BHAGYASREE N P
1st MSc. Nursing
Evaluation is the process of ascertaining or judging
the value of something by careful appraisal- Good
Evaluation is the process of determining to what
extent the educational objectives are being
realised. – Ralph Tyler
Philosophy of evaluation
Each individual should receive that education that
most fully allows him /her to develop his / her
Each individual should be placed that he/she
should contribute to society and receives personal
satisfaction in so doing.
Fullest development of the individual requires
recognition of his /her essential individuality
along with some rational appraisal by him/herself
The judgements required in assessing an
individual’s potential are complex in their
composition, difficult to make and filled with
Such error can be reduced but never eliminated.
Hence, any evaluation can never be considered
Every form of appraisal will have critics, which is
a spur to change and improvement
Purposes of evaluation
Diagnosis: Identifies the weakness in learning
among students and monitor learning progress so
as to provide suggestions.
Prediction: Predict probable future successes on
certain types of tasks on the basis of present
achievement or related tasks.
Grading: Rank orders students and is usually
used in terminal examination.
Selection: Selects suitable candidates for
various courses in a university. The
entrance tests for various courses serve this
Guidance: Assists student in making decisions for
the future in the choices of higher studies or career.
Exploration: Bring out the inherent capabilities of
pupils such as attitudes, habits, appreciation,
understanding, manipulative skills, in addition to
the conventional acquisition of knowledge.
Evaluation of the programme:Monitors the
effectiveness of teaching in a particular course;
find out the relevance of the objectives and
effectiveness of methods used and provides a basis
for the modification of the curriculum and courses.
Evaluation of teachers: Test the efficiencies of
teachers in providing learning experiences and
effectiveness of instructions
Motivation: Help the student to become
increasingly self directing in their study and
activities. And it helps in selecting, giving
honours, placement of students in advanced
education and writing recommendations
PURPOSES OF EVALUATION IN NURSING
To determine the level of knowledge and
understanding of students
To determine the level of student’s clinical
To become aware of the specific difficulties of
individual students or of an entire class, as a basis
for further teaching .
To diagnose each student’s strengths and weakness
and to suggest remedial measures which may be
To encourage student’s learning by measuring their
achievements and informing them of their success
To help students to become increasingly self
directing in their study
To help students to acquire that attitude of and
skills in self evaluation
To provide the additional motivation of
examination that provide opportunity to practice
critical thinking, the application of principles, the
making of judgments etc.
To estimate the effectiveness of teaching and
learning techniques, of subject content and of
instructional media in attaining the goals of the
To gather information needed for administrative
Principles of evaluation
1. Determining and clarifying what is to be evaluated
always has priority in the evaluation process.
2. Evaluation techniques should be selected according
to the purpose to be served .
3.Comprehensive evaluation requires a variety of
4.Proper use of evaluation techniques requires an
awareness of both their limitations and strengths.
5.Evaluation is a means to an end , not an end in itself
Characteristics of evaluation
1. Evaluation is a continuous process
2. Evaluation includes academic and non-academic
3. Evaluation is a procedure for improving the
4. Discovering the needs of an individual and
designing learning experiences:
5. Evaluation is purpose oriented:
Functions of evaluation
To make provisions for guiding the growth of individuals
To diagnose the weakness and strength of the pupils.
To locate areas where remedial measures are needed .
To provide a basis for a modification of the curriculum and
To motivate pupils toward better attainment and growth.
To test the efficiency of teachers in providing learning
Types of evaluation
2. Formative evaluation
3. Certifying evaluation or Summative evaluation
4. Maintenance evaluation
5. Maximum performance evaluation
6. Criterion referenced evaluation
7.Norm referenced evaluation
Identifying the purpose of evaluation.
Identifying the time frame.
Determining when to evaluate.
Selecting the evaluators
Choosing an evaluation design/ framework or
Selecting an evaluation instruments
Reporting the findings
Using the findings
Considering the costs of evaluation.
Measurement is any device, which allows the
students to obtain information in a quantitative
“It is an act or process that involves the assignment
of a numerical index to whatever is being
“The process of obtaining numerical description of
the degree to which an individual possesses a
Essentials of measurement
Identification and definition of the quality ,
attribute or variable that is to be measured.
Determining the set of operation through which the
operation of attribute or variable may manifest and
Establishment of a set of procedure for the
translations of observations into quantitative
statements of degree extent or amount
Functions of measurement
1. Prognosis – It is an administrative function such as
classification, selection, promotion and gradation of student on
the basis of student achievement, effectiveness of methods,
instruction and treatment is evaluated.
2. Diagnosis- It identifies the weakness of the students and
helpful in preparing remedial work for them. It is also helpful
in establishing cause effect relationship. It can also improve
the instructional procedure.
3. Research: Measurement provides more objective and
dependable basis for research purposes. Valid generalization
can be made on the basis of accurate measurement
Criteria for the selection of evaluative devices
Sampling of the objectives
Sampling of the content
The validity of a test is the degree to which it
measures what is intended to measure.
Types of Validity
When one looks at the test he thinks of the extent to
which the test seems logically related to what is
2 . Construct Validity is used to ensure that the
measure is actually measure what it is intended to
measure (i.e. the construct), and no other variables.
3.Content validity Content validity of a test reflects
the extent to which student learn specific content
material in different subject. This type of validity is
related to the content area that is being tested
4.Performance validity A tool that can be a written
test is said to possess predictive validity to the
extent the information obtained through it serves the
purpose of predicting the future performance of
students in a particular area of learning
5. Concurrent validity The test scores are
correlated with another set of criterion scores which
are presently, that is concurrently available.
1. Test-retest reliability is a measure of reliability
obtained by administering the same test twice over a
period of time to a group of individuals. The scores
from Time 1 and Time 2 can then be correlated in
order to evaluate the test for stability over time.
2. Parallel forms reliability
Is a measure of reliability obtained by administering
different versions of an assessment tool (both
versions must contain items that probe the same
construct, skill, knowledge base, etc.) to the same
group of individuals. The scores from the two
versions can then be correlated in order to evaluate
the consistency of results across alternate versions
3. Inter rater reliabilityis a measure of reliability
used to assess the degree to which different judges or
raters agree in their assessment decisions
4. Internal consistency reliability
Is a measure of reliability used to evaluate the
degree to which different test items that probe
the same construct produce similar results.
A. Average inter-item correlation
B. B. Split-half reliability
Distinction between measurement and evaluation
1. Measurement refers to
quantity describing in
terms of pupils
attainment in a subject.
For example , how much
performance has taken
place, i.e. score in one
1.Evaluation is measured
in terms of quality and
eg Good, bad, normal etc.
Not a continuous
It describes a situation,
e.g. 50 out of 100
marks in nursing
Evaluation judges its
works and values it as
It is only a tool to be
used in evaluation,
but does not include
signifies a wider
process of judging