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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION The public are often concerned about the use of pesticides and not always presented with a balanced view. It is important to be able to provide reassurance about research and safety aspects and to remind ourselves of the need to keep pests under control.
  2. 2. What is a pest ? • A pest is any living organism which competes with human, domestic animals or desirable plants for food or water. • At the same time they spread diseases to mankind and harms the environment.
  3. 3. What is Pest control? • Pest control refers to the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, usually because it is perceived to be detrimental to a person’s health, the ecology or the economy.
  4. 4. Types of pests • Insects • Arthropods • Microbial organism • Weeds • Mollusks • Cockroach, termites, beetles &flies • Spiders • Bacteria • Any plant growing where they are unwanted • Snails ,slugs &ship worms
  5. 5. Why to control pests? 1. For clean environment. 2. Disease free environment. 3. To stop the rapid growth of pests.
  6. 6. Control methods Need to determine: • What mix of pest are present? • What attracts the pest? • What are the particular habits of the pest? • What are the most effective control measures to control or eliminate the pest?
  7. 7. Methods for pest control There are mainly five methods for pest cotrol • Mechanical methods for pest control • Biological methods for pest control • Environmental method for pest control • Agricultural method for pest control • Chemical method for pest control
  8. 8. Mechanical methods • Hand picking:- Method of choice when pests are slowly crawling and are not able to fly. Eg;caterpillars • Trapping:- Is used for flying pests which cant be picked by hand or burned. • Burning :- Is used for flying pests which cant be picked by hand and can cause damage.pests are burned and waste is removed frequently
  9. 9. Biological methods • This method is applicable for removal of animal depend on the following considerations: Animals and insects which feed upon smaller forms  Hawk, owl, eagle and cats etc  Insects having small life span parasitize bigger  Some flies lay eggs on larvae of the crop which cause damage. They attack slowly moving larvae. After few days when eggs are hatched, small larvae appear and consume the body tissue of the crop larvae. Hence death of pest occurs
  10. 10. Environmental methods • The surrounding of the pest is changed in such a way it becomes unfavorable for its growth. • It can be achieved by removing food stuff needed for the growth of the pest of draining swamps. Eg; mosquito control
  11. 11. Agricultural methods • Involves cultivation of such crops which are resistant to pests. • It may be achieved using biotechnology and genetic engineering. • Another method for removal is crop rotation.
  12. 12. Chemical methods • In this method, certain chemicals are used for controlling pests. Eg: • Rodenticides • Insecticides • Herbicides • Fungicides
  13. 13. Effective pest control • An effective pest control program includes: • Exclusion of pest • Removing food source by good practice • Controlling pests with appropriate methods • Specific procedures/records
  14. 14. Pest exclusion • Keep door closed / tight fitting a) Minimize gaps b) Use door seal/self closer • Keep windows screened /closed • Screen air inlets /exhaust openings • Use air curtains/strip curtains • Netting/ eliminate perches for birds
  15. 15. Rodent control • Use of bait station/ traps most common • Place traps inside production areas a) Sticky pads for small rodents b) Check & empty weekly(min.) • Bait stations in non-food areas a) Use approved baits only b) Place in secured station
  16. 16. Bird control • Eliminate roots or nesting sites • Minimize food sources outside of bldngs  Landscape plants can be attractive  Garbage • Use netting or screens under eaves or structures open to outside
  17. 17. Insect control • Physical i. UV light attracts insects ii. Mount at right height /location iii. Charged electric grids kill insects iv. Sticky pads hold insects after impact • chemical i. Handle pesticides with care ii. Use only approved chemicals iii. Don’t contaminate food iv. Use correct methods to target pest
  18. 18. Pest management • Pest management is a process can use to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment. • Pest management can be used to manage all kinds of pests anywhere—in urban, agricultural, and wildland or natural areas.
  19. 19. Preventive measures • Seal cracks and holes on the outside of the home including entry points for utilities and pipes. • Keep tree branches and shrubbery well trimmed and away from the house. • Keep basements, attics, and crawl spaces well ventilated and dry. • Store garbage in sealed containers and dispose of it regularly.
  20. 20. Dealing with resistance Wrong approach: • Raised concentrations of active ingredients! • Increased frequency of application! Correct approach • Reduce reliance on chemicals. • Alternation of chemicals. • Targeted insecticide application.
  21. 21. Conclusion Given the inherent risk associated with pesticide exposure, particularly for children, programs, policies and other efforts that reduce pesticide use and exposure are warranted. School across the country are seeing the benefits of implementing safer pest management practices that do not rely on hazardous pesticides.
  22. 22. References • Charles j . Krebs, 2001 . Ecology . American publishers • David pimentel, 1991 .handbook of pest management in Agriculture. CRC press • F. Moriarty, 1983. Ecotoxicology. englad enterprises • Rachel carson, 1962. silent spring. Houghton mifflin • .com