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1
“The use of living organisms to suppress the
population of a specific pest organism, making
it less abundant or less damag...
 Natural enemies are living organisms that:
 Kill pests
 Decrease pest reproductive potential
 Compete with pest organ...
1) Predators
2) Parasites
3) Pathogens
 Sterilization
4
 There are three basic types of biological pest
control strategies:
 importation (sometimes called classical
biological ...
 Classical biological control is long lasting and
inexpensive. Other than the initial costs of collection,
importation, a...
 Augmentation involves the supplemental
release of natural enemies, boosting the
naturally occurring population.
7
 enhance conditions for existing natural
enemy survival and reproduction.
8
9
 Predators
 Predators are mainly free-living species that
directly consume a large number
of prey during their whole l...
Lady bird beetle
(ladybug)
Larva
eating
aphids
 Parasitoids lay their eggs on or in the body of
an insect host, which is then used as a food
for developing larvae. The ...
12
13
14
 Pathogenic micro-organisms
include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill
or debilitate their host and are relatively
h...
16
Insect Mummy covered with Fungal
Spores
Infected Larva
Viral fluid
17
 high level of control at low cost
 self-perpetuating at little cost after initial effort
 very few harmful effects on ...
• Not effective against Direct Pests
 where any damage is unacceptable
• Some level of damage occurs and must
be acceptab...
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Biological control of pest

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Biological control of pest

  1. 1. . 1
  2. 2. “The use of living organisms to suppress the population of a specific pest organism, making it less abundant or less damaging than it would otherwise be” 2
  3. 3.  Natural enemies are living organisms that:  Kill pests  Decrease pest reproductive potential  Compete with pest organisms for use of your plants. 3
  4. 4. 1) Predators 2) Parasites 3) Pathogens  Sterilization 4
  5. 5.  There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies:  importation (sometimes called classical biological control),  augmentation and conservation.  Importation:  Importation involves the introduction of a pest's natural enemies to a new locale where they do not occur naturally. 5
  6. 6.  Classical biological control is long lasting and inexpensive. Other than the initial costs of collection, importation, and rearing, little expense is incurred. When a natural enemy is successfully established it rarely requires additional input and it continues to kill the pest with no direct help from humans and at no cost. However importation does not always work. It is usually most effective against exotic pests and less so against native insect pests. The reasons for failure are not often known but may include the release of too few individuals, poor adaptation of the natural enemy to environmental conditions at the release location, and lack of synchrony between the life cycle of the natural enemy and host pest. 6
  7. 7.  Augmentation involves the supplemental release of natural enemies, boosting the naturally occurring population. 7
  8. 8.  enhance conditions for existing natural enemy survival and reproduction. 8
  9. 9. 9  Predators  Predators are mainly free-living species that directly consume a large number of prey during their whole lifetime.  Ladybugs, and in particular their larvae which are active between May and July in the northern hemisphere, are voracious predators of aphids, and will also consume mites, scale insects and small caterpillars.  Dragonflies are important predators of mosquitoes.
  10. 10. Lady bird beetle (ladybug) Larva eating aphids
  11. 11.  Parasitoids lay their eggs on or in the body of an insect host, which is then used as a food for developing larvae. The host is ultimately killed. Most insect parasitoids are wasps or flies, and usually have a very narrow host range. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15.  Pathogenic micro-organisms include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or debilitate their host and are relatively host-specific. Various microbial insect diseases occur naturally, but may also be used asbiological pesticides 15
  16. 16. 16 Insect Mummy covered with Fungal Spores Infected Larva Viral fluid
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18.  high level of control at low cost  self-perpetuating at little cost after initial effort  very few harmful effects on man, environment etc  some NE’s reproduce rapidly  some NE’s search out hosts  some NE’s survive even at low host densities 18
  19. 19. • Not effective against Direct Pests  where any damage is unacceptable • Some level of damage occurs and must be acceptable • Must be implemented over large areas • May take years to become effective 19

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