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Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Integrated Pest Management for Food industry

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Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

  1. 1. Integrated pest management Presented by: S. Sakeena Gilani Mphil Microbiology
  2. 2. Pests????? A pest is any organism that spreads disease, causes destruction or is otherwise a nuisance. Some examples of pests are Mosquitoes Flies Cockroache s Birds Rodents Ants
  3. 3. Presence Of Pests- Unacceptable The risks posed by pests include:  The spread of disease – pathogens are transferred from the gut or external surface of the pest  Damage to property  Contamination of work surfaces and foodstuffs  Adverse public opinion and loss of reputation  Prosecution and closure  Poor staff relations
  4. 4. Pest Management Is A Challenge. The conducive conditions that allow pest infestations to thrive in a food processing facility are:  the abundance of Food  ideal moisture  temperature conditions  extended business hours  various harborage sites
  5. 5. Focus of Integrated Pest Management “To identify, prevent, and eliminate conditions that could promote or sustain a pest population with a food manufacturing, storage, or transportation operation.”
  6. 6. IPM Goals For The Food Industry  To prevent insects from entering the facility  To keep insect populations from increasing or becoming established in the production stream  To suppress insects where prevention has been unsuccessful  To monitor the environment for evaluating the effectiveness of the prevention program
  7. 7. Steps in the Implementation of IPM  Inspection  Planning Preventive Strategies  Identification  Analysis  Treatment Selection  Monitoring  Documentation
  8. 8. Step 1: Inspection  The cornerstone of an effective IPM program is a schedule of regular inspections.  For food processors weekly inspections are common, and some plants inspect even more frequently.  The routine inspections should focus on areas where pests are most likely to appear ◦ receiving docks ◦ storage areas, ◦ employee break rooms ◦ sites of recent ingredient spills etc.  identify any potential entry points, food and water sources and harborage zones that might encourage pest problems.
  9. 9. Step 2: Preventive Action  One of the most effective prevention measures is exclusion  Performing structural maintenance to close potential entry points revealed during inspection.  Sanitation and housekeeping will eliminate potential food and water sources, thereby reducing pest pressure.
  10. 10. Step 3: Identification  By identifying the problematic species, pests can be eliminated more efficiently.  Make sure your pest control provider undergoes rigorous training in pest identification and behavior.
  11. 11. Step 4: Analysis  Once you have properly identified the pest, you need to figure out why the pest is in your facility. Odors Moisture accumulatio n Food debris Inlets
  12. 12. Step 5: Treatment Selection “Use The Right Treatments In The Right Places, And Only As Much As You Need To Get The Job Done.”  IPM stresses the use of non-chemical control methods, such as exclusion or trapping, before chemical options.  When other control methods have failed or are inappropriate for the situation, chemicals may be used in least volatile formulations in targeted areas to treat the specific pest.
  13. 13. Step 5: Treatment Selection  Often, the “right treatment” will consist of a combination of responses, from chemical treatments to baiting to trapping.  By focusing on non-chemical options first, you can ensure that your pest management program is effectively eliminating pests at the least risk to your food safety program, non-target organisms and the environment.
  14. 14. Step 6: Monitoring  Constantly monitoring the facility for pest activity, facility and operational changes can protect against infestation and help eliminate existing ones.  Staff needs to be the daily eyes and ears of the IPM program.  Employees should be aware of sanitation issues that affect the program and should report any signs of pest activity.
  15. 15. Step 7: Documentation  Up-to-date pest control documentation is one of the first signs to an auditor that the facility takes pest control seriously.  Important documents include ◦ a scope of service, ◦ pest activity reports, ◦ service reports, ◦ corrective action reports, ◦ trap layout maps, ◦ lists of approved pesticides, ◦ pesticide usage reports ◦ Applicator licenses.
  16. 16. Advantages to IPM  IPM program will enhance the long- term stability of the holdings over and above protection against pests.  Provide long term solution to pest problem  Decreased use of chemical application ◦ reduces risks to the health of staff members. ◦ reduces the risk of deterioration and disfigurement of holdings. ◦ result in a financial savings.
  17. 17. Disadvantages to IPM  IPM will require more staff time than traditional pest management  IPM will require the coordinated effort of all staff members to properly implement.  IPM may initially be more expensive than traditional pest management.
  18. 18. Important Terms Relating to IPM Economic Injury Level (EIL)  the lowest pest population level that will cause economic damage or the critical population density where the loss caused by the pest equals in monetary value to the cost of management. Economic Threshold (ET)or Action Threshold (AT)  the point at which management actions should be taken to prevent an increasing pest population from exceeding the economic injury level. The ET always represents a pest density or level of pest damage lower than the EIL. General Equilibrium Position (GEP)  the average population density of a pest over a long period of time, unaffected by interventions of pest management. This level fluctuates about a mean
  19. 19. International Standards  ISO 9001:2000 Quality Standards  ISO 14001:2004 Environmental Management Standards  OSHAS 18001:1999 Occupational Health Safety Standards  ISO 22000 Food Safety Standards  other local, regional or international requirements such as HACCP.
  20. 20. Location  Assessment of activities and the environment in proximity to the proposed site  Landfill sites, watercourses, marshlands, derelict sites, farms and railway lines are examples of activities that often generate regular pest activity.  Consider the previous use of the site and the pest history buildings that have previously been used in the food industry are most likely to have a pest history
  21. 21. Water  Ornamental ponds should not be considered.  Standing water may give rise to insects that rely on water to breed.  A readily available source of water is a requirement for successful rat populations.  Piscivorous wildlife (gulls, etc.) may be attracted to the site ,this will then lead to problems with fouling and eventually problems with insects.  Good drainage of land is required to avoid waterlogged soil.
  22. 22. Lighting The type of lighting at a premise will, to a certain extent, determine the attractiveness of the site to flying insects Attractive lights:  ultra violet (UV) Light  mercury-vapor lamps,  special fluorescent lamps  Incandescent (tungsten filament) bulb Non attractive lights  High-pressure sodium-vapor lamps
  23. 23. Fittings Of Light  An absolute minimum amount of lighting is physically attached to the building  Position lights 5 or 6m away and direct lighting towards doorways.  Lighting just inside doorways and in loading bays should be high-pressure sodium-vapor  Mercury-vapor lamps could, however, be used as decoy lighting around the
  24. 24. Building Color of building Food Perimeter Avoid yellow or white colorCrew canteens should be sited away from production area Prohibited on site Fences of chain linked, wire mesh or metal railing pathway s should be concrete gravel could be burrowed into by rodents despite of the ability of gravel to back fill on itself. Use darker blue or green color
  25. 25. Walls  Apply a band of “non-friction” material one metre above ground level to prevent rodents climbing external walls.  Ensure the open cavities of cavitied building blocks are totally sealed  Materials should provide a smooth, impervious surface devoid of cracks and crevices
  26. 26. Contt..  External and internal surfaces of walls should have no ledges  Wall foundations must be: ◦ at least 900mm below ground level ◦ addition of a concrete curtain wall to a depth of 600mm
  27. 27. Services  Supply pipes and cables, i.e. gas, electric and water must be tightly sealed where they pass through walls  All drains should be accessible and facilitate flushing and rodding.  Waste build-ups must be easily accessed for clearance  Rat activity in drains is commonplace and fracturing of drains may lead to rats gaining access to wall cavities
  28. 28. Flooring  All expansion joints should be well sealed and consist of a material that allows for movement.  Tiled flooring is not recommended.  Covings at wall to floor junctions reduce the accumulation of debris and assist effective cleaning.  Wet process areas should have self- draining floors. Pooling water may increase the overall relative humidity of process areas, which in turn may be beneficial to the breeding cycles of certain insects.
  29. 29. Doorways  Fire exit doors should be constructed of metal, or have sheet metal over their outward facing surface.  Exit doors should be a good fit, self-closing with a sensor to detect if the door has been propped open.  Doors should have raised thresholds, sufficient to prevent pest entry  Avoid the use of air curtain doors, strip curtain doors or rubber flap-back doors around external wall door openings.  Automatic high-speed roller doors are preferable. They should be fitted to create an air lock
  30. 30. Contt..  Vehicle loading points (dock levellers) should have the void containing the hydraulic lifting gear completely sealed to the outside.  Sealing will prevent pest ingress and litter accumulation.  Avoid installing doors that have hollow frames. Mice may use hollow doorframes as harborage.
  31. 31. Windows  Air conditioning intakes should not be situated on roof areas where rainwater may accumulate.  Maintain an internal positive pressure.
  32. 32. Warehouse  Adequate storage facilities sufficient to cope with expected volumes should be provided.  Racking should be used to keep all goods off the floor this will allow good pest control inspection and cleaning  A minimum quantity of ingredients or packaging should be kept in stock
  33. 33. Non-Chemical Control Methods  Rodent and vertebrate trappings  Spring traps  Sticky or glue board traps  Break-back traps  Cage traps  Live traps  Adhesive pads  Pheromone traps  Fly and wasp traps  Insect trappings  UV stable polyethylene or polypropylene netting with an appropriate mesh size
  34. 34. Contt..  Electric Fly Control Units (EFK)(UV emission)  EFK units should not be placed: ◦ Outside or by open windows and doors where they will catch non-target species and may attract pests to the site ◦ Beside windows or fluorescent lighting where they will compete with natural sources of UV light ◦ Over food preparation surfaces where there will be a risk of fall-out from the unit
  35. 35. Temperature Control  Heat treatment–raising the core temperature of a space or product above 55°C will result in the death of all insect life cycle stages.  Freezing–freezing of stored product insects to -35°c is an effective method of control.  Modified/controlled atmosphere–by sealing commodities in an oxygen barrier film they can be treated using carbon dioxide or nitrogen.
  36. 36. Chemical Control Methods  The use of pesticides will be a last resort and their use will strictly adhere to the requirements of current legislation, in particular:  The Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986 (as amended) (COPR)  The Control of Substances Hazardous to  Health 2002 (COSHH)
  37. 37. Insecticides  Classified by their mode of action on: ◦ The nervous system (pyrethroid and carbamate) ◦ The production of energy (hydramethylnon.) ◦ The production of cuticle (benzoylureas.) ◦ The endocrine system (s-methoprene and ◦ Pyriproxyfen) ◦ Water balance (aromatic oils)
  38. 38. Chemical Control Formulation  Wettable Powders (WP)  Water Dispersible Powders (WDP)  Suspension Concentrates / Flowables (SC)  Emulsion Concentrates (EC)  Dusts  Smokes  Baits
  39. 39. Summary  Take samples of food material and inspect for insect activity  Place traps in area to capture walking insects  Implement short-term response of cleaning or insecticide treatments (if insect activity warrants)  Implement long-term solutions such as regular cleaning, structural modifications to eliminate or reduce accumulations, or modifications such as paving to make spillage easier to clean and less favorable for insect development  Prepare proper reports and documents regarding pest activity and control measures
  40. 40. Thank You!!