FYN Principle #6 - Control Yard Pests Responsibly


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FYN Principle #6:
Right Plant, Right Place

Rebecca McNair & Allison Steele
Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program

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  • FYN Principle #6 - Control Yard Pests Responsibly

    1. 1. Control Yard Pests Responsibly Introduction Pests Define Identify Integrated Pest Management Prevention Cultural Biological Chemical Physical Attracting Beneficials Author: Rebecca McNair Edited By: Allison Steele
    2. 2. Cycle of Pesticide Dependency <ul><li>Many chemical pesticides are broad spectrum, killing not only target pests but also beneficial organisms that serve as natural pest control systems. </li></ul><ul><li> NO natural controls </li></ul>Indiscriminate mortality- pests and beneficials Dependence on chemical pesticides
    3. 3.                             In the days following a pesticide treatment, pests reproduce faster than predatory insects. By killing off beneficial insects, pest populations flourish. After Thomas Weissling
    4. 4. Tolerance <ul><li>Some damage to plants is natural. Don’t strive for a pest free yard; instead, decide on a realistic threshold of damage. </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is a Pest, really? <ul><li>Pest - plant, animal, or other organism that is out of place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diseases, Weeds, Insects, Reptiles, Mammals, Arthropods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of all insect species in the world, less than 1 % are considered pests </li></ul></ul>Am I a Pest? This depends on where I am feeding, in the yard or the butterfly garden.
    6. 6. Scale Aphids Mealybugs Whiteflies
    7. 7. Spider mites Nematodes Thrips
    8. 8. Plant Diseases <ul><li>Disease occurs when an agent impairs the necessary functions of a plant </li></ul>Plant Environment Pathogen
    9. 9. Leaf Spots <ul><li>Algal, bacterial or fungal pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Enters through injured tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Spread by splashing water, and insects </li></ul>
    10. 10. Root Rot <ul><li>Poor growth, thinning canopy </li></ul><ul><li>Yellowing and leaf drop </li></ul><ul><li>Branch or plant death </li></ul><ul><li>Roots dark and rotted, strip off easily </li></ul><ul><li>Due to excessive soil moisture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-watering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planting too deep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow rooting </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Environmental Stresses <ul><li>Drought </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in pH </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical damage </li></ul><ul><li>Cold damage </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive water or fertilizer </li></ul>Many environmental effects are mistakenly treated as pest problems. Herbicides injured this tomato plant.
    12. 12. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) <ul><li>IPM is the coordinated use of pest and environmental information and available pest control methods </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by the most economical means </li></ul><ul><li>With the least possible hazard to people, property and the environment </li></ul>
    13. 13. Principles of IPM <ul><li>Sustainable </li></ul><ul><li> Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Methods </li></ul><ul><li> Physical Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Methods </li></ul>After Dr. Norman Leppla -using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged
    14. 14. Prevention <ul><li>Our most sustainable pest control method involves avoiding the introduction of pests (into our country, state or yard). </li></ul><ul><li>Buy pest-free plants </li></ul><ul><li>Select plants adapted to your yard </li></ul><ul><li>Select resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid notoriously problematic plants </li></ul><ul><li>Properly install and maintain plants </li></ul>
    15. 15. Key Plant, Key Pest Some key plants are likely to be infested by key pests. For example, Azaleas are commonly infested by lacebugs, particularly if the azalea is planted in a sunny location.
    16. 16. Scouting <ul><li>Monitor plants routinely to aid in early detection of an insect, disease, or other problem. Look for: </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable conditions for pests </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms of pests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaf spot, leaf curl, feeding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frass- insect excretions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presence of natural enemies </li></ul>
    17. 17. Cultural Practices <ul><li>We can also avoid problems with insects and diseases through proper design, installation, and maintenance. </li></ul>Stressed plants are more susceptible to attack, like the Chinese Elm with crowded roots shown here.
    18. 18. Water Wisely <ul><li>Water during the early morning, when leaves are already wet </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid overhead irrigation of woody ornamentals </li></ul>Many foliar diseases gain entry into plants through the water remaining on leaves.
    19. 19. Biological Control <ul><li>The use of living organisms to control pests </li></ul>Lady beetles and their larvae feed on aphids and other soft bodied insects. They are commercially available in bulk. <ul><li>Predators </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogens </li></ul>
    20. 20. Attract Beneficial Insects by: <ul><li>Not using harmful pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Providing food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nectar and pollen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Providing shelter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance vertical layers </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Food for Thought <ul><li>Many herbs and fragrant flowering plants attract natural enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Gaillardia </li></ul><ul><li>Milkweeds </li></ul><ul><li>Goldenrod </li></ul><ul><li>Echinacea </li></ul><ul><li>Sunflower </li></ul><ul><li>Clover </li></ul><ul><li>Cilantro </li></ul><ul><li>Dill </li></ul><ul><li>Fennel </li></ul><ul><li>Mustards </li></ul>Clover also fixes atmospheric nitrogen into a form available to other plants.
    22. 22. As A Last Resort…. <ul><li>Sometimes, major pest damage reaches a level that is unacceptable to the observer. When all previous management efforts have been ineffective, individuals may wish to apply: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical methods </li></ul>These are the least sustainable methods discussed because they are labor intensive, and often require repeated treatments. <ul><li>Chemical methods </li></ul>
    23. 23. Physical Management <ul><li>Remove pests by hand </li></ul><ul><li>Remove infested parts </li></ul><ul><li>Establish barriers to prevent pest access to plants </li></ul>Yellow sticky paper attracts whiteflies and other insects. These traps help to monitor pest populations in greenhouses.
    24. 24. Chemicals <ul><li>Choose least harmful pesticides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use selective pesticides rather than broad spectrum killers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spot treat where pests are abundant, rather than the entire yard </li></ul><ul><li>Horticultural oils </li></ul><ul><li>Follow pesticide label instructions carefully </li></ul>
    25. 25. Management Strategies <ul><li>“ Sap Suckers”- (aphids, soft scales, mealybugs, whiteflies, spider mites) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soaps and oils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caterpillars- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant Chewers- (grasshoppers, beetles, leaf miners) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a proper insecticide if damage warrants action </li></ul></ul>Insect
    26. 26. Management Strategies <ul><li>Leaf Spots- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid overhead irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve air circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitize- remove infected plant parts to avoid reinfection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stem Cankers/ Stem rots- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change watering and pruning practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Root rots- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change watering practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove infected plant and roots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wilt- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove infected plant </li></ul></ul>Disease
    27. 27. For More Information on <ul><li>Visit: http://biocontrol.ifas.ufl.edu </li></ul><ul><li>Features: Newsletters, presentations, news releases, photo galleries, tutorials, videos, training, publications, diagnostic clinic, listserv, links and more! </li></ul>
    28. 28. Further Reading http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu <ul><li>ENY 298 Landscape Integrated Pest Management </li></ul><ul><li>ENY-276 Beneficial Insects and Mites </li></ul><ul><li>CIR 642 Homeowners' Guide to Pesticide Safety </li></ul><ul><li>ENY 292 What’s Bugging Me </li></ul><ul><li>WEC-20 Dealing with Unwanted Wildlife in an Urban Environment </li></ul><ul><li>PDMG-V1-01 Characteristics of Plant Disease </li></ul>