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Media History 2: Press and News Media


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Media History 2: Press and News Media

  1. 1. Media HistorySession 2: Press and News Media
  2. 2. TopicsNews and societyNews and technologyNews and economy
  3. 3. News and Society
  4. 4. What are news media?
  5. 5. What are news media?Source of information and opinion
  6. 6. What are news media?One-to-many form of communication
  7. 7. What is Society?
  8. 8. What is society?A useful concept is Benedict Andersons "imagined communities"
  9. 9. Imagined communitiesA nation “is imagined because themembers of even the smallestnation will never know most of theirfellow-members, meet them, oreven hear of them, yet in the mindsof each lives the image of theircommunion” (Anderson, 6-7)
  10. 10. Imagined communitiesNation building takes place through language
  11. 11. Imagined communities“Print-capitalism” - nations formaround national print-language
  12. 12. Imagined communities This language standard continues in radio and TV with enforcementof a standardized spoken language
  13. 13. Imagined communitiesMedia texts articulate a nation’s cultural and social identity
  14. 14. Imagined communitiesUnifying
  15. 15. Imagined Communities and the News Media
  16. 16. Imagined communities and the news mediaNewspapers determine what issues are important
  17. 17. Imagined communities and the news mediaObjectivity or fact over opinion
  18. 18. Imagined communities and the news media Do news media reflect publicopinion or do they lead and shape public opinion?
  19. 19. Imagined communities and the news mediaPropaganda and social order
  20. 20. Imagined communities and the news mediaA ban on photos of dead Americansoldiers from Iraq and Afghanistan
  21. 21. Imagined communities and the news mediaThe news media leads to the rise of the public sphere
  22. 22. Imagined communities and the news mediaCritical self-reflection and reflection on the state
  23. 23. Imagined communities and the news mediaAllows participation
  24. 24. The Public Sphere and Electronic Media
  25. 25. The public sphere and electronic media Complex, critical and culturallydemanding material is made widely available
  26. 26. The public sphere and electronic mediaConsumption becomesincreasingly privatized
  27. 27. The public sphere and electronic mediaPublic sphere broken up, loss of unified participation
  28. 28. Public Sphere and Digital Media
  29. 29. The public sphere and digital mediaUser participation is increased and democratized
  30. 30. The public sphere and digital media Overflow of information, pureopinion, uninformed and lack of critical detail
  31. 31. Public Sphere and Imagined Communities
  32. 32. The public sphere and imagined communitiesFragmented media makes for a fragmented nation
  33. 33. The public sphere and imagined communitiesNo longer unified view of cultural and social identity
  34. 34. The public sphere and imagined communitiesLoss of national unity and national identity
  35. 35. News Media and Technology
  36. 36. News media and technologyTelegraph 1844Transatlantic cable 1850sTelephone 1870sTelephone news channels 1880s
  37. 37. News media and technologyNews moves fast
  38. 38. Media Types
  39. 39. Media types Time-basedDurable, stable, immobile Clay, rockCreates social reproduction overlong periods of time
  40. 40. Media types Space-basedTemporary, unstable, mobile PaperExpansive over large territories
  41. 41. Media types Electronic mediaProliferate, mutate, omnipresentAnnihilate space and timeInvasive, relocating,deterritorializing
  42. 42. Radio and TV News
  43. 43. Radio and TV NewsCommercial vs public broadcasting
  44. 44. Radio and TV NewsNews becomes a group activity
  45. 45. Radio and TV NewsEspecially family-oriented
  46. 46. Radio and TV NewsBritish newspapers hostile towards radio
  47. 47. Radio and TV NewsThe result is state regulation
  48. 48. Radio and TV News In the US, the relationship iscomplimentary and competitive
  49. 49. Radio and TV News 1933: Attempt at limitingbroadcasting to specific times of the day
  50. 50. News Media and the Web
  51. 51. News media and the webOfficial versus alternative channels
  52. 52. News media and the webReplicates and remediates the format of the newspaper
  53. 53. News media and the webAlternative news proliferate
  54. 54. News media and the web BloggingDifferent authority “Live” Part of the action, not detachedSupposed to be many-to-many But in fact, many-to-few and few-to- many
  55. 55. News as Institutions
  56. 56. News as institutionsInstitutions are socially interpreted facts
  57. 57. News as institutionsInstitutions help us think about society
  58. 58. News as institutionsBasic, stable structures of society
  59. 59. News as institutionsInstitutions are carriers of ideology
  60. 60. Ideology
  61. 61. Ideology“The ruling ideas of the ruling class”
  62. 62. IdeologyOur understanding and knowledge of the world is determined by political interests
  63. 63. IdeologyPropagated by mass media
  64. 64. Ideological Slants of News Media
  65. 65. Ideological slants of news media Party pressCommunication tool for a politicalpartyAgitation/propaganda
  66. 66. Ideological slants of news media Public newsCommunication channel betweensocial institutions and citizensService for the public
  67. 67. Ideological slants of news media Commercial newsContact between organizationand audienceService