Veggie IPM


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What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Case Studies in IPM
Pest/disease Management

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  • Veggie IPM

    1. 1. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Vegetablesby Weston Miller<br />Weston Miller<br />
    2. 2. Preview of Presentation<br />IPM Process<br />Weed Management<br />IPM Case Studies<br />
    3. 3. Integrated Pest Management<br />A strategy to prevent and suppress pests with minimum impact on human health, the environment and non-target organisms.<br />Decision-making process that uses regular monitoring to decide if and when treatments are needed to control a pest, then uses a variety of tactics to keep pest numbers low.<br />
    4. 4. OSU’s IPM Mission<br />Encourage sustainable gardening<br />Identify and monitor before acting. <br />Consider management options<br />Cultural (healthy plants; sanitation)<br />Physical(hand picking)<br />Biological (Bt)<br />Chemical controls <br />(organic or synthetic).<br />Consider least toxic first!<br />
    5. 5. Some Considerations<br />Value of plant ($ and personal)<br />Time constraints<br />Cost of treatment<br />Toxicity of available controls<br />Personal gardening philosophy<br />
    6. 6. Management Principles of IPM<br />Prevention<br />Monitor the plants<br />Identify the pest organism <br />learn life cycle<br />Establish an acceptable injury level<br />Manage the situation<br />Cultural<br />Physical<br />Biological<br />Chemical<br />Record and Evaluate<br />
    7. 7. Cultural Control Methods<br />Grow healthy plants!<br />
    8. 8. Prevention<br />Take care of soil<br />Drainage<br />Right plant, right place<br />Choose adapted crops and varieties <br />Resistant varieties<br />
    9. 9. Prevention<br />Avoid over watering or under watering veggies. <br />Plan a watering schedule<br />Irrigate in the morning<br />Irrigate soil, not plants<br />Provide air flow.<br />
    10. 10. Attract Natural Enemies<br /><br />
    11. 11. Plant Many Companions<br />
    12. 12. Plant to Attract Beneficials<br />Mint family<br />Marigolds<br />Alyssum<br />Broccoli family<br />Carrot family<br />Sunflower family<br />Buckwheat<br />Phacelia<br />
    13. 13. Physical Control Methods<br />Are you willing to squash aphids? <br />
    14. 14. Handpicking <br />Squash ‘em or put in soapy water<br />
    15. 15. Row cover<br />(Cornell University)<br />
    16. 16. Water Jet<br />Aphids<br />Aphids<br />Spider mites<br />Spider mites<br />
    17. 17. Biological and Chemical Control Methods<br />For treatments that you buy:<br />Look for targeted treatments instead of wide spectrum treatments<br />Make sure crop and pest is listed on label<br />
    18. 18. Biological Control Methods<br />Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt<br />
    19. 19. B.t. kurstaki and caterpillars<br />
    20. 20. B.t. israelensis and fungus gnats<br />
    21. 21. B.t. san diego and elm leaf beetle<br />
    22. 22. B.t. israelensis and mosquitos<br />Dunk<br />
    23. 23. Beauvaria bassiana<br />
    24. 24. Spinosad<br />
    25. 25. Chemical Methods of Insect Control: Botanicals<br /><ul><li>Neem (azadirachtin)
    26. 26. Rotenone
    27. 27. Pyrethrins</li></ul>Derived from botanical sources<br />Biodegrade rapidly<br />Widely varying levels of toxicity<br />
    28. 28. Botanical insecticide: Neem<br />From seeds of the neem tree<br />Broad spectrum against many pests<br />Must be ingested to be toxic<br />Low mammalian toxicity<br />May require repeat applications<br />
    29. 29. With all purchased control products, please, please:<br /><ul><li>Buy only what you need
    30. 30. Read the product label
    31. 31. Understand the instructions
    32. 32. Follow safety precautions
    33. 33. Use common sense
    34. 34. Properly dispose of container</li></li></ul><li>Weed Management<br />Consistent weed control over five years or so can dramatically reduce the weed seed bank and the time needed to control weeds.<br />
    35. 35. No Weed Solution<br />
    36. 36. Weed Control<br />Many weeds are edible<br />Dandelion, pigweed, purslane, chickweed, cress, mustard, lambs-quarters<br />Sun choke<br />
    37. 37. Weed Control<br />Habitat for beneficials and pollinators<br />Parsley, aster, broccoli families<br />Let several plants flower and not seed<br />
    38. 38. Fodder for Compost<br />
    39. 39. Don’t let invasives go to seed!<br />Many weeds produce 1000 - 25,000 seeds/plant <br />Some produce 100,000 or more (pigweed)<br />Half-life of many common weeds is 2-8 years<br /><br />
    40. 40. Don’t bring in new weeds<br />Avoid bringing new weeds to the garden in horse manure, compost, or straw<br />Horse Manure must be hot composted. Request records.<br />
    41. 41. Mechanical Weeding<br />Use comfortable tools<br />Be diligent<br />Kill weeds when young (2-3 true leaves)<br />More effective when warm, dry, and windy<br />Control weeds early in crop growth – <br />when they can compete most with crops<br />
    42. 42. Mulching and Close spacing<br />
    43. 43. Transplants Get a Head Start<br />
    44. 44. Stale Seedbed Method<br />Plough or spade<br />Prepare seedbed<br />Irrigation or rain then wait 1-2 weeks<br />Light cultivation (or otherwise kill weeds)<br />Repeat if possible<br />Plant or sow seed<br />Good for July seed planting<br />
    45. 45. Mulch Considerations<br />Plastic mulch<br />Purchase<br />disposal <br />irrigation<br />Straw mulch<br />weed seeds<br />irrigation<br />nitrogen<br />
    46. 46. Coping with Perennial Weeds<br />Morning glory, quack grass, creeping buttercup, bent grass with rhizomes<br />
    47. 47. Cover Crops<br />
    48. 48. Are Your Veggies Sick?<br />Photo: Lindsay DuToit<br />
    49. 49. Most Plant Problems<br />Caused by non-living factors<br />Poor growing conditions<br />Temperature extremes<br />Poor water management<br />Soil compaction<br />Mechanical injury<br />Abiotic factors also make plants susceptible to pests / diseases.<br />
    50. 50. Non-Living (Abiotic) Causes<br />Weather: heat, cold, wind, water<br />Mechanical damage<br />Nutrient deficiencies or toxicities<br />Toxins: pesticides, soil or air pollutants<br />From<br />
    51. 51. Hail on my Kale<br />
    52. 52. Extreme Deformities (B)<br />Back to Basics:<br />
    53. 53.<br />
    54. 54. Living (Biotic) Causes<br />Vertebrate pests<br />Insects & mites<br />Nematodes<br />Fungi<br />Bacteria<br />Viruses<br />
    55. 55. Your Thinking Process<br />Understand problem (research!)<br /> Form tentative diagnosis (confirm)<br />Identify management options<br />Implement management practice<br />Monitor effects <br />Record observations<br />
    56. 56. PATTERNS OF <br />DAMAGE<br />In the field and on the leaf<br />Damage that spreads is from a living cause, however, nutrient deficiency symptoms can worsen over time<br />Uniform <br />=> Nonliving<br />Nonuniform <br />=> Living<br />
    57. 57. Diagnosing Plant Problems<br />Symptom<br />Change in the plant, ie. yellowing, holes in leaves, wilting, dead tissue, etc.<br />Sign<br />The organism that’s causing the damage, ie. insect, mold, frass, etc.<br />
    58. 58. Tomato- Abiotic<br />Blossom-end rot<br /><ul><li>Ca deficiency in fruit
    59. 59. Ensure adequate moisture especially on small fruit
    60. 60. Check soil Ca level amend with lime in fall</li></ul>Sunscald<br />
    61. 61. Damping Off Disease<br /><ul><li>Soil temperatures too cold
    62. 62. Use sterile potting supplies
    63. 63. Buy disease resistant seeds
    64. 64. Wait!</li></li></ul><li>Slugs ‘N Snails<br />Gray field slug<br />Spotted garden slug<br />Reticulated Slug<br />Brown Garden Snail<br />
    65. 65. Slugs n’ Snails<br />What do they need to live?<br />Encourage predators<br />Birds, snakes, <br />ground beetles<br />Eliminate habitat<br />Beer and board traps<br />Chemical (baits)<br />Iron phosphate<br />metaldahyde<br />
    66. 66. Scissors<br />
    67. 67. Vertebrates<br />Song Birds<br />Violet-green swallow<br />
    68. 68. Common Garter Snake<br />                                     © David Rosen<br />Toad<br />Pacific Chorus Frog © David Rosen<br />
    69. 69. Domestic Ducks<br />
    70. 70. Trapping Slugs and Snails<br />
    71. 71. Slugs- Chemical Control<br />(O) Iron phosphate (slower acting)<br />Metaldehyde (danger)<br />Toxic to pets<br />
    72. 72. Copper Strips?<br />
    73. 73. Diatomaceous Earth<br />For Slugs ‘n snails<br />Repeat applications<br />Effective?<br />
    74. 74. Aphids<br />Signs and Symptoms?<br />
    75. 75. Case Study- Aphids<br />Cabbage aphids<br />Monitor plants<br />Identify pest and life cycle<br />Multiple generations/ year,<br />Parthenogenic<br />Honeydew and sooty mold<br />
    76. 76. Acceptable Injury Level<br />For gardeners, <br />tolerence will differ between individuals.<br />
    77. 77. Aphids<br />Beans, cabbage, artichoke<br />Cultural<br />Avoid excess N<br />Physical<br />Washing w/ water<br />Biological<br />Attract beneficials (plan!)<br />Release beneficials?<br />Chemical<br />Neem, insecticidal soap (O)<br />Endosulfan, malathion<br />
    78. 78. Flea Beetle<br />
    79. 79. Crop Damage:<br />Severe in hot, dry weather<br />Young plants susceptible<br />after 6-8 leaves plants compensate for damage<br />Larvae may damage root brassicas<br />Broccoli, cabbage, etc.<br />
    80. 80. Flea beetles - Biology and life history <br />Most flea beetle species have similar life cycles.<br />Adults overwinter in trash around field margins. <br />They become active in late March through May. <br />Flea beetles lay their very small eggs in May in the soil around the plant, on the leaves, or in cavities hollowed out in stems. <br />The larvae feed on the foliage, mine the leaves, or attack the roots, depending on the species, <br />usually from June to mid-July, when pupation in the soil occurs. Next generation of Adults emerge from July through early September and feed a short time before overwintering in trash around field margins. <br />Depending on the species, there are one or two generations each year. <br />Courtesy of Dave Muehleisen WSU<br />
    81. 81. Flea Beetle Control<br />Cultural Physical<br />Waxy leaved varieties more tolerant<br />Delayed seeding<br />Use transplants and rowcovers<br />Trap crops<br />Biological<br />nematodes (larvae only)<br />soil must be warmer than 53°F<br />Chemical- all broad spectrum<br />pyrethrins (O)<br />malathion<br />carbaryl<br />esfenvalerate<br />
    82. 82. Leaf Miners<br />
    83. 83. Beet Leaf Miner<br />Cultural<br />Control weeds- Lamb’s quarters<br />Destroy infected material<br />Crop rotation- Pupa over winter in soil<br />Row covers during April and May<br />Biological- attract natural enemies<br />Chemical- <br />(O) rotenone (mix with pyrethrins)<br />(O) spinosid<br />Neither if grown for greens<br />
    84. 84. Row cover<br />(Cornell University)<br />
    85. 85. Principles of IPM<br />Prevention<br />Monitor the plants<br />Identify the pest organism <br />learn life cycle<br />Establish an acceptable injury level<br />Manage the situation<br />Cultural<br />Physical<br />Biological<br />Chemical (organic and synthesized)<br />Evaluation<br />
    86. 86. Review of Presentation<br />IPM Process<br />IPM Case Studies<br />Physical Means<br />Conservation Biological Approach<br />Some Products <br />