SlideShare a Scribd company logo
CHEMICAL CONTROL OF PESTS
Submitted To :-
College of Forestry
Odisha University of Agriculture & Technology
Use of chemicals for pest
control
Pesticides: chemicals that kill pests or inhibit their development
◦ Insecticides: insects
◦ Herbicides: plants
◦ Rodenticides: rodents
◦ Avicides: birds
Insect attractants, repellents and antifeedants affect the orientation of
pests towards the host
Chemosterilants, growth regulators etc. interfere with normal
reproduction or development of pests
How it began
In 18th and 19th centuries, farmers used soup of plants toxic to insects,
e.g. - chrysanthemum, tobacco etc.
Later, toxic compounds were extracted and applied as liquid sprays, e.g.
- nicotine, petroleum, turpentine, pyrethrum etc.
Eventually organic compounds were replaced with inorganic
compounds, e.g. - arsenic, lime, sulphur, strychnine, cyanide etc.
Use of pesticides over time
The DDT story
Insecticidal properties of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were
discovered during World War II
Extremely toxic to insects, seemed nontoxic to mammals
Cheap, broad spectrum, persistent
Effective disease prevention, e.g. - typhus fever, malaria
DDT is thought to biomagnify and hence was deemed harmful to the
environment by the EPA and other organizations
DDT is stored in the fat of animals and takes many years to break down
By the 1960s, the value of DDT as an insecticide had decreased
In the 1970s severe restrictions were imposed on use of DDT
Biomagnification of DDT across the food chain
Classification of pesticides
Based on the origin and source of supply
◦ Inorganic pesticides: comprise compounds of mineral origin
◦ Organic pesticides: comprise compounds of organic material
Based on the mode of entry
◦ Contact poisons: kill pests by coming in contact with the body
◦ Stomach poisons: act on the digestive system of the pest when ingested
◦ Fumigants: fumes gain entry to the body via respiration
◦ Systemic pesticides: capable of moving through vascular system of the plant
irrespective of site of application
Classification contd.
Based on the mode of action
◦ Physical poisons: kill by exerting a physical effect
◦ Protoplasmic poisons: responsible for precipitation of protein destroying cellular
protoplasm
◦ Respiratory poisons: block cellular respiration
◦ Nerve poisons: block Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and affect the nervous system
◦ Chitin inhibitors: interfere with process of synthesis of chitin
◦ General poisons: include neurotoxic symptoms after some period
Based on toxicity
◦ Extremely toxic: Oral LD 50 – 1-50, Dermal LD 50 – 1-200
◦ Highly toxic: Oral LD 50 – 51-500, Dermal LD 50 – 201-2000
◦ Moderately toxic: Oral LD 50 – 501-5000, Dermal LD 50 – 2001-20,000
◦ Less toxic: Oral LD 50 – >5000, Dermal LD 50 – >20,000
Classification contd.
Based on stage specificity
◦ Ovicides
◦ Larvicides
◦ Pupicides
◦ Adulticides
Generation wise
◦ First generation: inorganics and botanicals
◦ Second generation: synthetic organics
◦ Third generation: recent chemicals for reproductive control, IGRs
◦ Fourth generation: synthetic pyrethroids
◦ Fifth generation: synthetic pyrethroids
Formulations of pesticides
Dusts (D) - ready to use insecticides in powder form
Granules or Pelleted insecticides(G) - ready to use granular or pelleted form
Wettable Powders (WP) - powder formulation which is to be diluted with water
Emulsifiable Concentrates(EC) - clear solution which yields an emulsion of oil-in
water type when diluted with water
Soluble Powder or Water Soluble Powder (SP or WSP) – powder formulation
readily soluble in water
Suspension Concentrate (SC) - active ingredient is absorbed on to a filler which
is then suspended in a liquid matrix
Flowables (F) - active ingredient is insoluble in either water or organic solvents
Formulations contd.
Water Dispersible Granules (WDG) - appears as small pellets or granules
Solutions - soluble in organic solvents which themselves possesses some
insecticidal properties of their own
Concentrated liquids - toxicant at highly concentrated level dissolved in
non-volatile solvents
Aerosels - toxicant suspended as minute particles of 0.1-30 microns in air as
fog or mist
Fumigants - volatile at ordinary temperature
Microencapsulation - dry and liquid pesticide particles enclosed in tiny
plastic capsules
Mixtures - combinations of two or more insecticides in the right
concentration
Baits - active ingredient is mixed with edible substance
Aerial application of pesticides covering a large area
Attractants
Chemical substances which cause orientation of pests towards the
source of attractant
Pheromones or ectohormones are released by insects which cause
attraction towards individuals of same species
Used as bait to attract pests to a particular place where they can be
killed by application of pesticides
May fail in unsuitable environments or less vapour concentration
Suitable for evaluation of population density of pest in the particular
field
Geraniol & Eugenol acts as attractants for Japanese beetle
Attractants can be used in insect traps to attract the insects into the trap and kill them
Repellents
Prevent pests by making their food or living conditions unattractive
Physical repellents like waxes on leaf surface repel insects
Auditory repellents like amplified sound producing devices used to repel
mosquitoes
Pentachlorophenol repels termites
Antifeedants
Make the plant distasteful to the pests
Insect may die by feeding on plants having antifeedants
Azadirachtin present on Neem plant is antifeedant for desert locust and
other insects
Bordeaux mixture acts as antifeedant for flea beetles and leaf hoppers
Caterpillar (larva) feeding on a leaf
Chemosterilants
Cause reproductive sterility in insects
Prevent cell division or obstruct normal embryonic development by
◦ Inhibiting ovarian growth and development
◦ Inducing changes in fundamental structure of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA
Applied directly to the insect or incorporated into diet
May also cause cancer, birth defects and other mutation in mammals
Antimetabolites, triazines, antibiotics etc. are some examples of
chemosterilants
Insect Growth Regulators
Inhibit the life cycle of an insect
Target juvenile harmful insect populations while causing less
detrimental effects to beneficial insects
Do not affect an insect's nervous system unlike classic insecticides
More compatible with pest management systems that use biological
controls
Insects are less likely to become resistant to IGRs
IGRs prevent an insect from reaching maturity by interfering with the
moulting process
Process of moulting in insects involves shedding of exoskeleton
Types of IGRs
Hormonal IGRs
◦ Work by mimicking or inhibiting the juvenile hormone (JH)
◦ Can also inhibit the hormone ecdysone
◦ IGRs that mimic JH Can produce premature moulting of young immature stages or can
also act on eggs, causing sterilization
◦ IGRs that inhibit JH production can cause insects to prematurely moult into a non-
functional adult
◦ IGRs that inhibit ecdysone can cause pupal mortality by interrupting the
transformation of larval tissues into adult tissues during the pupal stage
Chitin synthesis inhibitors
◦ Work by preventing the formation of chitin, a carbohydrate needed to form the
insect's exoskeleton
◦ Also kill eggs by disrupting normal embryonic development
◦ Affect insects for longer periods of time than hormonal IGRs
Advantages & disadvantages of
chemical pest control methods
Advantages
◦ Less expensive and are readily available
◦ Very easy to use
◦ Deliver results instantly right after application
Disadvantages
◦ May also harm the beneficial organisms
◦ May have adverse effects on the environment and human health
◦ The effects are mostly short-term
◦ Resurgences and secondary pest outbreaks are more likely to happen
Population of resistant insects increasing over time
The cycle of chemical
pesticides
Pest
problems
Use of
chemical
pesticides
Resistance,
resurgence,
secondary
outbreaks
Negative effects of pesticides
Human health effects
◦ Cancer, dermatitis, neurological disorder, birth defects, sterility, endocrine
system disruption, immune system depression
◦ Agricultural workers suffer acute poisoning during pesticide application
◦ Aerial spraying and dumping bring pesticides in contact with families and
children
Environmental effects
◦ DDT led to the decline in populations of several bird species like Bald eagle
and Peregrine falcon
◦ Bioaccumulation in an individual over time
◦ Biomagnification of chemicals pesticides
Conclusion
Chemical control methods are easier, quicker and more effective, but
come with negative consequences
In the current scenario, it is difficult to completely abandon the use of
chemical control methods due to various factors like cost, ease of use
etc.
But we can try to lessen the use of chemical control methods by using
other methods of pest control like ecological control, cultural control,
biological control etc.
Thank you

More Related Content

What's hot

Biological Control
Biological ControlBiological Control
Biological Control
Karl Obispo
 
Classical biological control
Classical biological controlClassical biological control
Classical biological control
SAURABHPADAMSHALI
 
Ecological engineering and biocontrol
Ecological engineering and biocontrolEcological engineering and biocontrol
Ecological engineering and biocontrol
Bharath Kumar Ayyapan Krishnasamy
 
ENTO 332_Lec No.15_Parasitoids and Predators.ppt
ENTO 332_Lec No.15_Parasitoids and Predators.pptENTO 332_Lec No.15_Parasitoids and Predators.ppt
ENTO 332_Lec No.15_Parasitoids and Predators.ppt
Asst Prof SSNAIK ENTO PJTSAU
 
Economical basis of IPM - Economic Thresholds
Economical basis of IPM -  Economic ThresholdsEconomical basis of IPM -  Economic Thresholds
Economical basis of IPM - Economic Thresholds
khalil amro
 
Semiochem
Semiochem Semiochem
Semiochem
IGKV Raipur C.G.
 
Economic importance of insect-pest , monitoring , survey & surveillance
Economic importance of insect-pest , monitoring , survey & surveillance Economic importance of insect-pest , monitoring , survey & surveillance
Economic importance of insect-pest , monitoring , survey & surveillance
GBPUA&T, Pantnagar, (US Nagar)
 
Botanical insecticides
Botanical insecticidesBotanical insecticides
Botanical insecticides
Naresh Deuba
 
Sterile insect-techniques
Sterile insect-techniquesSterile insect-techniques
Sterile insect-techniques
primary information services
 
Biological control of pest
Biological control of pestBiological control of pest
Biological control of pest
N.H. Shankar Reddy
 
Parasitoids and Predators, their attributes.
Parasitoids and Predators, their attributes.Parasitoids and Predators, their attributes.
Parasitoids and Predators, their attributes.
Bhumika Kapoor
 
pest of pulses
pest of pulsespest of pulses
pest of pulses
Debjyoti Chakraborty
 
Integrated pest management (ipm)
Integrated pest management (ipm)Integrated pest management (ipm)
Integrated pest management (ipm)
Snehal mane
 
INSECT_GROWTH_REGULATORS.pptx
INSECT_GROWTH_REGULATORS.pptxINSECT_GROWTH_REGULATORS.pptx
INSECT_GROWTH_REGULATORS.pptx
HimaniKarakoti
 
PHYSIOLOGY OF IMPULSE TRANSMISSION IN INSECTS SSNAIK TNAU
PHYSIOLOGY OF IMPULSE TRANSMISSION IN INSECTS SSNAIK TNAUPHYSIOLOGY OF IMPULSE TRANSMISSION IN INSECTS SSNAIK TNAU
PHYSIOLOGY OF IMPULSE TRANSMISSION IN INSECTS SSNAIK TNAU
Asst Prof SSNAIK ENTO PJTSAU
 
best ppt on principles of insect toxicology and evaluation of insecticide ...
   best ppt on principles of insect toxicology and evaluation of insecticide ...   best ppt on principles of insect toxicology and evaluation of insecticide ...
best ppt on principles of insect toxicology and evaluation of insecticide ...
Nagesh sadili
 
Lady Bird beetle [ Coccinella septempunctata)
Lady Bird beetle [ Coccinella septempunctata) Lady Bird beetle [ Coccinella septempunctata)
Lady Bird beetle [ Coccinella septempunctata)
Gent University
 
Biological control of pest
Biological control of pestBiological control of pest
Biological control of pest
ayan ali ali
 
Biological control by augmentation
Biological control by augmentationBiological control by augmentation
Biological control by augmentation
Devina Seram
 
Types of parasitoids and parasitism ppt
Types of parasitoids and parasitism pptTypes of parasitoids and parasitism ppt
Types of parasitoids and parasitism ppt
Nisha Nepoleon
 

What's hot (20)

Biological Control
Biological ControlBiological Control
Biological Control
 
Classical biological control
Classical biological controlClassical biological control
Classical biological control
 
Ecological engineering and biocontrol
Ecological engineering and biocontrolEcological engineering and biocontrol
Ecological engineering and biocontrol
 
ENTO 332_Lec No.15_Parasitoids and Predators.ppt
ENTO 332_Lec No.15_Parasitoids and Predators.pptENTO 332_Lec No.15_Parasitoids and Predators.ppt
ENTO 332_Lec No.15_Parasitoids and Predators.ppt
 
Economical basis of IPM - Economic Thresholds
Economical basis of IPM -  Economic ThresholdsEconomical basis of IPM -  Economic Thresholds
Economical basis of IPM - Economic Thresholds
 
Semiochem
Semiochem Semiochem
Semiochem
 
Economic importance of insect-pest , monitoring , survey & surveillance
Economic importance of insect-pest , monitoring , survey & surveillance Economic importance of insect-pest , monitoring , survey & surveillance
Economic importance of insect-pest , monitoring , survey & surveillance
 
Botanical insecticides
Botanical insecticidesBotanical insecticides
Botanical insecticides
 
Sterile insect-techniques
Sterile insect-techniquesSterile insect-techniques
Sterile insect-techniques
 
Biological control of pest
Biological control of pestBiological control of pest
Biological control of pest
 
Parasitoids and Predators, their attributes.
Parasitoids and Predators, their attributes.Parasitoids and Predators, their attributes.
Parasitoids and Predators, their attributes.
 
pest of pulses
pest of pulsespest of pulses
pest of pulses
 
Integrated pest management (ipm)
Integrated pest management (ipm)Integrated pest management (ipm)
Integrated pest management (ipm)
 
INSECT_GROWTH_REGULATORS.pptx
INSECT_GROWTH_REGULATORS.pptxINSECT_GROWTH_REGULATORS.pptx
INSECT_GROWTH_REGULATORS.pptx
 
PHYSIOLOGY OF IMPULSE TRANSMISSION IN INSECTS SSNAIK TNAU
PHYSIOLOGY OF IMPULSE TRANSMISSION IN INSECTS SSNAIK TNAUPHYSIOLOGY OF IMPULSE TRANSMISSION IN INSECTS SSNAIK TNAU
PHYSIOLOGY OF IMPULSE TRANSMISSION IN INSECTS SSNAIK TNAU
 
best ppt on principles of insect toxicology and evaluation of insecticide ...
   best ppt on principles of insect toxicology and evaluation of insecticide ...   best ppt on principles of insect toxicology and evaluation of insecticide ...
best ppt on principles of insect toxicology and evaluation of insecticide ...
 
Lady Bird beetle [ Coccinella septempunctata)
Lady Bird beetle [ Coccinella septempunctata) Lady Bird beetle [ Coccinella septempunctata)
Lady Bird beetle [ Coccinella septempunctata)
 
Biological control of pest
Biological control of pestBiological control of pest
Biological control of pest
 
Biological control by augmentation
Biological control by augmentationBiological control by augmentation
Biological control by augmentation
 
Types of parasitoids and parasitism ppt
Types of parasitoids and parasitism pptTypes of parasitoids and parasitism ppt
Types of parasitoids and parasitism ppt
 

Similar to Chemical control of insect pest in cultivation

Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food NotesPests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
guest0be4c31
 
Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food NotesPests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
guest0be4c31
 
Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food NotesPests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
guest0be4c31
 
Agriculture & pesticides
Agriculture & pesticidesAgriculture & pesticides
Agriculture & pesticides
Elisa
 
Chapter 5 - Pesticides.pdf
Chapter 5 - Pesticides.pdfChapter 5 - Pesticides.pdf
Chapter 5 - Pesticides.pdf
ShotosroyRoyTirtho
 
Pesticides (2)
Pesticides (2)Pesticides (2)
Pesticides (2)
Khalid Hussain
 
Pesticides
PesticidesPesticides
Pesticides
Ali Safaa97
 
Pests And Pest Control
Pests And Pest ControlPests And Pest Control
Pests And Pest Control
eplatt
 
Pesticide analysis
Pesticide analysis Pesticide analysis
Pesticide analysis
Manjusha Kondepudi
 
chemistry page1 .pdf
chemistry page1 .pdfchemistry page1 .pdf
chemistry page1 .pdf
BhurtelPrabin
 
pesticides ppt.pdf
pesticides ppt.pdfpesticides ppt.pdf
pesticides ppt.pdf
AKBoudh
 
Pesticides
PesticidesPesticides
Pesticides
Subhrangsu Dey
 
MICROBIAL INSECTIDES...USES AND APPLICATIONS OF INSECTICIDES
MICROBIAL INSECTIDES...USES AND APPLICATIONS OF INSECTICIDESMICROBIAL INSECTIDES...USES AND APPLICATIONS OF INSECTICIDES
MICROBIAL INSECTIDES...USES AND APPLICATIONS OF INSECTICIDES
lokismicrobiology
 
Pesticides AND THEIR USE
Pesticides AND THEIR USE Pesticides AND THEIR USE
Pesticides AND THEIR USE
kritikaRajawat
 
Apply chemical control measures
Apply chemical control measuresApply chemical control measures
Apply chemical control measures
RICHIEDLEGANDIN
 
CURRENT PESTICIDE HAZARDS IN AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN HEALTH; APPROACHES OF ORGA...
CURRENT PESTICIDE HAZARDS IN AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN HEALTH; APPROACHES OF ORGA...CURRENT PESTICIDE HAZARDS IN AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN HEALTH; APPROACHES OF ORGA...
CURRENT PESTICIDE HAZARDS IN AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN HEALTH; APPROACHES OF ORGA...
SUMAN TALUKDAR
 
Pesticides and herbicides.pptx
Pesticides and herbicides.pptxPesticides and herbicides.pptx
Pesticides and herbicides.pptx
Sakshi Patil
 
Effects of pesticides of humans
Effects of pesticides of humansEffects of pesticides of humans
Effects of pesticides of humans
Sanshil Mascarenhas
 
Pesticides and Biomagnification
Pesticides and BiomagnificationPesticides and Biomagnification
Pesticides and Biomagnification
OhMiss
 
Pesticides
PesticidesPesticides
Pesticides
Shailja Singh
 

Similar to Chemical control of insect pest in cultivation (20)

Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food NotesPests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
 
Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food NotesPests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
 
Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food NotesPests.Toxicology.Food Notes
Pests.Toxicology.Food Notes
 
Agriculture & pesticides
Agriculture & pesticidesAgriculture & pesticides
Agriculture & pesticides
 
Chapter 5 - Pesticides.pdf
Chapter 5 - Pesticides.pdfChapter 5 - Pesticides.pdf
Chapter 5 - Pesticides.pdf
 
Pesticides (2)
Pesticides (2)Pesticides (2)
Pesticides (2)
 
Pesticides
PesticidesPesticides
Pesticides
 
Pests And Pest Control
Pests And Pest ControlPests And Pest Control
Pests And Pest Control
 
Pesticide analysis
Pesticide analysis Pesticide analysis
Pesticide analysis
 
chemistry page1 .pdf
chemistry page1 .pdfchemistry page1 .pdf
chemistry page1 .pdf
 
pesticides ppt.pdf
pesticides ppt.pdfpesticides ppt.pdf
pesticides ppt.pdf
 
Pesticides
PesticidesPesticides
Pesticides
 
MICROBIAL INSECTIDES...USES AND APPLICATIONS OF INSECTICIDES
MICROBIAL INSECTIDES...USES AND APPLICATIONS OF INSECTICIDESMICROBIAL INSECTIDES...USES AND APPLICATIONS OF INSECTICIDES
MICROBIAL INSECTIDES...USES AND APPLICATIONS OF INSECTICIDES
 
Pesticides AND THEIR USE
Pesticides AND THEIR USE Pesticides AND THEIR USE
Pesticides AND THEIR USE
 
Apply chemical control measures
Apply chemical control measuresApply chemical control measures
Apply chemical control measures
 
CURRENT PESTICIDE HAZARDS IN AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN HEALTH; APPROACHES OF ORGA...
CURRENT PESTICIDE HAZARDS IN AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN HEALTH; APPROACHES OF ORGA...CURRENT PESTICIDE HAZARDS IN AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN HEALTH; APPROACHES OF ORGA...
CURRENT PESTICIDE HAZARDS IN AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN HEALTH; APPROACHES OF ORGA...
 
Pesticides and herbicides.pptx
Pesticides and herbicides.pptxPesticides and herbicides.pptx
Pesticides and herbicides.pptx
 
Effects of pesticides of humans
Effects of pesticides of humansEffects of pesticides of humans
Effects of pesticides of humans
 
Pesticides and Biomagnification
Pesticides and BiomagnificationPesticides and Biomagnification
Pesticides and Biomagnification
 
Pesticides
PesticidesPesticides
Pesticides
 

More from sobhagya tripathy

Convention on Biological Diversity.pptx
Convention on Biological Diversity.pptxConvention on Biological Diversity.pptx
Convention on Biological Diversity.pptx
sobhagya tripathy
 
PLANT PROPAGATING MATERIALS USED IN FOREST NURSERY.pptx
PLANT PROPAGATING MATERIALS USED IN FOREST NURSERY.pptxPLANT PROPAGATING MATERIALS USED IN FOREST NURSERY.pptx
PLANT PROPAGATING MATERIALS USED IN FOREST NURSERY.pptx
sobhagya tripathy
 
different Types of forest nursery
different Types of forest nurserydifferent Types of forest nursery
different Types of forest nursery
sobhagya tripathy
 
Problems in forest soil and their management
Problems in forest soil and their managementProblems in forest soil and their management
Problems in forest soil and their management
sobhagya tripathy
 
Role of primary nutrients in plants, their deficiency symptoms and remedial m...
Role of primary nutrients in plants, their deficiency symptoms and remedial m...Role of primary nutrients in plants, their deficiency symptoms and remedial m...
Role of primary nutrients in plants, their deficiency symptoms and remedial m...
sobhagya tripathy
 
SOIL HEALTH MANAGEMENT IN RICE BASED CROPPING SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT LAND TYPES ...
SOIL HEALTH MANAGEMENT IN RICE BASED CROPPING SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT LAND TYPES ...SOIL HEALTH MANAGEMENT IN RICE BASED CROPPING SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT LAND TYPES ...
SOIL HEALTH MANAGEMENT IN RICE BASED CROPPING SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT LAND TYPES ...
sobhagya tripathy
 
Secondary plant nutrients their detailed information, deficiency symptoms.
Secondary plant nutrients their detailed information, deficiency symptoms.Secondary plant nutrients their detailed information, deficiency symptoms.
Secondary plant nutrients their detailed information, deficiency symptoms.
sobhagya tripathy
 
PLANT Micro nutrient
PLANT Micro nutrientPLANT Micro nutrient
PLANT Micro nutrient
sobhagya tripathy
 
Essential plant nutrients
Essential plant nutrientsEssential plant nutrients
Essential plant nutrients
sobhagya tripathy
 
Application of biofertiliser in forest nursery
Application of biofertiliser in forest nurseryApplication of biofertiliser in forest nursery
Application of biofertiliser in forest nursery
sobhagya tripathy
 
CULTURAL CONTROL of insect pest
CULTURAL CONTROL of insect pestCULTURAL CONTROL of insect pest
CULTURAL CONTROL of insect pest
sobhagya tripathy
 
Biorational approach of insect pest control
Biorational approach of insect pest controlBiorational approach of insect pest control
Biorational approach of insect pest control
sobhagya tripathy
 
Citronella oil
Citronella oilCitronella oil
Citronella oil
sobhagya tripathy
 
Umbrella thorn (Acacia tortilis)
Umbrella thorn (Acacia tortilis)Umbrella thorn (Acacia tortilis)
Umbrella thorn (Acacia tortilis)
sobhagya tripathy
 
Siris (Albizia lebbeck)
Siris (Albizia lebbeck)Siris (Albizia lebbeck)
Siris (Albizia lebbeck)
sobhagya tripathy
 
Asparagus racemosus (SATHAVARI). TAXONOMY, MEDICINAL PROPERTIES, DOSAGES, CUL...
Asparagus racemosus (SATHAVARI). TAXONOMY, MEDICINAL PROPERTIES, DOSAGES, CUL...Asparagus racemosus (SATHAVARI). TAXONOMY, MEDICINAL PROPERTIES, DOSAGES, CUL...
Asparagus racemosus (SATHAVARI). TAXONOMY, MEDICINAL PROPERTIES, DOSAGES, CUL...
sobhagya tripathy
 
SOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF AGROFORESTRY IN ODISHA with case studies
SOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF AGROFORESTRY IN ODISHA with case studiesSOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF AGROFORESTRY IN ODISHA with case studies
SOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF AGROFORESTRY IN ODISHA with case studies
sobhagya tripathy
 
Albizia.lebbeck. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
Albizia.lebbeck. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...Albizia.lebbeck. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
Albizia.lebbeck. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
sobhagya tripathy
 
Acacia tortilis. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
Acacia tortilis. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...Acacia tortilis. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
Acacia tortilis. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
sobhagya tripathy
 
Assignment on personnel management
Assignment on personnel managementAssignment on personnel management
Assignment on personnel management
sobhagya tripathy
 

More from sobhagya tripathy (20)

Convention on Biological Diversity.pptx
Convention on Biological Diversity.pptxConvention on Biological Diversity.pptx
Convention on Biological Diversity.pptx
 
PLANT PROPAGATING MATERIALS USED IN FOREST NURSERY.pptx
PLANT PROPAGATING MATERIALS USED IN FOREST NURSERY.pptxPLANT PROPAGATING MATERIALS USED IN FOREST NURSERY.pptx
PLANT PROPAGATING MATERIALS USED IN FOREST NURSERY.pptx
 
different Types of forest nursery
different Types of forest nurserydifferent Types of forest nursery
different Types of forest nursery
 
Problems in forest soil and their management
Problems in forest soil and their managementProblems in forest soil and their management
Problems in forest soil and their management
 
Role of primary nutrients in plants, their deficiency symptoms and remedial m...
Role of primary nutrients in plants, their deficiency symptoms and remedial m...Role of primary nutrients in plants, their deficiency symptoms and remedial m...
Role of primary nutrients in plants, their deficiency symptoms and remedial m...
 
SOIL HEALTH MANAGEMENT IN RICE BASED CROPPING SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT LAND TYPES ...
SOIL HEALTH MANAGEMENT IN RICE BASED CROPPING SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT LAND TYPES ...SOIL HEALTH MANAGEMENT IN RICE BASED CROPPING SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT LAND TYPES ...
SOIL HEALTH MANAGEMENT IN RICE BASED CROPPING SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT LAND TYPES ...
 
Secondary plant nutrients their detailed information, deficiency symptoms.
Secondary plant nutrients their detailed information, deficiency symptoms.Secondary plant nutrients their detailed information, deficiency symptoms.
Secondary plant nutrients their detailed information, deficiency symptoms.
 
PLANT Micro nutrient
PLANT Micro nutrientPLANT Micro nutrient
PLANT Micro nutrient
 
Essential plant nutrients
Essential plant nutrientsEssential plant nutrients
Essential plant nutrients
 
Application of biofertiliser in forest nursery
Application of biofertiliser in forest nurseryApplication of biofertiliser in forest nursery
Application of biofertiliser in forest nursery
 
CULTURAL CONTROL of insect pest
CULTURAL CONTROL of insect pestCULTURAL CONTROL of insect pest
CULTURAL CONTROL of insect pest
 
Biorational approach of insect pest control
Biorational approach of insect pest controlBiorational approach of insect pest control
Biorational approach of insect pest control
 
Citronella oil
Citronella oilCitronella oil
Citronella oil
 
Umbrella thorn (Acacia tortilis)
Umbrella thorn (Acacia tortilis)Umbrella thorn (Acacia tortilis)
Umbrella thorn (Acacia tortilis)
 
Siris (Albizia lebbeck)
Siris (Albizia lebbeck)Siris (Albizia lebbeck)
Siris (Albizia lebbeck)
 
Asparagus racemosus (SATHAVARI). TAXONOMY, MEDICINAL PROPERTIES, DOSAGES, CUL...
Asparagus racemosus (SATHAVARI). TAXONOMY, MEDICINAL PROPERTIES, DOSAGES, CUL...Asparagus racemosus (SATHAVARI). TAXONOMY, MEDICINAL PROPERTIES, DOSAGES, CUL...
Asparagus racemosus (SATHAVARI). TAXONOMY, MEDICINAL PROPERTIES, DOSAGES, CUL...
 
SOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF AGROFORESTRY IN ODISHA with case studies
SOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF AGROFORESTRY IN ODISHA with case studiesSOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF AGROFORESTRY IN ODISHA with case studies
SOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF AGROFORESTRY IN ODISHA with case studies
 
Albizia.lebbeck. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
Albizia.lebbeck. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...Albizia.lebbeck. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
Albizia.lebbeck. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
 
Acacia tortilis. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
Acacia tortilis. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...Acacia tortilis. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
Acacia tortilis. Introdution, Distribution, phenology, Silvicultural characte...
 
Assignment on personnel management
Assignment on personnel managementAssignment on personnel management
Assignment on personnel management
 

Recently uploaded

How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfC# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional SkillsWebinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
EduSkills OECD
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
Niranjan Bapat
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
KlettWorldLanguages
 
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
AnneMarieJacildo
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
artenzmartenkai
 
Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
Elizabeth Walsh
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
Celine George
 
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptxPrinciples of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
ibtesaam huma
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
MJDuyan
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
PhngThLmHnh
 
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptxBRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
kambal1234567890
 
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUMENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
HappieMontevirgenCas
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
 
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 10pptx.pptx
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
 
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdfC# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
C# Interview Questions PDF By ScholarHat.pdf
 
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional SkillsWebinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
Webinar Innovative assessments for SOcial Emotional Skills
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
 
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
 
Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
Howe Writing Center - Orientation Summer 2024
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
 
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Line Discount in Odoo 17 POS
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
 
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptxPrinciples of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.docBài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
Bài tập bộ trợ anh 7 I learn smart world kì 1 năm học 2022 2023 unit 1.doc
 
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
 
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptxBRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
BRIGADA ESKWELA OPENING PROGRAM KICK OFF.pptx
 
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUMENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
ENGLISH-7-CURRICULUM MAP- MATATAG CURRICULUM
 

Chemical control of insect pest in cultivation

  • 1. CHEMICAL CONTROL OF PESTS Submitted To :- College of Forestry Odisha University of Agriculture & Technology
  • 2. Use of chemicals for pest control Pesticides: chemicals that kill pests or inhibit their development ◦ Insecticides: insects ◦ Herbicides: plants ◦ Rodenticides: rodents ◦ Avicides: birds Insect attractants, repellents and antifeedants affect the orientation of pests towards the host Chemosterilants, growth regulators etc. interfere with normal reproduction or development of pests
  • 3. How it began In 18th and 19th centuries, farmers used soup of plants toxic to insects, e.g. - chrysanthemum, tobacco etc. Later, toxic compounds were extracted and applied as liquid sprays, e.g. - nicotine, petroleum, turpentine, pyrethrum etc. Eventually organic compounds were replaced with inorganic compounds, e.g. - arsenic, lime, sulphur, strychnine, cyanide etc.
  • 4. Use of pesticides over time
  • 5. The DDT story Insecticidal properties of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were discovered during World War II Extremely toxic to insects, seemed nontoxic to mammals Cheap, broad spectrum, persistent Effective disease prevention, e.g. - typhus fever, malaria DDT is thought to biomagnify and hence was deemed harmful to the environment by the EPA and other organizations DDT is stored in the fat of animals and takes many years to break down By the 1960s, the value of DDT as an insecticide had decreased In the 1970s severe restrictions were imposed on use of DDT
  • 6. Biomagnification of DDT across the food chain
  • 7. Classification of pesticides Based on the origin and source of supply ◦ Inorganic pesticides: comprise compounds of mineral origin ◦ Organic pesticides: comprise compounds of organic material Based on the mode of entry ◦ Contact poisons: kill pests by coming in contact with the body ◦ Stomach poisons: act on the digestive system of the pest when ingested ◦ Fumigants: fumes gain entry to the body via respiration ◦ Systemic pesticides: capable of moving through vascular system of the plant irrespective of site of application
  • 8. Classification contd. Based on the mode of action ◦ Physical poisons: kill by exerting a physical effect ◦ Protoplasmic poisons: responsible for precipitation of protein destroying cellular protoplasm ◦ Respiratory poisons: block cellular respiration ◦ Nerve poisons: block Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and affect the nervous system ◦ Chitin inhibitors: interfere with process of synthesis of chitin ◦ General poisons: include neurotoxic symptoms after some period Based on toxicity ◦ Extremely toxic: Oral LD 50 – 1-50, Dermal LD 50 – 1-200 ◦ Highly toxic: Oral LD 50 – 51-500, Dermal LD 50 – 201-2000 ◦ Moderately toxic: Oral LD 50 – 501-5000, Dermal LD 50 – 2001-20,000 ◦ Less toxic: Oral LD 50 – >5000, Dermal LD 50 – >20,000
  • 9. Classification contd. Based on stage specificity ◦ Ovicides ◦ Larvicides ◦ Pupicides ◦ Adulticides Generation wise ◦ First generation: inorganics and botanicals ◦ Second generation: synthetic organics ◦ Third generation: recent chemicals for reproductive control, IGRs ◦ Fourth generation: synthetic pyrethroids ◦ Fifth generation: synthetic pyrethroids
  • 10. Formulations of pesticides Dusts (D) - ready to use insecticides in powder form Granules or Pelleted insecticides(G) - ready to use granular or pelleted form Wettable Powders (WP) - powder formulation which is to be diluted with water Emulsifiable Concentrates(EC) - clear solution which yields an emulsion of oil-in water type when diluted with water Soluble Powder or Water Soluble Powder (SP or WSP) – powder formulation readily soluble in water Suspension Concentrate (SC) - active ingredient is absorbed on to a filler which is then suspended in a liquid matrix Flowables (F) - active ingredient is insoluble in either water or organic solvents
  • 11. Formulations contd. Water Dispersible Granules (WDG) - appears as small pellets or granules Solutions - soluble in organic solvents which themselves possesses some insecticidal properties of their own Concentrated liquids - toxicant at highly concentrated level dissolved in non-volatile solvents Aerosels - toxicant suspended as minute particles of 0.1-30 microns in air as fog or mist Fumigants - volatile at ordinary temperature Microencapsulation - dry and liquid pesticide particles enclosed in tiny plastic capsules Mixtures - combinations of two or more insecticides in the right concentration Baits - active ingredient is mixed with edible substance
  • 12. Aerial application of pesticides covering a large area
  • 13. Attractants Chemical substances which cause orientation of pests towards the source of attractant Pheromones or ectohormones are released by insects which cause attraction towards individuals of same species Used as bait to attract pests to a particular place where they can be killed by application of pesticides May fail in unsuitable environments or less vapour concentration Suitable for evaluation of population density of pest in the particular field Geraniol & Eugenol acts as attractants for Japanese beetle
  • 14. Attractants can be used in insect traps to attract the insects into the trap and kill them
  • 15. Repellents Prevent pests by making their food or living conditions unattractive Physical repellents like waxes on leaf surface repel insects Auditory repellents like amplified sound producing devices used to repel mosquitoes Pentachlorophenol repels termites
  • 16. Antifeedants Make the plant distasteful to the pests Insect may die by feeding on plants having antifeedants Azadirachtin present on Neem plant is antifeedant for desert locust and other insects Bordeaux mixture acts as antifeedant for flea beetles and leaf hoppers
  • 18. Chemosterilants Cause reproductive sterility in insects Prevent cell division or obstruct normal embryonic development by ◦ Inhibiting ovarian growth and development ◦ Inducing changes in fundamental structure of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA Applied directly to the insect or incorporated into diet May also cause cancer, birth defects and other mutation in mammals Antimetabolites, triazines, antibiotics etc. are some examples of chemosterilants
  • 19. Insect Growth Regulators Inhibit the life cycle of an insect Target juvenile harmful insect populations while causing less detrimental effects to beneficial insects Do not affect an insect's nervous system unlike classic insecticides More compatible with pest management systems that use biological controls Insects are less likely to become resistant to IGRs IGRs prevent an insect from reaching maturity by interfering with the moulting process
  • 20. Process of moulting in insects involves shedding of exoskeleton
  • 21. Types of IGRs Hormonal IGRs ◦ Work by mimicking or inhibiting the juvenile hormone (JH) ◦ Can also inhibit the hormone ecdysone ◦ IGRs that mimic JH Can produce premature moulting of young immature stages or can also act on eggs, causing sterilization ◦ IGRs that inhibit JH production can cause insects to prematurely moult into a non- functional adult ◦ IGRs that inhibit ecdysone can cause pupal mortality by interrupting the transformation of larval tissues into adult tissues during the pupal stage Chitin synthesis inhibitors ◦ Work by preventing the formation of chitin, a carbohydrate needed to form the insect's exoskeleton ◦ Also kill eggs by disrupting normal embryonic development ◦ Affect insects for longer periods of time than hormonal IGRs
  • 22. Advantages & disadvantages of chemical pest control methods Advantages ◦ Less expensive and are readily available ◦ Very easy to use ◦ Deliver results instantly right after application Disadvantages ◦ May also harm the beneficial organisms ◦ May have adverse effects on the environment and human health ◦ The effects are mostly short-term ◦ Resurgences and secondary pest outbreaks are more likely to happen
  • 23. Population of resistant insects increasing over time
  • 24. The cycle of chemical pesticides Pest problems Use of chemical pesticides Resistance, resurgence, secondary outbreaks
  • 25. Negative effects of pesticides Human health effects ◦ Cancer, dermatitis, neurological disorder, birth defects, sterility, endocrine system disruption, immune system depression ◦ Agricultural workers suffer acute poisoning during pesticide application ◦ Aerial spraying and dumping bring pesticides in contact with families and children Environmental effects ◦ DDT led to the decline in populations of several bird species like Bald eagle and Peregrine falcon ◦ Bioaccumulation in an individual over time ◦ Biomagnification of chemicals pesticides
  • 26. Conclusion Chemical control methods are easier, quicker and more effective, but come with negative consequences In the current scenario, it is difficult to completely abandon the use of chemical control methods due to various factors like cost, ease of use etc. But we can try to lessen the use of chemical control methods by using other methods of pest control like ecological control, cultural control, biological control etc.