the following use the spelling lede (pronounced /ˈliːd/), from the important characteristics: proximity, prominence, archaic English, used to avoid confusion with the timeliness, human interest, oddity, or consequence. printing press type formerly made from lead or the related typographical term leading.) Charnley (1966) Terms and structure stated that "an effective lead is a "brief, sharp statement of the story's essential facts"" (p. 166). The Journalistic prose is explicit and precise, and tries lead is usually the first sentence, or in some cases the not to rely on jargon. As a rule, journalists will not use first two sentences, and is ideally 20-25 words in a long word when a short one will do. They use length. The top-loading principle applies especially to subject-verb-object construction and vivid, active leads, but the unread ability of long sentences prose. They offer anecdotes, examples and metaphors, constrains its size. This makes writing a lead an and they rarely depend on colorless generalizations or optimization problem, in which the goal is to articulate abstract ideas. News writers try to avoid using the the most encompassing and interesting statement that same word more than once in a paragraph (sometimes a writer can make in one sentence, given the material called an "echo" or "word mirror"). with which he or she has to work. While a rule of thumb says the lead should answer most or all of the 5 Main article: Headline Ws, few leads can fit all of these. Headline (or hed) To "bury the lead" in news style, refers to beginning a description with details of secondary importance to The head of a story, in newsman's jargon. the readers, forcing them to read more deeply into an article than they should have to in order to discover Subhead (or dek) the essential point. A phrase, sentence or several sentences near the title Article leads are sometimes categorized into hard of an article or story. leads and soft leads. A hard lead aims to provide a
  16. 16. comprehensive thesis which tells the reader what the article will cover. A soft lead introduces the topic in a more creative, attention-seeking fashion, and is usually followed by a nut graph (a brief summary of facts).[3] Media critics often note that the lead can be the most polarizing subject in the article. Often critics accuse Nut graph the article of bias based on an editor's choice in headline and lead. Main article: Nut graph Example Lead-and-Summary Design One or more paragraphs, particularly in a feature story, that explain the news value of the story. Humans will be going to the moon again. The NASA announcement came as the agency requested ten Inverted pyramid trillion dollars of appropriations for the project. ... Journalism instructors- usually describe the Example Soft-Lead Design organization or structure of a news story as an inverted pyramid. The journalist top-loads the essential NASA is proposing another space project. The agency's and most interesting elements of his or her story, with budget request, announced today, included a plan to supporting information following in order of send another person to the moon. This time the diminishing importance. agency hopes to establish a long-term facility as a jumping-off point for other space adventures. The This structure enables readers to stop reading at any budget requests approximately ten gazillion dollars for point and still come away with the essence of a story. the project. ... It allows people to enter a topic to the depth that their curiosity takes them, and without the imposition of Two other terms common in editing are hed and dek details or nuances that they would consider irrelevant, or deck. Hed is used to denote an article's headline or but still making that information available to more heading. Dek refers to a quick blurb or article teaser.[4] interested readers.
  17. 17. The inverted pyramid structure also enables articles to A feature's first paragraphs often relate an intriguing be trimmed to any arbitrary length during layout, to fit moment or event, as in an "anecdotal lead". From the in the space available. particulars of a person or episode, its view quickly broadens to generalities about the story's subject. Inexperienced writers are often admonished "Don't bury the lead!" to ensure that they present the most The section that signals what a feature is about is important facts first, rather than requiring the reader called the nut graf or billboard. Billboards appear as to go through several paragraphs to find them. the third or fourth paragraph from the top, and may be up to two paragraphs long. Unlike a lede, a billboard Some writers start their stories with the "1-2-3 lead". rarely gives everything away. This reflects the fact This format invariably starts with a 5W opening that feature writers aim to hold their readers' attention paragraph (as described above), followed by an to the end, which requires engendering curiosity and indirect quote that serves to support a major element offering a "payoff." Feature paragraphs tend to be of the first paragraph, and then a direct quote to longer than those of news stories, with smoother support the indirect quote. transitions between them. Feature writers use the active-verb construction and concrete explanations of FEATURE STYLE straight news, but often put more personality in their prose. News stories aren't the only type of material that appear in newspapers and magazines. Longer articles, Feature stories often close with a "kicker" rather than such as magazine cover articles and the pieces that simply petering out. lead the inside sections of a newspaper are known as features. Feature stories differ from straight news in several ways. Foremost is the absence of a straight- news lead, most of the time. Instead of offering the essence of a story up front, feature writers may attempt to lure readers in. While straight news stories always stay in third person point of view, it's not uncommon for a feature ETHICS IN JOURNALISM magazine article to slip into first person. The journalist will often detail his or her interactions with interview Divulging the identity of a confidential source is subjects, making the piece more personal. frowned upon by groups representing journalists in
  18. 18. many democracies [1] [2] [3]. In some jurisdictions • "Off-the-record": the information is provided journalists can be compelled by law to identify their to inform a decision or provide a confidential sources, and journalists can and have been jailed for explanation, not for publication. upholding this principle. However, confusion over the precise meaning of There are several reasons to protect confidential "unattributable" and "off-the-record" has led to more sources: detailed formulations: • In some cases serious harm might befall the • "Chatham House Rule(s)": so called after source if their identity is uncovered. Chatham House (the Royal Institute of • The willingness of other potential sources to International Affairs) which first introduced the share information with reporters may be eroded rule in 1927, now in widespread use: if confidential sources are identified. o "When a meeting, or part thereof, is held • The public perception of journalistic integrity is under the Chatham House Rule, damaged when assurances about confidentiality participants are free to use the are breached. information received, but neither the • The so-called "chilling effect," which serves to identity nor the affiliation of the dissuade sources in the future from stepping speaker(s), nor that of any other forward with unknown information for fear of participant, may be revealed." reprimand or retaliation. • "Lobby Terms": in the UK accredited journalists are allowed in to the otherwise "Speaking terms" restricted Members' Lobby on the basis that information received there is never attributed There are several categories of "speaking terms" and events there are not reported. "Lobby (agreements concerning attribution) that cover terms" are agreed to extend this arrangement information conveyed in conversations with journalists. to cover discussions that take place elsewhere. In the UK the following conventions are generally • "Not for attribution" (as described by the accepted: Canadian Association of Journalists). The comments may be quoted directly, but the • "On-the-record": all that is said can be quoted source may only be identified in general terms and attributed. (e.g., "a government insider"). In practice such • "Unattributable": what is said can be reported general descriptions may be agreed with the but not attributed. interviewee.
  19. 19. • "On background" (Canadian Association of in many parts of the world it is usual for journalists to Journalists). The thrust of the briefing may be first complete university-level training which reported (and the source characterized in incorporates both technical skills such as research general terms as above) but direct quotes may skills, interviewing technique and shorthand and not be used. academic studies in media theory, cultural studies and • "Deep background" This term is used in the ethics. U.S., though not consistently. Most journalists would understand "deep background" to mean Historically, in the United Kingdom entrants used first that the information may not be included in the to complete non media-studies related degree course, article but is used by the journalist to enhance giving maximum educational breadth, and prior to his or her view of the subject matter, or to act taking a specialist postgraduate pre-entry course. as a guide to other leads or sources. Most deep However, this has changed over the last ten years with background information is confirmed elsewhere journalism training and education moving to higher before being reported. educational institutions. There are now over 60 universities in the UK offering BA honors degrees in ABOUT THE EDITORIAL journalism. Postgraduate courses are more well- established, some of which are either recognized by Editorial independence -is the freedom of editors to the National Union of Journalists (NUJ) or the National make decisions without interference from the owners Council for the Training of Journalists (NCTJ). of a publication. Editorial independence is tested, for instance, if a newspaper runs articles that may be unpopular with its advertising customers. STUDENT NEWSPAPER SCHOOL JOURNALISM A student newspaper- is a newspaper run by A journalism school- is a school or department, students of a university, high school, middle school, or usually part of an established university, where other school. These papers traditionally cover local journalists are trained. An increasingly used short form and, primarily, school or university news. Working for for a journalism department, school or college is 'j- one's high school newspaper is sometimes an school'. Many of the most famous and respected extracurricular activity, but often, journalism classes journalists of the past and present had no formal are offered. Journalism students learn about the training in journalism, but learned their craft on the journalistic profession and also produce the paper. job, often starting out as copy boys/copy girls. Today, Some schools have a basic class in which students
  20. 20. only learn about newspapers, and a class that NEWSPAPER produces the newspaper. A newspaper- is a publication containing news, ABOUT THE LITERARY information, and advertising. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on political events, Creative nonfiction- (also known as literary or crime, business, art/entertainment, society and sports. narrative nonfiction) is a genre of writing that uses Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page literary styles and techniques to create factually containing columns that express the personal opinions accurate narratives. Creative nonfiction contrasts with of writers. Supplementary sections may contain other nonfiction, such as technical writing or advertising, comics, and coupons. journalism, which is also rooted in accurate fact, but is not primarily written in service to its craft. As a genre, Newspapers are most often published on a daily or creative nonfiction is still relatively young, and is only weekly basis, and they usually focus on one particular beginning to be scrutinized with the same critical geographic area where most of their readers live. analysis given to fiction and poetry. Despite recent setbacks in circulation and profits, newspapers are still the most iconic outlet for news and other types of written journalism. FREEDOM OF PRESS Features a newspaper may include are: Freedom of the press consists of constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to the media and • Editorial opinions and op-eds published materials. • Obituaries • Comic strips and other entertainment, such as With respect to governmental information, any crosswords, sudoku and horoscopes government distinguishes which materials are public • Weather news and forecasts or protected from disclosure to the public based on • Advice, gossip, food and other columns classification of information as sensitive, classified or • Critical reviews of movies, plays, restaurants, secret and being otherwise protected from disclosure etc. due to relevance of the information to protecting the • Classified ads national interest. Many governments are also subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest.