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15 giugno 2017
INVESTIRE NELLA NATURA
Genevieve Bennett, Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace
Ecosystem Markets: European Outlook
Promotori dell’evento Partner & Collaboratori
ECOSYSTEM MARKETPLACE
Forest Trends works to conserve forests
and other ecosystems through the
creation and wide adoption of a broad
range of environmental finance, markets
and other payment and incentive
mechanisms.
Our Ecosystem Marketplace initiative is
the leading global source of information
on environmental finance, markets, and
payments for ecosystem services.
www.ecosystemmarketplace.com
About Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace
Objectives: Develop a knowledge base on entrepreneurship and innovation in
the field of marketing and economics of ecosystem services and biodiversity for
ECOSTAR training materials
1. Innovation report: Factors influencing innovation and entrepreneurship in
nature-based initiatives
2. Case studies: Best practice in business models
3. European market outlook reports: High-level review of market activity and
direction
www.ecostarhub.com
THE ECOSTAR PROJECT
Nature-based business models: Research and assessment of needs
SCOPE & METHODOLOGY
Scope
1. Voluntary carbon offsets (European buyers & sellers)
2. Watershed investments: PES, public agri-environmental subsidies,
collection action funds (compliance and voluntary)
3. Biodiversity offsets and compensation (compliance and voluntary)
Methods
 Three confidential surveys of project developers and other suppliers (brokers,
retailers) in conducted in February-May 2016, supplemented by interviews
and desk research
Our methodology is conservative and likely underestimates actual
market activity
 We only report what we can confirm with a primary source
European Market Outlook Reports
STATE OF EUROPEAN MARKETS 2017
Lucio Brotto, ETIFOR
Ariadna Chavarria, UNIPID/ETIFOR
Kelley Hamrick, Forest Trends
Alessandro Leonardi, ETIFOR
Franziska Ruef, Forest Trends
Authors & Contributing Authors
Jens Abildtrup, French National Institute for Agricultural
Research
Giulia Amato, ETIFOR
Jose Barquín, University of Cantabria Institute of Environmental
Hydraulics
Marc Benoît, French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Julien Fiquepron, French National Institute for Agricultural
Research
Serge Garcia, French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Julia Grimault, I4CE
Claire Montagné-Huck, French National Institute for Agricultural
Research
Colm O’Driscoll, ETIFOR
Ignacio Pérez-Silos, University of Cantabria Institute of
Environmental Hydraulics
Vicky West, UK Forestry Commission
VOLUNTARY CARBON
The carbon project offset cycle
Carbon offsets are quantified emissions
reductions from activities that reduce or avoid
emissions, such as planting trees or improving
energy efficiency. They are measured in tCO2e.
Project developers must complete a series of
steps before they can sell offsets.
• PIN/PDD: Project plans, methodology, and
technical issues
• Validation: Third-party approval of project design
• Verification: Quantifying actual emissions
reductions against a third-party standard
• Issuance: Offsets are issued by a standards body
VOLUNTARY CARBON
Market Size and Average Price of Voluntary Carbon Offsets Sold by European Organizations, 2015
Offsets from Projects Based
Worldwide
Offsets from Forestry Projects Based
in Europe
Volume 39.2 MtCO2e 285 KtCO2e
Value €129.0M €4.4M
Average Price €3.2/t €15.6/t
Notes: All prices and market values are volume-weighted to determine their significance.
Overview: Offset price, volume, and value
Scope:
Voluntary carbon offsets
Responses:
59 organisations headquartered in Europe selling offsets from voluntary carbon projects located throughout the world
8 organisations headquartered in Europe selling offsets from voluntary forest carbon projects located in Europe
VOLUNTARY CARBON
Market Volume, Average Price and Value by Offset Project Types Based Worldwide, 2015
Project Types Volume Average Price Value
Afforestation/Reforestation 1.9 MtCO2e €7.4/t €14.0M
Wind 5.4 MtCO2e €1.5/t €8.3M
Clean cookstoves 1.8 MtCO2e €4.3/t €7.8M
REDD+: Avoided unplanned 1.5 MtCO2e €4.2/t €6.2M
REDD+: Avoided planned 4.3 MtCO2e €1.1/t €4.5M
Market Volume, Average Price and Value by Forest Carbon Offset Project Types Based in Europe, 2015
Afforestation/Reforestation 285 KtCO2e €14.7/t €4.2M
Supply: Project location & project type
VOLUNTARY CARBON
Offsets Sold to European Buyers, by Buyer Experience, Type, and Sector
TOP BUYER LOCATIONS
Worldwide
Voluntary
Carbon
Offsets Sold to
European
Organisations
United Kingdom (29%); France (23%); Netherlands (22%);
Germany (11%); Switzerland (6%)
United Kingdom (68%); Germany (30%); Italy (2%)
European
Forest Carbon
Offsets Sold
to European
Organisations
TOP PROJECT TYPES
Forestry (65%); Renewables (22%) Forestry (100%)
BUYER TYPE
Retailer (76%); End-user (24%) Retailer (10%); End-user (90%)
BUYER EXPERIENCE
Returning (91%); New (9%) Returning (68%); New (32%)
TOP BUYER SECTORS
Energy (40%); Finance & Insurance (15%); Food &
Beverage (14%)
Transportation (75%); Energy (5%)
Demand: New European end-users entering the market
VOLUNTARY CARBON
 The double-counting problem: Project developers look to market “climate impacts” instead of
“carbon offsets”
 Low rates of verification against third-party standards in Europe but many high-profile tree-
planting projects
 Buyers interested in marketing, multiple benefits
 Plan B: Nesting projects into landscape-level emissions reductions programs enacted at
national or jurisdictional levels
 Monetizing multiple benefits
 Integration of climate and forest certification standards
 Alignment of indicators with Sustainable Development Goals
 Beyond markets: Corporate commitments tackle deforestation in the supply chain
 SRI & conservation finance: Billions are on the table waiting for bankable projects
Outlook & Opportunities Post-Paris
WATERSHED INVESTMENTS
The concept of green infrastructure for water
The Green-Grey Infrastructure Spectrum
Healthy landscapes support a complex network of ecosystem services. Some of these services (like
pollination) cannot be replaced with existing technology.
In other cases, integrating nature-based and built solutions for water treatment, storage, or delivery can
reduce operating costs or prolong the lifespan of built infrastructure. For example, reforesting hillsides can
limit sedimentation in a hydropower station’s reservoir—protecting the turbines from damage and
prolonging the life of the reservoir—and also provide immediate, direct benefits for rural communities
nearby in terms of soil retention, reduced flood risk, or enhanced groundwater recharge.
WATERSHED INVESTMENTS
Watershed investments
Scope:
• User-driven (payments for watershed services, collective
action funds for watershed protection)
• Agri-environmental subsidies for watershed protection
• Water quality offsets
Responses:
40 organisations profiled through our survey
Additional country-level information and case studies compiled
with the help of an EU network of experts through COST Action
project (CA15206) Payments for Ecosystem Services (Forests
for Water)
WATERSHED INVESTMENTS
Overview: Value and area (all programmes and median)
Mechanisms Tracked in This Report: Value, Area under Management, and Number
of Operational Programmes in 2015
Total Value,
All
Programmes
Total Area,
All
Programmes
Median
Programme
Value
Median
Programme
Area
Public subsidies for
watershed protection
€5,668M 12.8M ha €77.6M 417,020 ha
User-driven watershed
investments
€39.4M 0.6M ha €0.8M 3,500 ha
Water quality
trading/offsets
n/a n/a n/a n/a
TOTAL €5,708M 13.4M ha - -
WATERSHED INVESTMENT
Supply: Private landowners report a mix of activities
WATERSHED INVESTMENT: DEMAND
Demand: Water utilities lead among buyers
User-Driven Watershed Investments: Buyers by Type and Value Transacted in 2015
WATERSHED INVESTMENTS
Demand: Across sectors, buyers driven by risk
WATERSHED INVESTMENT
 Water Framework Directive driving basin approaches, including stakeholder networks and
basin-level knowledge – the building blocks of watershed investment!
 EU level policy supports for green infrastructure: GI Strategy; new funding including European
Commission to contribute more than €300M in 2017 to Horizon 2020-funded projects demonstrating
innovative nature-based solutions in cities and for hydro-meteorological risk reduction as
alternatives to traditional built infrastructure
 New national-level strategy and guidance on green infrastructure investment on the way:
Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Italy, Spain
 English & Welsh water companies blaze the learning curve & win over regulators – but will UK
remain the frontrunners in catchment approaches?
 Europe a leader in corporate water stewardship and private water risk management – new
European Water Stewardship Standard has been piloted for basin planning efforts in Belgium,
France, and Germany and platform for collective action for water stewardship in the agricultural
sector
Outlook & Opportunities for Watershed Approaches
BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION
Overview: Offsets & compensation frameworks in Europe
Scope:
• One-off offsets: Actions undertaken to compensate for
residual adverse impacts to biodiversity directly by the
party responsible for those impacts (or a subcontractor)
• Financial compensation: The impacting entity might
instead set aside funds for biodiversity management or
protection, or make a financial contribution to an existing
environmental fund–a practice referred to in this report as
financial compensation.
• Habitat banking: Impacting entity buys offset credits from
a mitigation bank operated by a third party that has already
carried out advance mitigation, e.g., actions to restore,
enhance, create, or protect biodiversity values prior to any
negative impacts from development.
Responses:
65 compliance programmes / 180 projects
BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION
Report looks at offsets & compensation within the mitigation
hierarchy framework
BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION
Supply: Nearly 74k ha implemented; hundreds of projects
BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION
Supply: Projects focus on marine/coastal; grasslands habitat
BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION
Supply: Public lands & permanent protection are the standard
Share of Offsets and Compensation
Projects’ Land Area Conserved by Land
Ownership Type, 2015
Project Protection Duration by Number
of Projects and Hectares Protected,
2015
BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION
Demand: Infrastructure sectors driving offsets & compensation
demand
Top Sectors by Share of Buyers
Transportation/Shipping (public sector): 24%
Local/Municipal government: 15%
Energy generation/distribution: 12%
Industrial Processes (non-energy): 9%
Energy extraction: 9%
Average Project Size, by Buyer Sector
Energy generation: 15,014 ha
Transportation/Shipping (public sector): 7,789 ha
Transportation/Shipping (private sector): 537 ha
Energy extraction: 175 ha
Local/Municipal government: 37 ha
Buyers by Location, and Buyer Sectors by Value, Number, and Average Project Size Funded
BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION
Outlook & Opportunities
• EU No Net Loss initiative: An impact assessment study of No Net Loss policy options in 2016 suggested that achieve
NNL, some form of mandatory offsetting measures would be necessary – though public opinion on offsets remains
ambivalent.
• Lack of transparency a limiting factor in demonstrating effectiveness – and fixing problems. Little information
available to the general public about how these mechanisms actually are working on the ground.
• Natural Capital Financing Facility: In pilot phase NCFF has a €125M budget for loans and investments for “bankable”
projects making a business case for ecosystem-based approaches to natural resources and climate adaptation
challenges. In 2017, NCFF inked its first loan agreement with Rewilding Europe Capital, an enterprise financing facility
based in the Netherlands.
• Habitat banking seeks to grow market share:
• Pilot efforts in France, Spain, the Netherlands, and the UK have met with mixed success, with bank developers
citing a lack of regulatory drivers and clear guidance behind weak demand. In France and Spain, forthcoming
regulations and guidance seek to streamline permitting processes and ensure that offsetting requirements are
equivalent for banks and one-off offsets.
• Meanwhile in Germany, where banking is well-established but an estimated 80% of banks are publicly managed,
there are new signals that private sector actors are interested in developing more banks.
MARKET OUTLOOK
Download the reports and other project resources
Join ECOSTAR’s network to get connected to entrepreneurs or business & scientific mentors
Learn more about the Nature Accelerator
www.ecostarhub.com
Thank you!
Genevieve Bennett
Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace
gbennett@forest-trends.org
www.ecosystemmarketplace.com
Stay connected!
WATERSHED INVESTMENT
Co-benefits: Benefits for jobs, biodiversity, communities
European Market Outlook
ECOSTAR LAUNCH │ ROME
Genevieve Bennett
Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace
15 June 2017

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European market outlook by Ecosystem Marketplace

  • 1. 6/20/2017 1 15 giugno 2017 INVESTIRE NELLA NATURA Genevieve Bennett, Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace Ecosystem Markets: European Outlook Promotori dell’evento Partner & Collaboratori
  • 2. ECOSYSTEM MARKETPLACE Forest Trends works to conserve forests and other ecosystems through the creation and wide adoption of a broad range of environmental finance, markets and other payment and incentive mechanisms. Our Ecosystem Marketplace initiative is the leading global source of information on environmental finance, markets, and payments for ecosystem services. www.ecosystemmarketplace.com About Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace
  • 3. Objectives: Develop a knowledge base on entrepreneurship and innovation in the field of marketing and economics of ecosystem services and biodiversity for ECOSTAR training materials 1. Innovation report: Factors influencing innovation and entrepreneurship in nature-based initiatives 2. Case studies: Best practice in business models 3. European market outlook reports: High-level review of market activity and direction www.ecostarhub.com THE ECOSTAR PROJECT Nature-based business models: Research and assessment of needs
  • 4. SCOPE & METHODOLOGY Scope 1. Voluntary carbon offsets (European buyers & sellers) 2. Watershed investments: PES, public agri-environmental subsidies, collection action funds (compliance and voluntary) 3. Biodiversity offsets and compensation (compliance and voluntary) Methods  Three confidential surveys of project developers and other suppliers (brokers, retailers) in conducted in February-May 2016, supplemented by interviews and desk research Our methodology is conservative and likely underestimates actual market activity  We only report what we can confirm with a primary source European Market Outlook Reports
  • 5. STATE OF EUROPEAN MARKETS 2017 Lucio Brotto, ETIFOR Ariadna Chavarria, UNIPID/ETIFOR Kelley Hamrick, Forest Trends Alessandro Leonardi, ETIFOR Franziska Ruef, Forest Trends Authors & Contributing Authors Jens Abildtrup, French National Institute for Agricultural Research Giulia Amato, ETIFOR Jose Barquín, University of Cantabria Institute of Environmental Hydraulics Marc Benoît, French National Institute for Agricultural Research Julien Fiquepron, French National Institute for Agricultural Research Serge Garcia, French National Institute for Agricultural Research Julia Grimault, I4CE Claire Montagné-Huck, French National Institute for Agricultural Research Colm O’Driscoll, ETIFOR Ignacio Pérez-Silos, University of Cantabria Institute of Environmental Hydraulics Vicky West, UK Forestry Commission
  • 6. VOLUNTARY CARBON The carbon project offset cycle Carbon offsets are quantified emissions reductions from activities that reduce or avoid emissions, such as planting trees or improving energy efficiency. They are measured in tCO2e. Project developers must complete a series of steps before they can sell offsets. • PIN/PDD: Project plans, methodology, and technical issues • Validation: Third-party approval of project design • Verification: Quantifying actual emissions reductions against a third-party standard • Issuance: Offsets are issued by a standards body
  • 7. VOLUNTARY CARBON Market Size and Average Price of Voluntary Carbon Offsets Sold by European Organizations, 2015 Offsets from Projects Based Worldwide Offsets from Forestry Projects Based in Europe Volume 39.2 MtCO2e 285 KtCO2e Value €129.0M €4.4M Average Price €3.2/t €15.6/t Notes: All prices and market values are volume-weighted to determine their significance. Overview: Offset price, volume, and value Scope: Voluntary carbon offsets Responses: 59 organisations headquartered in Europe selling offsets from voluntary carbon projects located throughout the world 8 organisations headquartered in Europe selling offsets from voluntary forest carbon projects located in Europe
  • 8. VOLUNTARY CARBON Market Volume, Average Price and Value by Offset Project Types Based Worldwide, 2015 Project Types Volume Average Price Value Afforestation/Reforestation 1.9 MtCO2e €7.4/t €14.0M Wind 5.4 MtCO2e €1.5/t €8.3M Clean cookstoves 1.8 MtCO2e €4.3/t €7.8M REDD+: Avoided unplanned 1.5 MtCO2e €4.2/t €6.2M REDD+: Avoided planned 4.3 MtCO2e €1.1/t €4.5M Market Volume, Average Price and Value by Forest Carbon Offset Project Types Based in Europe, 2015 Afforestation/Reforestation 285 KtCO2e €14.7/t €4.2M Supply: Project location & project type
  • 9. VOLUNTARY CARBON Offsets Sold to European Buyers, by Buyer Experience, Type, and Sector TOP BUYER LOCATIONS Worldwide Voluntary Carbon Offsets Sold to European Organisations United Kingdom (29%); France (23%); Netherlands (22%); Germany (11%); Switzerland (6%) United Kingdom (68%); Germany (30%); Italy (2%) European Forest Carbon Offsets Sold to European Organisations TOP PROJECT TYPES Forestry (65%); Renewables (22%) Forestry (100%) BUYER TYPE Retailer (76%); End-user (24%) Retailer (10%); End-user (90%) BUYER EXPERIENCE Returning (91%); New (9%) Returning (68%); New (32%) TOP BUYER SECTORS Energy (40%); Finance & Insurance (15%); Food & Beverage (14%) Transportation (75%); Energy (5%) Demand: New European end-users entering the market
  • 10. VOLUNTARY CARBON  The double-counting problem: Project developers look to market “climate impacts” instead of “carbon offsets”  Low rates of verification against third-party standards in Europe but many high-profile tree- planting projects  Buyers interested in marketing, multiple benefits  Plan B: Nesting projects into landscape-level emissions reductions programs enacted at national or jurisdictional levels  Monetizing multiple benefits  Integration of climate and forest certification standards  Alignment of indicators with Sustainable Development Goals  Beyond markets: Corporate commitments tackle deforestation in the supply chain  SRI & conservation finance: Billions are on the table waiting for bankable projects Outlook & Opportunities Post-Paris
  • 11. WATERSHED INVESTMENTS The concept of green infrastructure for water The Green-Grey Infrastructure Spectrum Healthy landscapes support a complex network of ecosystem services. Some of these services (like pollination) cannot be replaced with existing technology. In other cases, integrating nature-based and built solutions for water treatment, storage, or delivery can reduce operating costs or prolong the lifespan of built infrastructure. For example, reforesting hillsides can limit sedimentation in a hydropower station’s reservoir—protecting the turbines from damage and prolonging the life of the reservoir—and also provide immediate, direct benefits for rural communities nearby in terms of soil retention, reduced flood risk, or enhanced groundwater recharge.
  • 12. WATERSHED INVESTMENTS Watershed investments Scope: • User-driven (payments for watershed services, collective action funds for watershed protection) • Agri-environmental subsidies for watershed protection • Water quality offsets Responses: 40 organisations profiled through our survey Additional country-level information and case studies compiled with the help of an EU network of experts through COST Action project (CA15206) Payments for Ecosystem Services (Forests for Water)
  • 13. WATERSHED INVESTMENTS Overview: Value and area (all programmes and median) Mechanisms Tracked in This Report: Value, Area under Management, and Number of Operational Programmes in 2015 Total Value, All Programmes Total Area, All Programmes Median Programme Value Median Programme Area Public subsidies for watershed protection €5,668M 12.8M ha €77.6M 417,020 ha User-driven watershed investments €39.4M 0.6M ha €0.8M 3,500 ha Water quality trading/offsets n/a n/a n/a n/a TOTAL €5,708M 13.4M ha - -
  • 14. WATERSHED INVESTMENT Supply: Private landowners report a mix of activities
  • 15. WATERSHED INVESTMENT: DEMAND Demand: Water utilities lead among buyers User-Driven Watershed Investments: Buyers by Type and Value Transacted in 2015
  • 16. WATERSHED INVESTMENTS Demand: Across sectors, buyers driven by risk
  • 17. WATERSHED INVESTMENT  Water Framework Directive driving basin approaches, including stakeholder networks and basin-level knowledge – the building blocks of watershed investment!  EU level policy supports for green infrastructure: GI Strategy; new funding including European Commission to contribute more than €300M in 2017 to Horizon 2020-funded projects demonstrating innovative nature-based solutions in cities and for hydro-meteorological risk reduction as alternatives to traditional built infrastructure  New national-level strategy and guidance on green infrastructure investment on the way: Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Italy, Spain  English & Welsh water companies blaze the learning curve & win over regulators – but will UK remain the frontrunners in catchment approaches?  Europe a leader in corporate water stewardship and private water risk management – new European Water Stewardship Standard has been piloted for basin planning efforts in Belgium, France, and Germany and platform for collective action for water stewardship in the agricultural sector Outlook & Opportunities for Watershed Approaches
  • 18. BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION Overview: Offsets & compensation frameworks in Europe Scope: • One-off offsets: Actions undertaken to compensate for residual adverse impacts to biodiversity directly by the party responsible for those impacts (or a subcontractor) • Financial compensation: The impacting entity might instead set aside funds for biodiversity management or protection, or make a financial contribution to an existing environmental fund–a practice referred to in this report as financial compensation. • Habitat banking: Impacting entity buys offset credits from a mitigation bank operated by a third party that has already carried out advance mitigation, e.g., actions to restore, enhance, create, or protect biodiversity values prior to any negative impacts from development. Responses: 65 compliance programmes / 180 projects
  • 19. BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION Report looks at offsets & compensation within the mitigation hierarchy framework
  • 20. BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION Supply: Nearly 74k ha implemented; hundreds of projects
  • 21. BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION Supply: Projects focus on marine/coastal; grasslands habitat
  • 22. BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION Supply: Public lands & permanent protection are the standard Share of Offsets and Compensation Projects’ Land Area Conserved by Land Ownership Type, 2015 Project Protection Duration by Number of Projects and Hectares Protected, 2015
  • 23. BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION Demand: Infrastructure sectors driving offsets & compensation demand Top Sectors by Share of Buyers Transportation/Shipping (public sector): 24% Local/Municipal government: 15% Energy generation/distribution: 12% Industrial Processes (non-energy): 9% Energy extraction: 9% Average Project Size, by Buyer Sector Energy generation: 15,014 ha Transportation/Shipping (public sector): 7,789 ha Transportation/Shipping (private sector): 537 ha Energy extraction: 175 ha Local/Municipal government: 37 ha Buyers by Location, and Buyer Sectors by Value, Number, and Average Project Size Funded
  • 24. BIODIVERSITY OFFSETS & COMPENSATION Outlook & Opportunities • EU No Net Loss initiative: An impact assessment study of No Net Loss policy options in 2016 suggested that achieve NNL, some form of mandatory offsetting measures would be necessary – though public opinion on offsets remains ambivalent. • Lack of transparency a limiting factor in demonstrating effectiveness – and fixing problems. Little information available to the general public about how these mechanisms actually are working on the ground. • Natural Capital Financing Facility: In pilot phase NCFF has a €125M budget for loans and investments for “bankable” projects making a business case for ecosystem-based approaches to natural resources and climate adaptation challenges. In 2017, NCFF inked its first loan agreement with Rewilding Europe Capital, an enterprise financing facility based in the Netherlands. • Habitat banking seeks to grow market share: • Pilot efforts in France, Spain, the Netherlands, and the UK have met with mixed success, with bank developers citing a lack of regulatory drivers and clear guidance behind weak demand. In France and Spain, forthcoming regulations and guidance seek to streamline permitting processes and ensure that offsetting requirements are equivalent for banks and one-off offsets. • Meanwhile in Germany, where banking is well-established but an estimated 80% of banks are publicly managed, there are new signals that private sector actors are interested in developing more banks.
  • 25. MARKET OUTLOOK Download the reports and other project resources Join ECOSTAR’s network to get connected to entrepreneurs or business & scientific mentors Learn more about the Nature Accelerator www.ecostarhub.com Thank you! Genevieve Bennett Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace gbennett@forest-trends.org www.ecosystemmarketplace.com Stay connected!
  • 26. WATERSHED INVESTMENT Co-benefits: Benefits for jobs, biodiversity, communities
  • 27. European Market Outlook ECOSTAR LAUNCH │ ROME Genevieve Bennett Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace 15 June 2017