Material LIFE: The Embodied Energy of Building Materials


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Material LIFE: The Embodied Energy of Building Materials

  1. 1. Material LIFE:The Embodied Energy of Building MaterialsGabrielle Rossit, ARIDO, LEED AP ID+CMarion Lawson, LEED AP BD+CSeptember 21, 2012IIDEX/NeoCon Toronto 2012
  2. 2. Learning Objectives for Today’s Session1. Explain how to define a building material’s embodied energy content.2. Describe the findings of an examination of the current research and existing datasets and tools related to embodied energy from among product manufacturers, peer design firms and academic or non‐profit institutions.3. Describe customized tools that are available to project teams for using embodied energy as a selection criterion in material specifications.4. Using two current design projects as examples, explain how material embodied energy research has been applied.
  3. 3. SECTION 1 SECTION 5Why Embodied Energy? Material LIFESECTION 2 SECTION 6Defining Embodied Energy Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago OfficeSECTION 3 SECTION 7Our Research Process & Findings Case Study: Cannon Design Washington D.C. OfficeSECTION 4 SECTION 8Mbod-E Calculator Conclusions
  4. 4. 1. Why Embodied Energy? Cannon Design Chicago Office Cannon Design
  5. 5. 1. Why Embodied Energy?- Energy is embodied in everything we use and depend on; it includes: • Extraction of raw materials • Transportation of materials • Manufacture/processing of materials, food, clothing, etc. • Usage and disposal/recycling- Greenhouse gas emissions of manufacturing processes- Often ignored because not as ―visible‖ or easy to track as operational energy
  6. 6. 1. Why Embodied Energy? U.S. energy consumption by sector Source: Architecture 2030 and Richard Stein 1977
  7. 7. 1. Why Embodied Energy? At beginning of building life, embodied energy = 100% of building’s energy ~ ~ ~ ~ Source: Architecture 2030, 2030 Inc.
  8. 8. 1. Why Embodied Energy? At end of life-cycle (year 50), operational energy = 75% and embodied energy = 25% ~ ~ ~ ~ Source: Architecture 2030, 2030 Inc.
  9. 9. 1. Why Embodied Energy? Embodied Energy = Operational Energy around year 15-20 ~ ~ ~ ~ 2027 Source: Architecture 2030, 2030 Inc.
  10. 10. 1. Why Embodied Energy? Embodied energy Embodied energy of capital improvements Operational energy Reduced operational energy YR 0 YR 15-20 YR 25-30 YR 50 As operational energy is reduced, the impact of embodied energy increases.
  11. 11. 1. Why Embodied Energy?Architecture industry’s interest in embodied energy:- Understand how building materials are manufactured- Specify sustainable products- Consider entire life-cycle of products- Encourage manufacturers to find more efficient processes- Commitment to reduce carbon footprint of buildings
  12. 12. 2. Defining Embodied Energy- Embodied energy = the sum of energy inputs to make a product- For full cradle-to-grave cycle, energy inputs from: • Extraction of raw materials • Transportation to factory • Manufacture of product / components • Assembly of product / system • Transportation to site / point of sale • Installation / construction • Maintenance • Replacement • Disposal / re-purposing / recycling
  13. 13. 2. Defining Embodied Energy- Embodied energy for building materials is often measured cradle-to-gate (extraction, transportation, manufacture, packaging)
  14. 14. 2. Defining Embodied Energy WASTE ENERGY SITE ENERGY Embodied Fossil Fuel Carbon Embodied EnergyNon-fossil Fuel Energy to manufacture product Product or Impact Building
  15. 15. 2. Defining Embodied EnergyTypical office building:- 50% of embodied energy from envelope and structure- Average = 4.82 GJ/m2 or 447.8 MJ/ft2- 1 MJ = 0.948 kBtu Breakdown of initial embodied energy for typical office building Source: Cole and Kernan, 1996
  16. 16. 3. Research Process & FindingsMulti-disciplinary research teamGoals: • Calculate and evaluate embodied energy of building materials • Develop embodied energy calculator specific to building industry • Develop design tools to help with material selection • Adopt a comprehensive and sustainable approach to material selection
  17. 17. 3. Research Process & FindingsLiterature review:- Subject gained interest 20-30 years ago- Majority of research comes from U.K. and Australia- Most comprehensive research from Hammond and Jones at University of Bath- Data pulled from Life Cycle Assessments- No rating / certification system currently exists for embodied energy
  18. 18. 3. Research Process & FindingsUSGBC LEED rating system indirectly addresses embodied energy: • Regional materials • Recycled content • Material / building reuse
  19. 19. 3. Research Process & FindingsStudy of existing calculators/databases:- University of Bath Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE)- Athena Institute Eco Calculator- GRANTA CES Selector software – Eco Audit Tool- GaBi software- BEES software University of Bath ICE embodied energy database for materials
  20. 20. 3. Research Process & FindingsInterviews/discussions with industry peersKieran Timberlake • Embodied energy research • Used on several projectsArchitecture 2030 • 2030 Challenge for ProductsUSG • Life-Cycle Assessments (LCAs)Herman Miller • Life-Cycle Assessments (LCAs)Thornton Tomasetti • Signed on to 2030 Commitment • Embodied energy research for structural systems
  21. 21. 3. Research Process & FindingsComparable research Cellophane House, MOMA The David & Lucile Packard Portola Valley Town Center, New York, NY Foundation, Los Altos, CA Portola Valley, CA Kieran Timberlake EHDD Architecture Siegel & Strain Architects
  22. 22. 3. Research Process & FindingsLife-Cycle Assessment (LCA) andEnvironmental Product Declaration (EPD)- Governed by ISO standards- Cradle-to grave analysis of products/materials- Include embodied energy as well as other environmental factors- Drive product comparison within industry
  23. 23. 3. Research Process & FindingsResearch initial findings:- Subject of embodied energy and carbon is gaining attention in the industry- Focus seems to be more on embodied carbon rather than energy (Architecture 2030)- Some industry leaders have committed to conducting EPDs for all products- More manufacturers and product reps need to understand embodied energy- To our knowledge, no one has developed an industry-specific calculator
  24. 24. 3. Research Process & FindingsResearch result: We need a calculator to track embodied energy in buildings. We need an embodied energy tool to provide design guidance.
  25. 25. 4. Mbod-E Calculator- Goal of calculator: calculate embodied energy of building materials, assemblies, and entire projects- Resources used: • ICE database • Product-specific LCAs from manufacturers • Product-specific EPDs from manufacturers • Information acquired from manufacturers (when available)- Current format: Excel calculator
  26. 26. 4. Mbod-E CalculatorOrganized according to ASTM UNIFORMAT II categories:- A10 & A20 – Foundations & Basement Construction- B10 – Superstructure- B20 – Exterior Closure- B30 – Roofing- C10 – Interior Construction • C1010 – Partitions • C1020 – Doors • C1030 – Fittings- C20 – Staircases- C30 – Interior Finishes • C3010 – Wall • C3020 – Floor • C3030 – Ceiling- E20 – Furnishings • E2010 – Fixed • E2020 - Movable
  27. 27. 4. Mbod-E Calculator- Categories not currently included: • D10 – Conveying • D20 – Plumbing • D30 – HVAC • D40 – Fire Protection • D50 – Electrical • E10 – Equipment- Not included due to difficulty of assembly calculations- Best way to get values: directly from manufacturers
  28. 28. 4. Mbod-E CalculatorInputs for calculator = material quantities- Finishes: typically in ft2- Partitions: ft2 of wall (calculator accounts for thickness)- Furnishings: # of units- Lumber & steel studs: linear feet
  29. 29. 4. Mbod-E CalculatorBIM warehouses and Mbod-E- Completed warehouses: partitions, doors- Future work: window warehouse, finish tags, etc.
  30. 30. 4. Mbod-E CalculatorBIM schedules and Mbod-E- Embodied energy built into wall property = efficient system- Automated calculation- Unit values and total values appear in schedules- Creating project baselines for firm
  31. 31. 5. Material LIFE
  32. 32. 5. Material LIFEDesign tool rather than calculatorQuick material comparisonsUsed for material selectionSame UNIFORMAT II categoriesas Mbod-E calculatorDetailed comparisons for specificmaterials (i.e. carpet types)
  33. 33. 5. Material LIFESummary page- For each UNIFORMAT group- Shows range of each material- Highlights mean of material- Materials grouped by type- Example: wall finishes • Tackable • Directly applied to wall • Applied to wall with adhesive or cement • Mechanically attached to wall or frame
  34. 34. 5. Material LIFEValues page- Detailed range for specific product within material group- Examples: • Different thickness • Primary vs. recycled • Solid vs. veneer panels
  35. 35. 5. Material LIFEMaterial page- Graphs specific characteristics- Examples: • Material type (i.e. metals: aluminum, steel) • Primary vs. recycled
  36. 36. 5. Material LIFE
  37. 37. 5. Material LIFECarpet detail page- Different carpet types (Nylon 6 vs. Nylon 6,6)- Modular vs. Broadloom- Backing options
  38. 38. 6. Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago Office Cannon Design Chicago Office, Chicago, IL
  39. 39. 6. Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago Office Cannon Design Chicago Office, Chicago, IL
  40. 40. 6. Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago OfficeProject:- Relocation of Cannon Design office in Chicago- 60,205 sf floor in office towerSustainability goals:- LEED-CI Platinum- Reuse materials and furniture whenever possible- Reduce embodied energy of project overall- Pilot project of embodied energy tools
  41. 41. 6. Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago OfficeCollaboration with research team:- Provided feedback on calculator- Addressed ease of use- Advice led to creation of Material LIFE- Provided preliminary material selection lists for embodied energy comparisons: • Carpet • Write-on wall finishes • Furniture
  42. 42. 6. Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago Office CARPET PILE EMBODIED MANUFACTURER PRODUCT YARN TYPE DYE METHOD BACKING TYPE WEIGHT ENERGYBentley Prince Street Broadloom Satellite City Tile Nylon 6,6 100% solution dye High PerformancePC 24 oz/yd2 16.639 MJ/ft2FLOR Modular Shear Indulgence 100% British Wool undyed GlasBac Tile 43 oz/yd2 unknown 2InterfaceFLOR Modular Raw Nylon 6 100% solution dye GlasBacRE Tile 24 oz/yd 9.199 MJ/ft2InterfaceFLOR Modular Distressed Nylon 6 unknown (assume solution) GlasBac Tile 16 oz/yd2 11.636 MJ/ft2Mannington Modular Spatial Progressions Nylon 6,6 100% solution dye Infinity RE Modular 24 oz/yd2 unknown 2Shaw Contract Group Modular Ambient Tile Nylon 6 72% solution, 28% piece ecoworx tile 24 oz/yd 28.196 MJ/ft2 EMBODIED MANUFACTURER ENERGY Bentley Prince Street 16.639 MJ/ft2 FLOR unknown InterfaceFLOR 9.199 MJ/ft2 InterfaceFLOR 11.636 MJ/ft2 Mannington unknown Shaw Contract Group 28.196 MJ/ft2
  43. 43. 6. Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago Office Furniture selection: - RFP language sent to furniture manufacturers - Proposals passed to research team for evaluationAs part of Cannon Design’s office relocation, we areconducting research on the embodied energy of theproducts we are using in the design of the space. Thisinformation will inform design decisions we will make onthis project. For each product, please provide thefollowing information:• Product Name• Locations of manufacture and final assembly• Life Cycle Assessment report for the product, which includes cradle-to-gate embodied energy assessment• Complete list of all component materials and their respective weights
  44. 44. 6. Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago OfficeLCA data for work stations from Herman Miller Lifecycle Stage System Boundaries Inputs from Raw Material Environment Extraction/Production Raw Material Extraction and Processing Transport Part Production at outside suppliers Part Production at Herman Miller Production Transport Assembly At Herman Miller Emissions to Environment Distribution Distribution to Customer Use Use Disassembly Transport End of Life Disposal Recycling
  45. 45. 6. Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago OfficeLCA data for work stations from Herman Miller Raw Material Product Distribution and LCI Results Unit Total End of Life Production Production Retail Water Emissions Phosphates kg 2.6x10-4 2.6x10-4 4.0x10-6 1.1x10-7 5.2x10-7 Nitrates kg 2.1x10-3 0.0x100 2.1x10-3 4.0x10-7 7.8x10-6 Dioxin kg 1.4x10-15 1.4x10-15 2.9x10-19 3.3x10-22 3.5x10-22 Heavy Metals kg 3.4x10-2 2.2x10-2 1.1x10-2 1.3x10-5 2.1x10-4 Air Emissions Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) kg 5.1x10-1 2.4x10-1 2.7x10-1 4.9x10-4 4.1x10-3 Sulfur Oxides (SOx) kg 7.3x10-1 3.8x10-1 3.5x10-1 3.5x10-4 1.9x10-3 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) kg 2.8x102 1.5x102 1.3x102 7.6x10-1 1.3x100 Methane (CH4) kg 4.9x10-1 3.1x10-1 1.8x10-1 9.0x10-4 1.6x10-3 Nitrous Oxide (Laughing Gas, N2O) kg 6.0x10-3 4.3x10-3 1.6x10-3 3.3x10-6 8.4x10-6 NMVOCs kg 8.9x10-2 6.8x10-2 2.0x10-2 3.2x10-4 1.1x10-3 Energy Demand Primary Energy MJ 4.0x103 2.1x103 2.0x103 1.1x101 1.9x101 Fossil Fuel Energy MJ 3.5x103 1.8x103 1.7x103 1.1x101 1.9x101 Nuclear Energy MJ 5.3x102 3.0x102 2.3x102 5.8x10-2 3.8x10-1 Renewable Energy MJ 0.0x100 0.0x100 0.0x100 0.0x100 0.0x100 Waste Waste to Landfill kg 5.1x101 0.0x100 0.0x100 0.0x100 5.1x101 Waste to Incinerator kg 0.0x100 0.0x100 0.0x100 0.0x100 0.0x100 Waste to Recycling kg 1.7x101 0.0x100 6.9x100 0.0x100 9.6x100 Hazardous Waste kg 1.8x10-1 1.8x10-1 0.0x100 0.0x100 0.0x100 Other Consumptive Water Use kg 1.8x103 1.3x103 5.9x102 2.7x10-1 1.4x101
  46. 46. 6. Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago Office
  47. 47. 6. Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago Office85.6 MJ/ft2(921.4 MJ/m2)81.1 kBtu/ft2(255.8 kWh/m2)
  48. 48. 6. Case Study: Cannon Design Chicago OfficeEmbodied energy and operation energy:- Embodied energy = 85.6 MJ/ft2 = 81.1 kBtu/ft2 (255.8 kWh/m2)- Operational energy = 548,580 kWh/year = 31.1 kBtu/ft2/yr (98.1 kWh/m2/yr)- Note: embodied does not include MEP Embodied = Operational YR 2.6 Move-in day YR 1 YR 2 YR 3 YR 4
  49. 49. 7. Case Study: Cannon Design Washington D.C. Office
  50. 50. 7. Case Study: Cannon Design Washington D.C. Office
  51. 51. 7. Case Study: Cannon Design Washington D.C. Office
  52. 52. 7. Case Study: Cannon Design Washington D.C. Office- Similar approach to Chicago Office project- Reused almost all furniture- Received embodied energy data from Teknion
  53. 53. 7. Case Study: Cannon Design Washington D.C. Office 42.3 MJ/ft2 (455.3 MJ/m2) 40.1 kBtu/ft2 (126.5 kWh/m2)
  54. 54. 7. Case Study: Cannon Design Washington D.C. Office Chicago Office Washington D.C. Office 41.5 MJ/ft2 (446.7 MJ/m2) 34.4 MJ/ft2 (370.3 MJ/m2)
  55. 55. 8. ConclusionsBuilding life-cycle does matterConsider the balance between embodied energy and operational energyThe building industry is learning and you can help engage all sectors
  56. 56. 8. ConclusionsHow can designers contribute?- Ask manufacturers & product reps for LCAs and EPDs- Talk about embodied energy so product reps know that the industry cares about it- Sign on to the Architecture 2030 Challenge for ProductsHow can manufacturers contribute?- Increase product transparency around embodied energy — very soon it will matter to your bottom line- Drive waste from the manufacturing process and innovate new technologies
  58. 58. Thank YouFOR A COPY OF MATERIAL LIFE ON CANNON DESIGN WEBSITE: MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT:Gabrielle Rossit416.915.0121 (Toronto)grossit@cannondesign.comMarion Lawson312.960.8382 (Chicago)