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Evaluation and measurement nursing education


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Evaluation and measurement nursing education

  2. 2. DEFINITION  Evaluation is the process of ascertaining or judging the value of something by careful appraisal- Good carter.  Evaluation is the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are being realised. – Ralph Tyler
  3. 3. Philosophy of evaluation  Each individual should receive that education that most fully allows him /her to develop his / her potential.  Each individual should be placed that he/she should contribute to society and receives personal satisfaction in so doing.  Fullest development of the individual requires recognition of his /her essential individuality along with some rational appraisal by him/herself and others.
  4. 4.  The judgements required in assessing an individual’s potential are complex in their composition, difficult to make and filled with error.  Such error can be reduced but never eliminated. Hence, any evaluation can never be considered final.  Every form of appraisal will have critics, which is a spur to change and improvement
  5. 5. Purposes of evaluation  Diagnosis: Identifies the weakness in learning among students and monitor learning progress so as to provide suggestions.  Prediction: Predict probable future successes on certain types of tasks on the basis of present achievement or related tasks.  Grading: Rank orders students and is usually used in terminal examination.
  6. 6. Selection: Selects suitable candidates for various courses in a university. The entrance tests for various courses serve this purpose.
  7. 7.  Guidance: Assists student in making decisions for the future in the choices of higher studies or career.  Exploration: Bring out the inherent capabilities of pupils such as attitudes, habits, appreciation, understanding, manipulative skills, in addition to the conventional acquisition of knowledge.  Evaluation of the programme:Monitors the effectiveness of teaching in a particular course; find out the relevance of the objectives and effectiveness of methods used and provides a basis for the modification of the curriculum and courses.
  8. 8.  Evaluation of teachers: Test the efficiencies of teachers in providing learning experiences and effectiveness of instructions  Motivation: Help the student to become increasingly self directing in their study and activities. And it helps in selecting, giving honours, placement of students in advanced education and writing recommendations
  9. 9. PURPOSES OF EVALUATION IN NURSING EDUCATION  To determine the level of knowledge and understanding of students  To determine the level of student’s clinical performance.  To become aware of the specific difficulties of individual students or of an entire class, as a basis for further teaching .
  10. 10.  To diagnose each student’s strengths and weakness and to suggest remedial measures which may be needed .  To encourage student’s learning by measuring their achievements and informing them of their success  To help students to become increasingly self directing in their study  To help students to acquire that attitude of and skills in self evaluation
  11. 11.  To provide the additional motivation of examination that provide opportunity to practice critical thinking, the application of principles, the making of judgments etc.  To estimate the effectiveness of teaching and learning techniques, of subject content and of instructional media in attaining the goals of the programme  To gather information needed for administrative purpose
  12. 12. Principles of evaluation 1. Determining and clarifying what is to be evaluated always has priority in the evaluation process. 2. Evaluation techniques should be selected according to the purpose to be served . 3.Comprehensive evaluation requires a variety of evaluation techniques 4.Proper use of evaluation techniques requires an awareness of both their limitations and strengths. 5.Evaluation is a means to an end , not an end in itself
  13. 13. Characteristics of evaluation 1. Evaluation is a continuous process 2. Evaluation includes academic and non-academic subjects 3. Evaluation is a procedure for improving the product: 4. Discovering the needs of an individual and designing learning experiences: 5. Evaluation is purpose oriented:
  14. 14. Functions of evaluation  To make provisions for guiding the growth of individuals and pupils.  To diagnose the weakness and strength of the pupils.  To locate areas where remedial measures are needed .  To provide a basis for a modification of the curriculum and the course.  To motivate pupils toward better attainment and growth.  To test the efficiency of teachers in providing learning experiences.
  15. 15. Types of evaluation 1.Feasibility evaluation 2. Formative evaluation 3. Certifying evaluation or Summative evaluation 4. Maintenance evaluation 5. Maximum performance evaluation 6. Criterion referenced evaluation 7.Norm referenced evaluation
  16. 16. Evaluation process  Identifying the purpose of evaluation.  Identifying the time frame.  Determining when to evaluate.  Selecting the evaluators  Choosing an evaluation design/ framework or model.
  17. 17.  Selecting an evaluation instruments  Collecting data.  Interpreting data  Reporting the findings  Using the findings  Considering the costs of evaluation.
  19. 19.  Measurement is any device, which allows the students to obtain information in a quantitative form  “It is an act or process that involves the assignment of a numerical index to whatever is being assessed.”  “The process of obtaining numerical description of the degree to which an individual possesses a particular characteristic
  20. 20. Essentials of measurement  Identification and definition of the quality , attribute or variable that is to be measured.  Determining the set of operation through which the operation of attribute or variable may manifest and become perceivable.  Establishment of a set of procedure for the translations of observations into quantitative statements of degree extent or amount
  21. 21. Functions of measurement  1. Prognosis – It is an administrative function such as classification, selection, promotion and gradation of student on the basis of student achievement, effectiveness of methods, instruction and treatment is evaluated.  2. Diagnosis- It identifies the weakness of the students and helpful in preparing remedial work for them. It is also helpful in establishing cause effect relationship. It can also improve the instructional procedure.  3. Research: Measurement provides more objective and dependable basis for research purposes. Valid generalization can be made on the basis of accurate measurement
  22. 22. Criteria for the selection of evaluative devices  Sampling of the objectives  Sampling of the content  Validity  Reliability  Practicability  Usefulness
  23. 23.  Validity The validity of a test is the degree to which it measures what is intended to measure.
  24. 24. Types of Validity 1.Face Validity When one looks at the test he thinks of the extent to which the test seems logically related to what is being tested
  25. 25. 2 . Construct Validity is used to ensure that the measure is actually measure what it is intended to measure (i.e. the construct), and no other variables. 3.Content validity Content validity of a test reflects the extent to which student learn specific content material in different subject. This type of validity is related to the content area that is being tested
  26. 26. 4.Performance validity A tool that can be a written test is said to possess predictive validity to the extent the information obtained through it serves the purpose of predicting the future performance of students in a particular area of learning 5. Concurrent validity The test scores are correlated with another set of criterion scores which are presently, that is concurrently available.
  27. 27. Reliability 1. Test-retest reliability is a measure of reliability obtained by administering the same test twice over a period of time to a group of individuals. The scores from Time 1 and Time 2 can then be correlated in order to evaluate the test for stability over time.
  28. 28. 2. Parallel forms reliability Is a measure of reliability obtained by administering different versions of an assessment tool (both versions must contain items that probe the same construct, skill, knowledge base, etc.) to the same group of individuals. The scores from the two versions can then be correlated in order to evaluate the consistency of results across alternate versions
  29. 29. 3. Inter rater reliabilityis a measure of reliability used to assess the degree to which different judges or raters agree in their assessment decisions
  30. 30. 4. Internal consistency reliability Is a measure of reliability used to evaluate the degree to which different test items that probe the same construct produce similar results. A. Average inter-item correlation B. B. Split-half reliability
  31. 31. Measurement errors  1.Random error  2. Systematic error :
  32. 32. Distinction between measurement and evaluation  Measurement 1. Measurement refers to quantity describing in terms of pupils attainment in a subject. For example , how much an individual’s performance has taken place, i.e. score in one subject.  Evaluation 1.Evaluation is measured in terms of quality and value judgement eg Good, bad, normal etc.
  33. 33.  Not a continuous process  It describes a situation, e.g. 50 out of 100 marks in nursing education  Continuous process  Evaluation judges its works and values it as average
  34. 34.  It is only a tool to be used in evaluation, but does not include in evaluation  Limited scope  Evaluation includes measurement and signifies a wider process of judging students’ progress  Wide scope