Adaptation of Energy Efficiency in Nepalese brick industry

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This presentation provides detailed information about energy saving opportunties in brick kilns in Nepal. It explains the brick making process and show energy saving opportunties The findings are based on a GIZ study conducted in 200 industries in 2012.

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Adaptation of Energy Efficiency in Nepalese brick industry

  1. 1. CHANCES OF ADAPTATION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT PRODUCTION METHODOLOGY/TECHNOLOGY IN BRICK INDUSTRY” 1 INTEGRATION environment & energy Bahnhofstrasse 9 D-91322 Grafenberg GERMANY Federation of Nepalese Chambers Commerce and Industries Teku, Kathmandu Nepal Energy Efficiency Centre FNCCI, Teku, Kathmandu Nepal 07/31/13
  2. 2. Contents • GIZ/NEEP & FNCCI Initiatives • General overview of brick sector • Process • Brick Kilns technology prevalent in Nepal • Opportunity of efficient production methodology within the sector • Major Housekeeping issues • Way forward? 07/31/13 2
  3. 3. GIZ/NEEP & FNCCI Initiative Component 3, Industrial Energy Efficiency component Energy Efficiency Centre within FNCCI Pilot Energy Audit Auditors trainings and certification Awareness & Knowledge Management Centre Financial institutions for EE market environment Component 1: Energy Efficiency policy Component 2: House hold appliance and ICS 07/31/13 3
  4. 4. General Overview of Nepalese Brick Sector • Traditional and seasonal business • There are 435 brick industries in Nepal (ref: baseline GIZ/NEEP) • There are more about 30 VSBK kilns. • Most of brick kilns are Bull trench kill(BTK) • Capacity of brick industry range between 15000- 50,000 bricks per day • Major cluster Locations Kathmandu and Terai( Jhapa, Morang sunsari, Sarlahi, Bara, Narayanghat, Butwal- Bairahawa Dang, Nepalgunj. • Movable BTK Banned in 2003(Kathmandu valley), 2005 Out side Kathmandu 07/31/13 4
  5. 5. General overview…… • Coal is the main fuel used which comes from Assam in India • Apart from coal, a small fraction of sawdust /fire-wood is also used as fuel in these kilns. • Brick making is an energy and labour intensive process. Hand moulding of green bricks is widely practiced in Nepal • Few cases of Mechanization from extruders and pug mills. 07/31/13 5
  6. 6. Overview…. • Government has also promulgated the standards on Chimney Height and Emission for the Brick Kiln Industries on 25th Feb 2008 (700 mg/Nm3 , 600 mg/Nm3 , 400 mg/Nm3 ) • As per base line Report GIZ/NEEP, In fiscal year • Production of 24 BTKs – 82,304,400 pcs and 3 VSBKs – 2,650,000 pcs • 34000 per day /kilns(100 operating days), 8833 per day/kilns(100 operating days) • Energy cost is 31.51 % of total turnover in BTK and 14.41 % in VSBK 07/31/13 6
  7. 7. Overview • Specific coal consumption is 240.97 kg/1000 bricks and 21.27 kWh/1000 bricks in BTK 530 MT of CO2 Thermal saving potential = 33.86% Per kiln – consumption – 15189 MT out of which 5142 MT can save • VSBK- 104.75 kg/1000 bricks and 17.07 kWh/1000 bricks , 277.7 MT of CO2 07/31/13 7
  8. 8. GHG emission • Per kiln – consumption – 15189 MT out of which 5142 MT can save.- 33500 MT CO2out of which 11322 MT of CO2 • Total GHG emission = 14572500 MT Out of which 4925070 MT Saving potential( 435 kilns in operation) 07/31/13 8
  9. 9. Brick Making Process 07/31/13 9
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  14. 14. What are alternate bricks • Differ by Size and Shape • Differ by Weight , light weight & hollow • Application of bricks – Decorative bricks – Tiles – Main walls – Side walls – Partition walls 07/31/13 14
  15. 15. Size?? • What is suitable size of brick? Can we change the size and shape of brick? ? Can we change weight of Brick with same size and Shape? ? 07/31/13 15
  16. 16. How? • Size of Name block • Depth of the Block 6mm Saving: Rs. 2000 Per day? 07/31/13 16
  17. 17. Transportation of Green(Unfired) Bricks 07/31/13 17
  18. 18. Intermittent kilns .Clamps .Scoves .Scotch .Down draught Continuous kilns .Moving fire annular kilns -Hoffmann -Bull's trench -Zigzag: Habala, High draught .Moving ware kilns -Tunnel -Vertical shaft Brick kilns Classification of brick kilns 07/31/13 18
  19. 19. Clamp(Thado Bhatta) Kiln • Village •Still running for tile making 07/31/13 19
  20. 20. Hoffman Kilns “Chinese Bhatta” Very Few in No. 02 in Lalitpur 01 in Bhaktapur Hoffman Kilns “Chinese Bhatta” 07/31/13 20
  21. 21. Moveable BTK( Movable Chimney Bhatta) These are in operation but legal issues!!! 07/31/13 21
  22. 22. Moving Chimney BTK 07/31/13 22
  23. 23. Fixed Chimney- BTK 07/31/13 23
  24. 24. Fixed chimney (Chimey Bhatta) – Natural Draught •Straight line stacking •Zig –Zag stacking 07/31/13 24
  25. 25. Fixed Chimney- Forced Draught •Straight line stacking •Zig –Zag stacking 07/31/13 25
  26. 26. PHOTO OF TWO BRICK KILN - Sizing DUCT SIZE 25 FT DUCT SIZE 8 FT07/31/13 26
  27. 27. Opportunities for EE/GHG emission Reduction • Technology change? - Within BTK’s- Induced draught? Zig Zag setting for better combustion. - Tunnel Kilns?? - VSBK?? - Internal fuel? Fly ash brick? - Hand moulding and Extruder ? • Good housekeeping measures for immediate saving07/31/13 27
  28. 28. House keeping options-Spoon size simple measures with Big impacts • Use of large spoon of capacity 1.5 –2.0 kg leads to the wastage of fuel and over-burning of bricks. Therefore, • Feed coal at uniform intervals with a spoon of capacity as 750-1000 gms. • Large size spoon may be used rarely for raising the temperature in particular lines only. 07/31/13 28
  29. 29. Energy balance of BTKs Energy Balance in Fixed Chimney 07/31/13 29
  30. 30. Opportunity -Thermal Insulation 07/31/13 30
  31. 31. Opportunity -Duct design • Single wall outside caused significant heat loss. • Wall should be from fired brick( Not from green brick) 07/31/13 31
  32. 32. Storage of coal Concrete floor Coal Shed •Never allow dust and Rapis to mix with coal. •Stack coal on a raised platform having proper flooring and drainage. •Coal should be stored in a shed with proper ventilation. Which Benefits To Eliminate the Carpet loss which is around 4% To Minimize the moisture content of the fuel 07/31/13 32
  33. 33. Operating practices Size of Coal • Recommended coal size: ¾" IF large size Coal That causes • Over burnt Brick, • Coal Deposition in Duct. • Environment Problem Large size Coal 07/31/13 33
  34. 34. Fuel Feeding Pattern( Fixed Chimney) Fig: traditional practice Fig: improved practice (four line firing) Which Benefits •Fuel saving •Minimize the Emission Level 07/31/13 34
  35. 35. Fuel Feeding Pattern 07/31/13 35
  36. 36. åf/L Leakage on Wicket Gate leads on • Combustion that means more energy( Coal) Consumption. • Problem in Brick quality •Problem in fire travel rate 07/31/13 36
  37. 37. Way forward • Awareness within BTK’s……………………. • Implementation of housekeeping measures… • Technology Transfer………………. • Government policy……..? Example Hallow Brick for government procurement? • Consumer awareness ………… Building construction companies 07/31/13 37
  38. 38. Thank you 07/31/13 38

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