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Educational Objectives


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Educational Objectives

  1. 1. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES/ LEARNING OBJECTIVES. <ul><li>Unit V: Principals of education and teaching learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Domains of objectives and formulation of general and specific objectives. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction: Education is a process, the chief goal of which is to bring about change in human behavior. Every individual should have access to a type of education that permits maximum development of his potential and capabilities. Every task is done for particular purpose, it becomes easy to achieve it when we know its objectives or goal as well. In any educational programme to be effective the purposes and objectives are to be clearly stated
  3. 3. So that it is easy to select the right subject matter, the clinical experience and the right method to be evaluate the student's performance and the teaching learning process. Entire society, philosophy, values, circumstances under which students are going to perform should be taken into account comprehensively before planning educational objectives. Thus the objectives are desirable outcomes of intended actions through the mode of education.
  4. 4. Definition: <ul><li>The result sought by the learner at the end of the educational program, ie what the students should be able to do at the end of a learning period, that they could not do beforehand </li></ul><ul><li>-- J J Guilbert. </li></ul><ul><li>It is learner centered or behavior centered and subject centered. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Importance and Meaning. <ul><li>The educational objectives are expressions of what a teacher hopes his/her students can accomplish as a result of his/her teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational objectives are policy statements of direction and provides foundation of the entire educative structure. These are the statement, which express specifically and in measurable terms, an attitude that will be developed cognitive or psychomotor skills that the students would be able to do as a result of prescribed treatment method or mode of instruction. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types: <ul><li>A) According to type of objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Institutional </li></ul><ul><li>2.Departmental (Intermediate). </li></ul><ul><li>3.Specific instructional/ behavioral. </li></ul><ul><li>B) According to domain: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cognitive domain </li></ul><ul><li>2. Affective domain </li></ul><ul><li>3. Psychomotor domain. </li></ul><ul><li>C) According to person: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Teacher centered. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Student centered. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Characteristics: <ul><li>Relevant: confirm to the needs of the learner and institutional objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>logical </li></ul><ul><li>Unequivocal: clear action verbs to be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Feasible: be within the time limit and resources available. </li></ul><ul><li>Observable: able to see the action performed e.g. Writing, spoken, performed. </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable: able to evaluate, check and recheck e.g. rating, grading, marking etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Data Sources: <ul><li>Health needs, demands and resources of the society. </li></ul><ul><li>National health policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Services to the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Services to the patient. </li></ul><ul><li>The health professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>The teachers and learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific progress in knowledge, methods and skill. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>Future demands in terms of advanced technology. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Purposes: <ul><li>Preparing teaching/ learning program: </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates course planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates desirable emphasis of treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for selective approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in curriculum design. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates learning. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of educational objectives: <ul><li>Institutional/ general objective: A set of statements identifying the major skills that all the graduates of the program should posses at the completion of their studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Departmental objectives: A set of statements identifying the skills to be acquired by all students who are taught within a particular school/ department/division, of a nursing college. These skills must be consistent with the institutional objective. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of educational objectives: <ul><li>Instructional objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic instructional objective (BIO): A brief, clear statement of basic skill/ competence which is to be demonstrated at the conclusion of a unit instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific instructional objective (SIO): A brief, clear statement of a single skill, directly related to BIO and stated in terms of observable student behavior. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Elements of specific objectives: <ul><li>Activity- appropriate action verb to be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Content- what is to be implemented or performed. </li></ul><ul><li>Condition- with or without help of equipments, books, specimens reports etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria- minimum level of performance. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Taxonomy of objectives <ul><li>A Taxonomy is a hierarchical classification in a given field. It provide a classification of various instructional objectives at suitable levels and in given spheres. </li></ul><ul><li>A systematic organization of objectives into three domains to help the teachers in precise formulation and evaluates the result of a system of education, helps students to prepare for examinations to obtain the desired end results. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Advantages of taxonomy: <ul><li>To help teachers formulate the educational objectives clearly. </li></ul><ul><li>To give clear cut guidelines to avoid ambiguity in statement of objective. </li></ul><ul><li>To enable educators to communicate among each other’s goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the result of system of education. </li></ul><ul><li>Collective work is made possible. </li></ul><ul><li>To solve problems regarding a practicability. </li></ul><ul><li>To construct test items in examination. </li></ul><ul><li>As research tool in education and evaluation. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cognitive domain <ul><li>Mc Guire (1963) described the levels in cognitive domain. </li></ul><ul><li>Recall of facts: remembering the facts, principles, processes, patterns, methods necessary for efficient performance of a professional task. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of data: The process of application or use of ideas, principles, methods to deal with a new phenomenon or situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving: Relating to diagnosis, treatment, organization etc it includes finding solutions for problem arising from new situations. It will serve as a guide. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bloom’s categories in cognitive domain (1956) <ul><li>Knowledge: The remembering of previously learned material. Recall of specifics and universals and of methods and processes, remembering of a pattern structure or setting, memorization of facts, principles etc. Includes Recall, Recognize. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension: Grasping communication accurately, able to put it in different form of presentation, reorganizing material in summary with the central meaning and points. Includes Translation, interpretation, extrapolation, see relationship, cite example, discriminate, classify, interest, verify, generalize. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Application: The ability to use learned material in new situation, it may be general ideas, principals or methods. Includes, reason, formulate, establish, inference, predict. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis: The ability to breakdown material into its component parts so that its organizational structure. Requires an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis: It is the ability to put together to form a new whole learning outcomes in the area and stress to creates behavior, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures. E.g. preparing codes, developing nursing process, derive abstract relations. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Evaluation: The ability to judge the value of material for a given purpose, it is based on use of criteria, standards, it may be quantitative or qualitative. </li></ul><ul><li>Action verbs: compare, contrast, identify, distinguish, explain, list, enumerate, describe, select, specify, relate, interpreat. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Conative or psychomotor skills or domain or practical skill <ul><li>This deals with the routine actions carried out by the student, able to perform practical with high degree of precision and efficiency having effective control over the practical skill. </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation: The student exposed to an observable action makes an attempt to copy it step by step, guided by an impulse to imitate, needs a model. </li></ul><ul><li>Control: The student is able to demonstrate a skill according to instructions and not merely on the basis of observation. Begins to differentiate between one set of skills and another and to be able to choose one required, starts to adapt at handling instruments. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Automatism: A high degree of proficiency is attained in using the skill, which now requires only a minimum of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation: Ability to do an act according to instruction not by observation alone. E.g. following direction, selection, fixation. </li></ul><ul><li>Precision: high level of performance with refinement. E.g. reproduction, control. </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation: coordination of series of acts in sequence with internal consistency. E. g. sequence, harmony. </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalization: Highest proficiency in performance with minimum expenditure of energy. E.g. automatism, interiorization. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Action verbs: dissect, palpate, perform, inject insert, operate, osculate, identify, prepare, remove. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Domain of attitude or affective domain (communication skill) <ul><li>Behavior representative of feelings or conviction. An objective dealings with emotions or feelings indicated by words, e.g. interest, appreciation, enthusiasm, motivation and attitudes. These are reflective of the values. </li></ul><ul><li>A persistent disposition to act either positively or negatively towards a person, group, object, value or situation. It refers to interpersonal relations. Three levels are identified: </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Receiving or attending: willingness to receive/ attention. E.g. awareness, willingness to receive, controlled or selected attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Responding: Learner is sufficiently involved in an activity that he seeks it out and gain satisfaction working with it. E.g. agree or accept, willingness to respond, satisfaction in response. </li></ul><ul><li>Valuing: The behavior is now consistent and stable not only accepted but is valued. E.g. acceptance of a value, preference of value, commitment/ conviction. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Organization: The level at which the learner constructs a value system which guides his/ her behavior. E.g. conceptualization of a value, organization of value system. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterization by a value or value complex? internalization: The values have a place in the persons value hierarchy and organized. E.g. generalized set, characterization. </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization: Perception of phenomenon affecting values. This enables you to adapt your attitude to the other person as if you were experiencing the same phenomenon yourself. e.g. attitude shown to grieving family gives impact of being concern and care towards them and readiness to help them to get over it. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Action verbs: Respond, receive, cooperate, participate, display, permit, react, contribute. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps for stating objectives : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Start with an action verb or operative verb, that describes a specific behavior or activity by the learner ie what does he do? </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. enumerate, perform, explain, describe etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Follow the action verb with content reference that describes the subject being tested e.g. performs what? Enumerate the articles displayed in general trolley set up. Perform back care. </li></ul><ul><li>3. End with the performance standard/ criteria that indicated the minimum acceptable accomplishment in measurable terms. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>e.g. Enumerate the bones in human hand with an accuracy of at least 90%. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform I.M. injection procedure for five consecutive cases, by following scientific principals, with minimum discomfort to client. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Specify the main conditions under which actions is to take place ie resources supplied or restrictions applied. Eg. With an electron microscope, with signomenometer, with oral thermometer etc. </li></ul>