Clinical Practice Objectives


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How to make objectives and what are the do's and don'ts in formulating them

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Clinical Practice Objectives

  1. 1. Objectives By: Ma. Angelica Samson, RN
  2. 2. Objectives O Educational Objectives are the statements of those that changes behavior which are desired as a result of learner and teacher activity. O A well- stated educational objective has 2 aspects: O Behavior- a student should know and able to do. O Content- about which subject matter or area of life experience in which the behavior is to operate.
  3. 3. TYPES OF OBJECTIVES O Central Objective- it is of supreme importance in any unit of teaching and learning. It gives clarity, design, meaning and unity to the learning activities. O Contributory Objectives- the attainment of the central objectives is dependent on certain understandings, skills, attitudes and appreciations which are known as contributory. O Indirect Objectives- are important and should always be kept in mind. They are the unifying agents that integrate the fragments in a whole pattern of life for the individual.
  4. 4. Types of Learning Domains The types of objectives can be divided into three learning domains: 1.Cognitive Domain- it is known as the “thinking domain”. Learning in this domain involves the acquisition of the information and refers to the learner’s intellectual abilities , mental capacities and thinking process. 2.Affective Domain- known as the “feeling domain”. Learning in this domain involves an increasing internalization or commitment to feelings expressed 3.Psychomotor Domain- the skills domain. Learning in this domain involves acquiring fine and gross motor abilities with increasing complexity of neuromuscular coordination to carry out physical movement; such as working, hand writing , manipulating of equipment or carrying out a procedure.
  5. 5. Taxonomy of Objectives O Bloom’s Taxonomy- a way of distinguishing the fundamental questions within the education system. It is named after Benjamin Bloom, who chaired the committee of educators that devised the taxonomy. COGNITIVE DOMAIN O Knowledge- ability of the learner to recall, define, recognize, or identify specific information such as facts, rules, principles, conditions and terms presented during instruction. O Comprehension- ability of the learner to demonstrate an understanding or appreciation of what is communicated by translating.
  6. 6. O Application- ability of the learner to use ideas, principles, abstractions, or theories in particular situations such as figuring, writing reading, or handling equipment. O Analysis- ability of the learner to recognize and structure information by breaking it down into its constituent parts and specifying the relationship between parts. O Synthesis- ability of the learner to put together parts and elements into a unified whole by creating a unique product that is written, oral, pictorial and so on.
  7. 7. Affective domain • Receiving- ability of the learner to show awareness of an idea or fact or a consciousness, of a situation or event in the environment. • Responding- ability of the learner to respond to an experience at first obediently and later willingly and with satisfaction. • Valuing- Ability of the learner to regard or accept the worth of a theory, idea or event, demonstrating sufficient commitment or preference.
  8. 8. O Organization- ability of the learner to organize, classify and prioritize values by integrating of new value into a general set of values. O Characterization- ability of the learner to integrate values into a total philosophy or world view. Showing firm commitment consistency of responses to values or attitude cluster.
  9. 9. Psychological Domain O Perceptions- ability of the client show sensory awareness of objects or ones associated with some task to be performed. O Set- ability of the learner to exhibit readiness to take a particular kind of action, such as following directions, through expressions of willingness.
  10. 10. O Guided Response- ability of the learner to exert effort via overt actions under the guidance of an instructor. O Mechanism- ability of the learner to repeatedly perform steps of a desired skill with a certain degree of confidence.
  11. 11. O Complex overt Response- ability of the learner to automatically perform a complex motor act with independence and high degree of skill, without hesitation and with minimum expenditure f time and energy.
  12. 12. Why do we need to have an Objective? O To provide direction to an instruction. O To provide guidelines for assessment. O To convey instructional intent to others.
  13. 13. How To Formulate Objectives ?
  14. 14. Form of Statement of Objectives O Teacher - Centered Objective- objectives that can be stated in the form of activities which the teachers is to do. E.g. to demonstrate a bed bath. O Subject-Matter-Centered Objectives- objectives can be stated in the form of topics, concepts, generalizations or other elements of content to be taught. E.g. The Symptoms of Diabetes.
  15. 15. O Behavior-Centered Objectives- this type of objective indicates desired changes in behavior patterns in such generalized patterns of behavior that do not serve as guides in selection of learning activities. E.g. to develop skills in health teaching. O Learner-Centered Objectives- it can be stated in relation to the learner either in terms of what the learner is to do or in terms of desired outcomes of the learner.
  16. 16. O According to Mager (1997), the format for writing concise and useful behavioral objectives includes the following three (3) important characteristics: O 1. Performance – Describes what the learner is expected to do or perform to demonstrate the kinds of behaviors the teacher will accept as evidence that the objectives have been achieved O 2. Condition – describes the testing situation or constraints under which the behavior will to be observed. O 3. Criterion- describes how well or with what accuracy the learner must be able to perform for the behavior to be considered acceptable.
  17. 17. Answering the Following Questions: O WHAT should the learner be able to do? O UNDER what conditions should the learner be able to do it? O HOW well must the learner be able to do it?
  18. 18. In order to link the objectives together the following steps are recommended OIdentify the testing situation(condition) OState the learner and the learner’s behaviour.(Performance) OState the performance (Criterions)
  19. 19. Three Part Method of writing an Objective CONDITION (Testing Situation) Performance (Learner Behaviour) Criterion (Quality of Accuracy) Without Using the Calculator The learner will be able to: 5 out of 6 Problems Using a model Solve Demonstrate The correct procedure Following Group discussions After watching a video List Select At least two reasons With 100% accuracy
  20. 20. Common Mistakes when Writing Objectives O To describe what the instructor rather than the learner is expected to do. O Including more than one expected behavior in a single objective. (avoid using and) O To forget to include all three components of condition, performance and criterion. O To write objectives is unattainable given the ability level of the learner.
  21. 21. Some commonly used verbs Knowledg e Compreh ension Applicati on Analysis Synthesi s Evaluatio n List, Name, Identify, Show, Define, Recognize, Recall, State, Visualize Summarize, Explain, Interpret, Describe, Compare, Paraphrase, Differentiate, Demonstrate , Classify Solve, Illustrate, Calculate, Use, Interpret, Relate, Manipulate. Analyze, Organize, Deduce, Contrast, Compare, Distinguish, Discuss, Plan, Devise Design, Hypothesi ze, Support, Schematiz e, Write, Report, Justify. Evaluate, Choose, Estimate, Judge, Defend, Criticize.
  22. 22. Objective Examples O After watching a demonstration on suctioning, the staff member will be able to correctly suction a tracheostomy tube using aseptic technique. CORRECT O Given a list of exercises to relieve low back pain, the patient will understand how to control low back pain. (performance not stated in measurable terms, criterion missing)
  23. 23. REFERENCES O References: Bastable (2003), Nurse as Educators: Principles of Teaching and Learning for Nursing Practice 2nd Edition, pgs. 320-337. O Heidgerken (1971), Teaching and learning in schools of Nursing 3rd Edition, pgs. 295-298.