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Pests And Pest Control


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Pests And Pest Control

  1. 1. Pests and Pest Control <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any organism that is noxious, destructive or troublesome </li></ul></ul>Gypsy Moth
  2. 2. May be one or more of the following: <ul><li>Disease causing </li></ul><ul><li>Annoying </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on agricultural or ornamental plants </li></ul><ul><li>May harm/attack/kill domestic animals </li></ul><ul><li>Rotting or spoiling organisms (fungi, bacteria, termites, carpenter ants) </li></ul><ul><li>Weed plants that compete with cultivated plants </li></ul>
  3. 3. Different philosophies of pest control <ul><li>Chemical technology – short lived </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological pest management – long lasting </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated pest management (IPM) – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal environmental impact </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pest Control Goal <ul><li>Keep the pest population just below the size at which it causes economic loss. </li></ul>Economic Threshold Original Pest Population Introduction of Pest Control Reduced Pest Pop.
  5. 5. The perfect pesticide <ul><li>It would be inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>It would affect only the target organism </li></ul><ul><li>It would have a short half-life </li></ul><ul><li>It would break down into harmless materials </li></ul>
  6. 6. Insecticides <ul><li>Stomach poisons: insects with chewing mouth parts </li></ul><ul><li>Contact poisons: sprayed directly on pest </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic poisons: sucking insects </li></ul><ul><li>Fumigants: interferes with respiratory systems </li></ul>
  7. 7. Herbicides <ul><li>Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic – example:Roundup </li></ul>
  8. 8. First generation pesticides <ul><li>Highly toxic, nonspecific, persistent </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic pesticides and botanicals </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenic, sulfur, caustic soda, olive oil, tobacco, lead, zinc, mercury </li></ul>
  9. 9. Second generation pesticides <ul><li>Synthetic organic compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorinated hydrocarbons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organophosphates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbamates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial agents and biological controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacillus thuringiensis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Chlorinated hydrocarbons <ul><li>DDT, chlordane, aldrin, lindane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibit nerve membrane ion transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Block nerve signal transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast acting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent in environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioaccumulates and biomagnifies </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Organophosphates <ul><li>Parathion, malathion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibit cholinesterase, an enzyme essential for the removal of excess neurotransmitters for synapses in the peripheral nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely poisonous (10 to 100 times that of chlorinated hydrocarbons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less persistent </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Carbamates <ul><li>Carbaryl (sevin), aldicarb (temik) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous system interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low persistence </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Animation: Pesticide Examples PLAY ANIMATION
  14. 14. Pesticide benefits <ul><li>Disease control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaria – prevented 50 millions deaths from this mosquito transmitted disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encephalitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bubonic plague (caused by bacteria carried by fleas on rats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typhus (carried by body lice) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Pesticide problems <ul><li>First identified by Rachel Carson in 1962, in Silent Spring </li></ul><ul><li>Development of resistance by pests </li></ul><ul><li>Resurgences and secondary pest outbreaks </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse environmental and human health effects </li></ul>
  16. 16. Development of resistance by pests <ul><li>Resistant individuals selected for with the application of pesticide </li></ul><ul><li>These individuals continue to breed and pass along the resistant genes </li></ul>
  17. 17. Resurgences and secondary pest outbreaks <ul><li>Resurgence – pest species explodes to higher levels </li></ul><ul><li>Natural enemies of pest are suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>Non pests can become pests </li></ul>Boll Weevil
  18. 18. Adverse environmental and human health effects <ul><li>DDE (from DDT) interferes with calcium metabolism in birds </li></ul><ul><li>This interferes with the successful reproduction due to fragile eggs, especially of the birds at higher trophic levels </li></ul><ul><li>Biomagnification – accumulates in higher and higher concentrations higher in the food chain </li></ul>Osprey
  19. 19. Other Ways to Control Pests <ul><li>There are cultivation, biological, and ecological alternatives to conventional chemical pesticides. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fool the pest through cultivation practices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide homes for the pest enemies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implant genetic resistance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring in natural enemies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use pheromones to lure pests into traps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use hormones to disrupt life cycles. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Cultural Techniques <ul><li>Rotation of crops </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of dead materials </li></ul><ul><li>Timing around the population maximum of the pest </li></ul><ul><li>Choose resistant plants </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reproductive controls <ul><li>Use of sterile insects (males) </li></ul><ul><li>Sterilize either chemically or with radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Use of sex attractants (pheromones) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of hormones: speed up the metamorphosis of the insect – prevents full development and interferes with reproductive success </li></ul>
  22. 22. Biological control <ul><li>Birds: geese </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders </li></ul><ul><li>Toads </li></ul><ul><li>Insects: ladybugs, praying mantis, lacewing </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial agents: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Integrated Pest Management <ul><li>Incorporates and coordinates various forms of control </li></ul><ul><li>Identify acceptable population level </li></ul><ul><li>Establish threshold levels of economic injury to pests </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the biology of the specific pest </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the economics of control </li></ul>