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Integrated Pest Managment


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Planning an Insect Pest Management System from the ground up with examples from Organic Research

Published in: Food
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Integrated Pest Managment

  1. 1. Planning an Insect Pest Management System from the Ground Up (with examples from organic research) Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, FiBL, Switzerland Geoff Zehnder, Sustainable Agriculture Program, Clemson University
  2. 2. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Integrated pest management (IPM) is a pest control strategy that uses a variety of complementary strategies including: biological and cultural management, mechanical and physical controls, and genetic and pesticides when needed (source: Wikipedia). Interesting fact: For their leadership in developing and spreading IPM worldwide, Dr. Perry Adkisson (Texas A&M) and Dr. Ray Smith (UC Berkeley) received the 1997 World Food Prize.
  3. 3. Integrated Pest Management Concept developed in the 1950s Early proponents emphasized ecological approaches for more permanent solutions Conventional agriculture Reactive approaches dominate Pesticides are relatively cheap (ecological and societal costs not factored) “IPM Continuum” culminates in biologically based strategies
  4. 4. Organic Pest Management: Emphasizes Preventative Practices
  5. 5. 1st Phase Strategies (Foundation of Organic Pest Management) Cultural practices implemented in the initial stages of organic farm planning Prevent and avoid problems beforehand Have roots in traditional agriculture
  6. 6. Strategies Underlying 1st Phase Practices Strategy Example Make crop unavailable to pests in space/time Site selection, crop isolation, timing of planting/harvest, etc Make crop unacceptable to pests Intercropping, trap cropping, mulching Reduce pest survival by enhancing natural enemies Increase crop ecosystem diversity; farmscaping Alter crop susceptibility to pests Host plant resistance/tolerance; soil quality, fertility
  7. 7. Farm Site Selection Pest management not usually most important consideration, but Many organic farms are located in regions where climate is unfavorable for pest outbreaks Example: plum curculio In general, higher, cooler and dryer regions support fewer insect pests
  8. 8. Crop Isolation/Rotation Most effective against pests that disperse short distances and/or that overwinter near host crop fields. Carrot fly Colorado potato beetle Onion maggot Learn about key pest (insect and disease) host range and biology/behavior to help with crop rotation plan
  9. 9. Woody Borders Modeling studies indicate that woody field borders influence insect pest populations: Habitat for natural enemies Can inhibit movement of pests into fields
  10. 10. Isolation of Susceptible Crops In Space or Time Insect transmitted virus diseases Depending on the virus/vector, new crops should be isolated from sources of inoculum (infested fields, weed hosts, etc)
  11. 11. Rotation with Cover Crops Beneficial, but be aware of secondary effects Allelopathy; may suppress crop growth Examples; barley, oat, wheat, rye, canola, mustards, fescues, May harbor secondary pests i.e. wireworms attracted to grass cover crops
  12. 12. Rotation with Biofumigation Crops Brassica crops (mustards, rape, etc.) Plant defense compounds Glucosinolates converted to isothiocyanates Soil concentrations high enough to kill pathogens, weed seeds, soil insects
  13. 13. Soil Quality Management Does it affect above-ground pest damage?
  14. 14. Organic farming proponents have long held the view that the likelihood of pest outbreaks is reduced in “healthy soil” Sir Albert Howard. 1940. RC Oelhaf. 1978 MC Merrill. 1983 •Belowground and aboveground habitat management is equally important •Plant resistance is linked to optimal physical, chemical and biological properties of soil Miguel Altieri (UC Berkeley)
  15. 15. European Corn Borer Infestation Reduced on Plants Grown in Organic Soils Compared egg-laying on plants grown in soil from organic vs conventional farms Significantly more ECB eggs laid on plants in conventional soil Egg-laying was more variable on plants in conventional soils. Variability in egg-laying affected by plant mineral balance Hypothesis: biological buffering in org. soils Research by Dr. Larry Phelan; Ohio State University
  16. 16. Reduced development of Colorado potato beetle on potato grown in organic soil Research by Alyokhin & Atlihan, 2005
  17. 17. Mulch: an IPM tool Can help reduce problems with: Colorado potato beetle Aphid and thrips transmitted viruses May exacerbate some insect problems Squash bug Planthopper
  18. 18. Melon-Virus Experiments Cover crop as camouflage Annual rye planted between rows in late fall Virus incidence lower in cover crop treatments Reflective mulch also reduced virus incidence 0 50 100 2003 2004 Cover No Cover % Plants Infected with WMV
  19. 19. Conservation tillage Favors rich soil biota Greater abundance and diversity of soil microbes in conservation tillage Favors greater numbers of predatory arthropods (spiders, beetles)
  20. 20. Host Plant Resistance Resistance vs. Tolerance Limited application for control of insect pests in conventional agriculture Efficacy of synthetic insecticides Low tolerance for cosmetic damage Partial plant resistance not acceptable Whitefly Damage: Hairy vs. Smooth Leaf Cotton Corn Earworm: Can’t easily penetrate tight husk varietie
  21. 21. `Prince Hairy’ Potato From Cornell Breeding Program
  22. 22. Moderate HPR is preferable in sustainable/organic systems Low-level pest densities support natural enemy populations Manipulate planting and harvest dates for optimum effect Demand may provide commercial incentives for seed companies to expand screening programs
  23. 23. Second Phase Strategies Vegetation Management Make habitat less suitable for pests; attractive to natural enemies Terms include: Habitat enhancement Farmscaping Ecological Engineering Conservation biological control Intercropping Trap Cropping
  24. 24. Plant Diversification Provides food and shelter for natural enemies (predators and parasites) Favorable microclimate Alternative hosts or prey Supply of nectar and pollen Enhances “top-down” action of natural enemies on pests.
  25. 25. Beetle Banks Island Habitats on Farms Permanently vegetated raised strips across fields (grasses, perennials). Refuge for Predatory beetles Spiders Birds Small mammals Primarily used in large fields (cereal, row crops) Winter home for > 1000 predatory invertebrates per square meter (Thomas et al. 1992)
  26. 26. Conservation Strips Mixture of forbs and grasses Combines “beetle bank” and “insectary strip” concepts Increases rates of predation Management of weed strips can be used in this context
  27. 27. Int’l. Organic Research Institute in Switzerland
  28. 28. Flowering Insectary Strips Provides pollen and nectar Attracts and keeps natural enemies in area `Provisioned’ natural enemies have increased longevity, fecundity
  29. 29. Evaluation of Wildflower Strips to Enhance Biocontrol in Cabbage Pfiffner et al. 2003 Treatments Strips adjacent Strips 10-90 meters Cabbage with no strips Higher rate of parasitism next to strips Parasitism increased with proximity to strips Scale/size of strips relative to crops important
  30. 30. Chocolate-box Ecology? Flowering plants added without prior testing Parasitic wasps visit an ave. of only 2.9 plant species Researchers now screen plants for optimal species Farmers collect info on key pests, natural enemies to design effective farmscapes
  31. 31. Intercropping `Resource concentration’ hypothesis (Root 1973) Concentrated areas of host plants are easier for insect pests to find and colonize Interferes with pests in a `bottom-up’ manner
  32. 32. Trap Cropping Attractiveness and relative size in the landscape are key factors Examples: Blue Hubbard around summer squash; Pumpkins around melons (cuc. beetle) Cherry peppers around bell pepper (pepper maggot) Collards around cabbage (DBM) Top; Sam Pair, USDA-ARS, Lane, OK
  33. 33. Third Phase Strategies Release of Biological Control Agents Predators, parasitoids Microbial agents Selectivity Allow for rapid response to pest problems Most research in greenhouse systems
  34. 34. Biocontrol Agent Success in Commercial Greenhouses Predatory Mites & Orius spp.
  35. 35. Release of Biocontrol Agents in Field-Grown Organic Crops Experimental Successes Parasitoids caterpillars in vegetables, aphids in wheat, leafhopper in vineyards Mite, ladybug and lacewing predators spider mites, aphids and leafhoppers in vineyards and apple orchards
  36. 36. Release of Biocontrol Agents in Field-Grown Organic Crops Experimental Failures Cherry fruit fly on sweet cherry Grape mealybug on grape Incompatible life histories of pest and biocontrol agent, or disruption of agents by other natural enemies
  37. 37. Biocontrol Landmark Bacillus thuringiensis 1901; Silkworm “sudden collapse” disease 1911: Named by Ernst Berliner (Thuringia) Farmer use in 1920s France; Sporine EPA registration in 1961 Thousands of strains active against caterpillars, beetles, flies Toxin attacks gut cells Bt spore crystals; Courtesy of Rosemary Walsh, EMF-LSC, Penn State
  38. 38. Biocontrol Landmark Codling Moth Granulosis Virus Isolated from codling moth in 1963 Europe 1979: Apple Biological Control Program Three commercial formulations; widely used U.S. Two commercial formulations; little use
  39. 39. Of Less Importance Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes
  40. 40. Why is Use of Biological Control Agents Limited? Commercial development restricted only to those with potential market for large acreage crops Many effective agents for less important pests never pass beyond developmental stage Mass rearing techniques Small companies; limited technology Suboptimal quality in past but improving But used regularly in organic farming Research needed on how to integrate use of biocontrol agents with other strategies
  41. 41. 4th Phase Strategies Insecticides of biological, mineral origin Pheromones Repellents Mineral oils, insecticidal soaps Non-synthetic origin (except pheromones)
  42. 42. Organic Insect Control Products Current Trends in Organic Farming Reduced pyrethrin use; non-target effects Azadirachtin (neem) use is increasing Successful experiments against several pests including aphids and some chewing insects Spinosad one of few new approved materials Fermentation product of bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa Successfully tested worldwide against a variety of pests/crops
  43. 43. Quassia Extract (bitter wood) Quassia amara Many active compunds; alkaloids, triterpenes and bitter principles (quassin) 50X more bitter than quinine; herbal remedy Used mostly in Europe: Mosquito larvacide To control aphids in cereal crops To control wooly apple aphid in tree fruit
  44. 44. Kaolin Clay Surround WP™ Used as a repellent; alters feeding, oviposition behavior of insect pests Most use in tree fruit, grapes
  45. 45. Specialized Application Dropleg application of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against lepidopterans in leek. The application from top and bottom increases efficacy of Bt applications. Photo: Eric Wyss, FiBL
  46. 46. Limits of OMRI-Approved Insecticides, etc Degrade quickly; low potency; short residual activity Must integrate with other strategies More research needed Develop treatment thresholds for organic systems where natural enemies are prevalent Commercial development EPA; fast-track registration Limited by markets
  47. 47. Organic Insect Pest Management: Future Directions Integration of tactics; i.e. 2nd and 3rd phase strategies; Example: Pest: Brown apple moth Egg parasite: Longevity and survival enhanced by nectar plants
  48. 48. Attract & Kill Products mix pest attractants (pheromones) with insecticide
  49. 49. Attract & Reward Attract (4th phase) Lures with synthetic plant volatiles Attract beneficial insects Reward (2nd phase) Pollen, nectar plants Enhance level of pest control
  50. 50. Valuing Ecosystem Services “Ecosystem services are the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life (Daily 1997).” The value of global Ecosystem Services estimated at $33 trillion (Costanza et al., 1997).
  51. 51. Dr. H.S. Sandhu Lincoln University, New Zealand 1. Assessing the predation rate of aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) 2. Assessing the predation rates of blow fly eggs (Calliphora vicina R.D.) simulating carrot rust fly eggs (Psila rosae Fab.)
  52. 52. Experimental assessment of ES in arable fields 29 Study Sites (14 Organic and 15 Conventional fields) (a) (b) Fig. (a) Map of New Zealand study area (Canterbury). (b) Location of selected arable organic ( ) and conventional fields ( ) N Ashburton Rakaia river Leeston Lincoln
  53. 53. Predation rates of aphids and fly eggs in selected arable fields Fig. Predation rates (%removal/24h) of aphids and fly eggs in selected fields
  54. 54. Ground living polyphagous predators: Are they any value? Dollar value of biological control of aphids in selected organic fields
  55. 55. More Information More information on insect management for organic farms can be found at: • • •
  56. 56. Acknowledgements This presentation address general organic production practices. It is to be to use in planning and conducting organic horticulture trainings. The presentation is part of project funded by a Southern SARE PDP titled “Building Organic Agriculture Extension Training Capacity in the Southeast” Project Collaborators •Elena Garcia, University of Arkansas CES Heather Friedrich, University of Arkansas Obadiah Njue, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff Jeanine Davis, North Carolina State University Geoff Zehnder, Clemson University Charles Mitchell, Auburn University Rufina Ward, Alabama A&M University Ken Ward, Alabama A&M University Karen Wynne, Alabama Sustainable Agriculture Network