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Energy Crisis of Nepal and Energy efficiency measures in
industries
Talk Program, Centre for Energy Studies
Tribhuvan University, Institute of Engineering
Pulchwok Campus
4th July, 2018
Ramhari Poudyal PhD candidate
Dr. Pavel Loskot, Dr. Shree Raj Shakya, Shree Krishna Khadka
Swansea University, U.K.
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department
History of Electricity in Nepal
 Chandra Jyoti Electric Power company (Later called
Pharping Hydropower Project)
 First hydro plant in Nepal, which is constructed on
May 22, 1911 with the aid of British Government
 One of the largest hydropower projects in South Asia
during that time
 Total Head capacity 250 KW x 2 = 500 KW
 Its turn into museum as a history of modern electricity
Introduction
 6.6 million people of Nepal have no electricity,
however people who have electricity also suffering
long load shedding until last year.
 99 % of our Electricity comes from Hydropower
 Nepal is sunny country of 300 days sunshine 3000
MW potential
 Plenty of Wind Energy potential 2100 MW Potential
 Biomass 1.1 million ton of Potential
Energy sources of NepalEnergy Sources of Nepal
Resource
Value Units Rank Period Source
Hydro Power
45,000 MW WECS
Wind Potential 7,606
Area(Km2
)
Class 3 – 7 Wind at
50 m
36 1990 NREL
Solar Potential 466,643,167 MW h/Year 89 2008 NREL
Coal Reserves 1.10 Million Short Tons 77 2008 EIA
Natural Gas
Reserves
0 Cubic Meters(Cum) 152 2010
CIA World
Fact Book
Oil Reserves 0 Barrels (BBL) 151 2010
CIA World
Fact Book
Bio Gas
reserves
About 200,000 Plants of 10 Cu m
size at excising livestock population
Cu m APEC
Fuel wood 7 metric Ton Metric Ton APEC
Demand of Electricity Forecast 2013 - 2034
Energy Efficiency in Industries
• Design of Kilns with reduced air flow rates to improve efficiency saves
typical site $ 90K/Year
• Potential to reduce emissions in the ceramics industry by 40,000
tCO2/Year
• Moisture measurement of paper to improve control of water extraction
saves a typical plant $260K/year
• Opportunity to reduce emissions in the paper industry by 65,000
tCO2/Year
• Use of pigs to clean pipes in the dairy ( or brewing sector) instead of hot
water and detergents
• Enables recovery of product (milk, cream, etc.) by the ice slurry instead of
losing to drain
• Dairy sector emissions reductions could add up to 23,000 tCO2/Year
• If the current pattern of energy efficiency improvement is maintained, it
will take 23 years to reduce CO2 emissions by 20%
Efficiency Margin Sector- wise in %
in different Industries of Nepal
0.00%
2.00%
4.00%
6.00%
8.00%
10.00%
12.00%
14.00%
16.00%
18.00%
20.00%
Efficiency Margin Sector- wise in % in different Industries of Nepal
Cement Industry
• In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, an English mason, patented a cement he called
“Portland” because it resembled stone quarried on the isle of Portland off the
English coast[20].
• The cement industry accounts for over 5% of the world’s total and around
20% of industry sector's total anthropogenic GHG emissions
• The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive and highest CO2
emitting industries and one of the key industrial contributors to air pollutions
(PM, SO2, etc.) in the world.
• The cement industry is one of the Nepal’s most high energy intensive
sectors.
• About 40% of CO2 emission come from the burning fuels to heat the cement
Kiln, and remainder of CO2 emission comes from electricity use and
transportation.
• Producing one ton of cement releases an estimated 0.73 to 0.99 ton CO2
depending on the clinker per cement ratio and other factors
• More than 50% of CO2 emissions from cement industry are process related
emission from calcinations process and has nothing to do with fuel use.
per capita cement consumption (Kg) in 2015
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800 1683
1581
911
770 744
616
546
330 329
232 225 202 140 80
Per Capita Cement Consumption (Kgs) in 2015
Challenges and barriers of cement industries
Forces of Change Barriers to Sustainability
Stakeholder Demands
Customer Needs
Emerging Economies
Environmental Concerns
Regulateries Policies
Innovation
Transparency
Energy Prices
Global Consolidation
Mature Material
Resource Intensity
Capital intensity
Lack of trust
Standards and specifications
Company inertia
Market pressures
Commodity product
Energy use & emissions in the cement industries
• China, India and the USA are top three cement producers in the world
• China’s cement Industry accounted for more than 50% of the world’s total cement production
• The cement industries is one of the energy-incentive and highest CO2 emitting industries and one
of the key industrial contributors to air pollutions(PM,SO2,..etc.)
Cement Milling
57%
Clinker
Production 27%
Raw Material
preparation 12%
other 4%
OVERVIEW OFCEMENT INDUSTRIES:
Cement Demand January 2017
-20%
-10%
0%
10%
20%
30%
Cement demand January 2017- YoY
change %
In Nepal, the demand for cement is about 5 - 10 million tonnes annually as it
is one of the fundamental construction materials
OVERVIEW OFCEMENT INDUSTRIES:
• Cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter
(PM) emissions in China, accounting for about 40% of
industrial PM emissions and 27% of total national PM
emissions.
• Fuel use for production of one ton of clinker can vary from 3Gj
to 5.46GJ depending on the type of production technology n
other factors.
• Electricity demand for production of one ton of cement ranges
from 90 kWh to 140 kWh depending on type of technology
and other factors.
• Studies in China, India, the U.S.A. Thailand and other
countries have shown that significant energy saving and CO2
emissions reduction can be achieved by commercially
available
OVERVIEW OFCEMENT INDUSTRIES:
Energy Efficiency is a very new concept for Nepal as its high energy
consumption, Nepalese cement industries must have strengthened its efforts in
Research and Development to improve its energy efficiency.
The objective of this study is to access the energy performance of existing
cement industries of Nepal
The primary objective of this study is to identify specific energy efficiency
measures and evaluate the potential and economics of energy savings, CO2
emission reduction for the cement industry.
The study will briefly describe the various stages in the cement production
process of UCIL and HCIL
This study will help to build up policy recommendations. Presently, Nepalese
government have limited data and acquisition capacity. Limitations of literatures
around international journal, no energy audit culture in industry are significant
barriers of this study.
Supply Demand Scenario of cement
3.3 3.6 3.9 4.3 4.7 5.2 5.6 6.2 6.8 7.4 8.1
3.3 3.6 4
4.5
5
5.5
6.1
6.8
7.5
8.4
9.3
3.3
3.5
3.8
4.1
4.5
4.8
5.2
5.6
6.1
6.6
7.1
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21
Consumption -
Pessimistic
Consumption - Optimistic
Consumption - Most
likely
Location of Cement Plant
List of Cement Industries (in Pipeline)
S.No. Name of the plant Capacity (TPD) Location
1 HongshiShivam
Cement
10,000 Nawalparashi
2 Sourya Cement 1200 Udayapur
3 Riddhi Siddhi Cement 2200 Makawanpur
4 CG Cements 6000 Palpa
5 Dang Cement 1200 Dang
6 Samrat Cement 1200 Dang
Energy Efficiency measures for Raw Materials preparation in Cement plants [36]
Energy Efficiency Measures for
Raw Materials production
Fuel Savings
(GJ/t)
Electricity
Savings (kWh/t)
Estimated payback
period (Years)1
CO2 Savings
(KgC/t)
Efficient transport system - 3.4 >10 0.78
Raw meal blending - 1.7 – 4.3 N/A 0.4 – 1.0
Process control vertical mill - 1.4 – 1.7 1 0.3 – 0.4
High-Efficiency Roller Mill - 10.2 – 11.9 >10 2.3 – 2.7
High-Efficiency Classifier - 4.8 – 6.3 >10 1.1 – 1.4
Slurry blending and homonizing - 0.5 – 0.9 <3 0.1 – 0.2
Wash Mills with Closed Circuit
Classifier
- 8.5 – 11.9 >10 2.0 – 2.7
Roller Mills for Fuel Preparation - 0.7 – 1.1 N/A 0.2 – 0.3
Efficiency Opportunities Applicable to all Kiln Types
Efficiency
Measures
Capital
cost
($/t)
O & M
Cost ($/t)
Payback
period
(Years)
Fuel
Savings
(GJ/t)
Electric
Savings
(kWh/t)
CO2Saving
s (KgC/t)
Lifetime
(Years)
Improved
refractories
N/A N/A 0.4 – 0.61 - 10.3– 15.5 N/A
Kiln shell heat loss
reduction
0.25 1 0.1 – 0.632 - 2.8 – 10.3 20
Energy
Management &
process control
0.3 –
1.7
<2 0.1 – 0.2 1.5 – 3.2 2.9 – 5.9 10
Adjustable speed
drive for Kiln fan
0.23 0 2 – 3 - 6.1 1.4 10
Efficiency
Measures
Capital cost
($/t)
O & M Cost
($/t)1
Payback
period
(Years)
Fuel Savings
(GJ/t)
Electric
Savings
(kWh/t)2
CO2Saving
s (KgC/t)
Lifetime
(Years)
Preheater Kiln
upgrade to
precalciner
Kiln
9.4 - 28 -1.1 5 0.16 – 0.7 - 4.1 – 18.1 40
Long dry kiln
upgrade to
preheater /
precalciner
Kiln
8.6 – 29 >10 1.4 - 36 40
Older dry Kiln
upgrade to
multi – stage
preheater Kiln
28 – 41 >10 0.9 - 23 40
Convert to
reciprocating
grate cooler
0.4 – 5.5 0.11 1 – 2 0.27 -3.0 6.3 20
Kiln
Combustion
system
improvements
1.0 0 2 – 3 0.1 – 0.5 - 2.6 – 12.9 20
Energy Efficiency Opportunities Applicable to Rotary Kilns
Energy Efficiency Opportunities Applicable to Rotary Kilns
Indirect firing 7.4 N/A 0.015 –
0.022
- 0.39 – 0.57 N/A
Optimize heat recovery /
upgrade clinker cooler
0.1 –
0.3
1 – 2 0.05 –
0.16
-2 0.8 – 3.7 20
Seal replacement N/A < 0.5
=
0.011 - 0.3 N/A
Low-temperature heat
recovery for power
(Capital costs given in
$/kW)
800 –
1250
($/kW)3
0.007 <3 - 20 – 35 4.6 – 8.1 N/A
High-Temperature heat
recovery for Power
2.2 –
4.4
0.22 –
0.33
3 - 22 5.1 35
Low-pressure drop
cyclone
3 >10 - 0.7 – 4.4 0.16 – 1.0 20
Efficient Kiln drives +0 – 6
%4
N/A - 0.55 – 3.9 0.13 – 0.9 10
Energy Consumption Situations
Energy
consumption for
each section in
cement industry
Raw material
grinding
24%
Cement mill
38%
Raw mill
homogenisin
g
6%
Kiln
22%
Mines &
crushing
5%
Material
handling &
packing
5%
The cost structures of cement production
33%
27%
15%
15%
15%
The cost structures of cement production
Coal Electricity Raw materials Depreciation Others
Comparison of energy consumption with selected countries [source:
Indian Cement Review, Sept, 2013]
Country Specific Electrical Energy
Consumption kWh/t of cement
Specific thermal energy
consumption Kcal/Kg
clinker
India 82 725
Spain 92 836
Germany 100 836
Japan 100 836
Brazil 110 884
Italy 112 908
China 118 956
Mexico 118 1003
Canada 140 1075
USA 141 1099
World Average 100 – 110 850 – 860
Energy Management
Why Energy
Management?
Reduce
Pollution CO2 ,
NOx, SOx
Save
money
$ £
Motivate
Staff
Mitigate
Volatility
Energy saving option and the payback period of investment for cement
sector [Danida /ESPS,2005].
Option Payback of investment
Improvement of power factor 1.5 years
Convert delta to star connection for motors loaded
below 50% of full load
1 year
Installation of the high-efficiency dynamic separator
of raw mill
2 years
Replacement of the Airlift with Bucket Elevator for
Raw – meal Transport to the Silo
3 years
Replacement of existing cyclones with low-pressure
drop (LP) Cyclones
2 years
Control raw meal feed size by the installation of
tertiary crusher
1.5 years
Install demand controller for management of
electrical demand
1. year
Causes of kiln stoppage in UCIL
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35% 34%
27%
10%
7.00%
6%
4%
2.50% 2.50% 2% 2%
1.00% 1% 1% 1%
Causes of Kiln Stoppage in UCIL, Nepal in FY 2013/14
Comparative Analysis of Heat consumption & Thermal Load &
Electricity consumption 2016 – 17 in Kcal/kg-cl.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2016 2017 Designated Current
Electricity Consumption
Average Heat Consump
Average Thermal Load
(Kcal/kg-Cl.
Max, Min & Avg. of Monthly Clinker Production CUF % 2012 – 2017
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Minimum
Maximum
Average
Energy use in Nepalese Cement industry (ZIZ/NEEP 2012)
9%
91%
Energy use in Nepalese Cement industry (ZIZ/NEEP 2012)
Electrical
Thermal(Coal)
Specific energy consumption in Nepalese cement sector
Types of Cement Plant Electrical
(Weighted
Average)
Thermal
(Weighted
Average)
Limestone–based cement plant 149KWh/MT* 5,411 MJ/MT**
Clinker – based cement plant 49KWh/MT* -
Waste Heat Recovery for power generation:
Waste Heat Recovery for power generation:
Waste heat from the cement kiln is usually used for drying of raw materials and fuel.
Heat recovery for power is most economical for long dry kilns, but long dry kilns with
preheaters in China and Europe have power production installations.
It has been reported that there are at least 33 cogeneration units in various cement plants
with total capacity about 200 MW in Japan . In China, about 24 Kilns having the ability of 2000
ton per day and above have cogeneration units with supplementary fired boilers to meet about
22 – 36 KWh/t clinker.
In cement industries, there are the tremendous amounts of wastage like heat, recovery of
waste heat is a significant challenge to make cement plant more energy efficient.
In dry process cement plants, nearly 30-40% of the total heat input is rejected as waste heat
from the exit gases of preheater and coolers. In UCIL, on average 105% of heat input is being
lost as waste heat.
In a cement plant, having preheater exit gas temperature of 350-400ᵒC and cooler vent air
temperature of 250-275ᵒC, there is potential to generate about 4-5 MW of power from waste
heat alone. The total electricity demand in UCIL is around 6.6 MW per day. If possible, waste
heat recovery can contribute to 50% of the total electricity demand [UCIL Maintenance Report
2017].
Conclusion
 Development and deployment of renewable energy resources; solar, wind, micro hydro,
biomass etc.
 Optimum and Efficient use of resources and conservation of energy
 More researches on electrical power and potential renewable energy solutions must be applied to
improve of life of Nepalese people.
Cement industry needs to prioritise from among the numerous suggested actions and choose a set of
energy efficiency measures that suit well with its business strategy and corporate philosophy.
An understanding of the barriers is a vital first step in developing programs and policies to promote further
implementation of energy efficiency opportunities. Also, once the barriers have been identified and are
understood, it is essential to develop effective programs and policies to overcome the obstacle to adoption.
Such programs an
This research reviewed the literature of energy efficiency improvements practices around the globe. Nepal
could be benefited if this practice would implement in all of the cement industries of Nepal.
In Nepal’s cement industries, we found that average consumption of electrical and thermal energy is
higher in one unit of production. Emission is also soaring which could be reduced by adopting newly
advanced efficient technologies.
Thank You Very Much for Listening!!!
Any Question???
Ramhari Poudyal
PhD candidate
Swansea University, UK
Electrical & Electronic Engineering Department
847043@swanse.ac.uk
rhpoudyal@gmail.com

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Energy crisis of nepal and efficiency measures in industries

  • 1. Energy Crisis of Nepal and Energy efficiency measures in industries Talk Program, Centre for Energy Studies Tribhuvan University, Institute of Engineering Pulchwok Campus 4th July, 2018 Ramhari Poudyal PhD candidate Dr. Pavel Loskot, Dr. Shree Raj Shakya, Shree Krishna Khadka Swansea University, U.K. Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department
  • 2. History of Electricity in Nepal  Chandra Jyoti Electric Power company (Later called Pharping Hydropower Project)  First hydro plant in Nepal, which is constructed on May 22, 1911 with the aid of British Government  One of the largest hydropower projects in South Asia during that time  Total Head capacity 250 KW x 2 = 500 KW  Its turn into museum as a history of modern electricity
  • 3. Introduction  6.6 million people of Nepal have no electricity, however people who have electricity also suffering long load shedding until last year.  99 % of our Electricity comes from Hydropower  Nepal is sunny country of 300 days sunshine 3000 MW potential  Plenty of Wind Energy potential 2100 MW Potential  Biomass 1.1 million ton of Potential
  • 4. Energy sources of NepalEnergy Sources of Nepal Resource Value Units Rank Period Source Hydro Power 45,000 MW WECS Wind Potential 7,606 Area(Km2 ) Class 3 – 7 Wind at 50 m 36 1990 NREL Solar Potential 466,643,167 MW h/Year 89 2008 NREL Coal Reserves 1.10 Million Short Tons 77 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 0 Cubic Meters(Cum) 152 2010 CIA World Fact Book Oil Reserves 0 Barrels (BBL) 151 2010 CIA World Fact Book Bio Gas reserves About 200,000 Plants of 10 Cu m size at excising livestock population Cu m APEC Fuel wood 7 metric Ton Metric Ton APEC
  • 5. Demand of Electricity Forecast 2013 - 2034
  • 6. Energy Efficiency in Industries • Design of Kilns with reduced air flow rates to improve efficiency saves typical site $ 90K/Year • Potential to reduce emissions in the ceramics industry by 40,000 tCO2/Year • Moisture measurement of paper to improve control of water extraction saves a typical plant $260K/year • Opportunity to reduce emissions in the paper industry by 65,000 tCO2/Year • Use of pigs to clean pipes in the dairy ( or brewing sector) instead of hot water and detergents • Enables recovery of product (milk, cream, etc.) by the ice slurry instead of losing to drain • Dairy sector emissions reductions could add up to 23,000 tCO2/Year • If the current pattern of energy efficiency improvement is maintained, it will take 23 years to reduce CO2 emissions by 20%
  • 7. Efficiency Margin Sector- wise in % in different Industries of Nepal 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 20.00% Efficiency Margin Sector- wise in % in different Industries of Nepal
  • 8. Cement Industry • In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, an English mason, patented a cement he called “Portland” because it resembled stone quarried on the isle of Portland off the English coast[20]. • The cement industry accounts for over 5% of the world’s total and around 20% of industry sector's total anthropogenic GHG emissions • The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive and highest CO2 emitting industries and one of the key industrial contributors to air pollutions (PM, SO2, etc.) in the world. • The cement industry is one of the Nepal’s most high energy intensive sectors. • About 40% of CO2 emission come from the burning fuels to heat the cement Kiln, and remainder of CO2 emission comes from electricity use and transportation. • Producing one ton of cement releases an estimated 0.73 to 0.99 ton CO2 depending on the clinker per cement ratio and other factors • More than 50% of CO2 emissions from cement industry are process related emission from calcinations process and has nothing to do with fuel use.
  • 9. per capita cement consumption (Kg) in 2015 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1683 1581 911 770 744 616 546 330 329 232 225 202 140 80 Per Capita Cement Consumption (Kgs) in 2015
  • 10. Challenges and barriers of cement industries Forces of Change Barriers to Sustainability Stakeholder Demands Customer Needs Emerging Economies Environmental Concerns Regulateries Policies Innovation Transparency Energy Prices Global Consolidation Mature Material Resource Intensity Capital intensity Lack of trust Standards and specifications Company inertia Market pressures Commodity product
  • 11. Energy use & emissions in the cement industries • China, India and the USA are top three cement producers in the world • China’s cement Industry accounted for more than 50% of the world’s total cement production • The cement industries is one of the energy-incentive and highest CO2 emitting industries and one of the key industrial contributors to air pollutions(PM,SO2,..etc.) Cement Milling 57% Clinker Production 27% Raw Material preparation 12% other 4%
  • 12. OVERVIEW OFCEMENT INDUSTRIES: Cement Demand January 2017 -20% -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% Cement demand January 2017- YoY change % In Nepal, the demand for cement is about 5 - 10 million tonnes annually as it is one of the fundamental construction materials
  • 13. OVERVIEW OFCEMENT INDUSTRIES: • Cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for about 40% of industrial PM emissions and 27% of total national PM emissions. • Fuel use for production of one ton of clinker can vary from 3Gj to 5.46GJ depending on the type of production technology n other factors. • Electricity demand for production of one ton of cement ranges from 90 kWh to 140 kWh depending on type of technology and other factors. • Studies in China, India, the U.S.A. Thailand and other countries have shown that significant energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction can be achieved by commercially available
  • 14. OVERVIEW OFCEMENT INDUSTRIES: Energy Efficiency is a very new concept for Nepal as its high energy consumption, Nepalese cement industries must have strengthened its efforts in Research and Development to improve its energy efficiency. The objective of this study is to access the energy performance of existing cement industries of Nepal The primary objective of this study is to identify specific energy efficiency measures and evaluate the potential and economics of energy savings, CO2 emission reduction for the cement industry. The study will briefly describe the various stages in the cement production process of UCIL and HCIL This study will help to build up policy recommendations. Presently, Nepalese government have limited data and acquisition capacity. Limitations of literatures around international journal, no energy audit culture in industry are significant barriers of this study.
  • 15. Supply Demand Scenario of cement 3.3 3.6 3.9 4.3 4.7 5.2 5.6 6.2 6.8 7.4 8.1 3.3 3.6 4 4.5 5 5.5 6.1 6.8 7.5 8.4 9.3 3.3 3.5 3.8 4.1 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.1 6.6 7.1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 Consumption - Pessimistic Consumption - Optimistic Consumption - Most likely
  • 17. List of Cement Industries (in Pipeline) S.No. Name of the plant Capacity (TPD) Location 1 HongshiShivam Cement 10,000 Nawalparashi 2 Sourya Cement 1200 Udayapur 3 Riddhi Siddhi Cement 2200 Makawanpur 4 CG Cements 6000 Palpa 5 Dang Cement 1200 Dang 6 Samrat Cement 1200 Dang
  • 18. Energy Efficiency measures for Raw Materials preparation in Cement plants [36] Energy Efficiency Measures for Raw Materials production Fuel Savings (GJ/t) Electricity Savings (kWh/t) Estimated payback period (Years)1 CO2 Savings (KgC/t) Efficient transport system - 3.4 >10 0.78 Raw meal blending - 1.7 – 4.3 N/A 0.4 – 1.0 Process control vertical mill - 1.4 – 1.7 1 0.3 – 0.4 High-Efficiency Roller Mill - 10.2 – 11.9 >10 2.3 – 2.7 High-Efficiency Classifier - 4.8 – 6.3 >10 1.1 – 1.4 Slurry blending and homonizing - 0.5 – 0.9 <3 0.1 – 0.2 Wash Mills with Closed Circuit Classifier - 8.5 – 11.9 >10 2.0 – 2.7 Roller Mills for Fuel Preparation - 0.7 – 1.1 N/A 0.2 – 0.3
  • 19. Efficiency Opportunities Applicable to all Kiln Types Efficiency Measures Capital cost ($/t) O & M Cost ($/t) Payback period (Years) Fuel Savings (GJ/t) Electric Savings (kWh/t) CO2Saving s (KgC/t) Lifetime (Years) Improved refractories N/A N/A 0.4 – 0.61 - 10.3– 15.5 N/A Kiln shell heat loss reduction 0.25 1 0.1 – 0.632 - 2.8 – 10.3 20 Energy Management & process control 0.3 – 1.7 <2 0.1 – 0.2 1.5 – 3.2 2.9 – 5.9 10 Adjustable speed drive for Kiln fan 0.23 0 2 – 3 - 6.1 1.4 10
  • 20. Efficiency Measures Capital cost ($/t) O & M Cost ($/t)1 Payback period (Years) Fuel Savings (GJ/t) Electric Savings (kWh/t)2 CO2Saving s (KgC/t) Lifetime (Years) Preheater Kiln upgrade to precalciner Kiln 9.4 - 28 -1.1 5 0.16 – 0.7 - 4.1 – 18.1 40 Long dry kiln upgrade to preheater / precalciner Kiln 8.6 – 29 >10 1.4 - 36 40 Older dry Kiln upgrade to multi – stage preheater Kiln 28 – 41 >10 0.9 - 23 40 Convert to reciprocating grate cooler 0.4 – 5.5 0.11 1 – 2 0.27 -3.0 6.3 20 Kiln Combustion system improvements 1.0 0 2 – 3 0.1 – 0.5 - 2.6 – 12.9 20 Energy Efficiency Opportunities Applicable to Rotary Kilns
  • 21. Energy Efficiency Opportunities Applicable to Rotary Kilns Indirect firing 7.4 N/A 0.015 – 0.022 - 0.39 – 0.57 N/A Optimize heat recovery / upgrade clinker cooler 0.1 – 0.3 1 – 2 0.05 – 0.16 -2 0.8 – 3.7 20 Seal replacement N/A < 0.5 = 0.011 - 0.3 N/A Low-temperature heat recovery for power (Capital costs given in $/kW) 800 – 1250 ($/kW)3 0.007 <3 - 20 – 35 4.6 – 8.1 N/A High-Temperature heat recovery for Power 2.2 – 4.4 0.22 – 0.33 3 - 22 5.1 35 Low-pressure drop cyclone 3 >10 - 0.7 – 4.4 0.16 – 1.0 20 Efficient Kiln drives +0 – 6 %4 N/A - 0.55 – 3.9 0.13 – 0.9 10
  • 22. Energy Consumption Situations Energy consumption for each section in cement industry Raw material grinding 24% Cement mill 38% Raw mill homogenisin g 6% Kiln 22% Mines & crushing 5% Material handling & packing 5%
  • 23. The cost structures of cement production 33% 27% 15% 15% 15% The cost structures of cement production Coal Electricity Raw materials Depreciation Others
  • 24. Comparison of energy consumption with selected countries [source: Indian Cement Review, Sept, 2013] Country Specific Electrical Energy Consumption kWh/t of cement Specific thermal energy consumption Kcal/Kg clinker India 82 725 Spain 92 836 Germany 100 836 Japan 100 836 Brazil 110 884 Italy 112 908 China 118 956 Mexico 118 1003 Canada 140 1075 USA 141 1099 World Average 100 – 110 850 – 860
  • 25. Energy Management Why Energy Management? Reduce Pollution CO2 , NOx, SOx Save money $ £ Motivate Staff Mitigate Volatility
  • 26. Energy saving option and the payback period of investment for cement sector [Danida /ESPS,2005]. Option Payback of investment Improvement of power factor 1.5 years Convert delta to star connection for motors loaded below 50% of full load 1 year Installation of the high-efficiency dynamic separator of raw mill 2 years Replacement of the Airlift with Bucket Elevator for Raw – meal Transport to the Silo 3 years Replacement of existing cyclones with low-pressure drop (LP) Cyclones 2 years Control raw meal feed size by the installation of tertiary crusher 1.5 years Install demand controller for management of electrical demand 1. year
  • 27. Causes of kiln stoppage in UCIL 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 34% 27% 10% 7.00% 6% 4% 2.50% 2.50% 2% 2% 1.00% 1% 1% 1% Causes of Kiln Stoppage in UCIL, Nepal in FY 2013/14
  • 28. Comparative Analysis of Heat consumption & Thermal Load & Electricity consumption 2016 – 17 in Kcal/kg-cl. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2016 2017 Designated Current Electricity Consumption Average Heat Consump Average Thermal Load (Kcal/kg-Cl.
  • 29. Max, Min & Avg. of Monthly Clinker Production CUF % 2012 – 2017 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Minimum Maximum Average
  • 30. Energy use in Nepalese Cement industry (ZIZ/NEEP 2012) 9% 91% Energy use in Nepalese Cement industry (ZIZ/NEEP 2012) Electrical Thermal(Coal)
  • 31. Specific energy consumption in Nepalese cement sector Types of Cement Plant Electrical (Weighted Average) Thermal (Weighted Average) Limestone–based cement plant 149KWh/MT* 5,411 MJ/MT** Clinker – based cement plant 49KWh/MT* - Waste Heat Recovery for power generation:
  • 32. Waste Heat Recovery for power generation: Waste heat from the cement kiln is usually used for drying of raw materials and fuel. Heat recovery for power is most economical for long dry kilns, but long dry kilns with preheaters in China and Europe have power production installations. It has been reported that there are at least 33 cogeneration units in various cement plants with total capacity about 200 MW in Japan . In China, about 24 Kilns having the ability of 2000 ton per day and above have cogeneration units with supplementary fired boilers to meet about 22 – 36 KWh/t clinker. In cement industries, there are the tremendous amounts of wastage like heat, recovery of waste heat is a significant challenge to make cement plant more energy efficient. In dry process cement plants, nearly 30-40% of the total heat input is rejected as waste heat from the exit gases of preheater and coolers. In UCIL, on average 105% of heat input is being lost as waste heat. In a cement plant, having preheater exit gas temperature of 350-400ᵒC and cooler vent air temperature of 250-275ᵒC, there is potential to generate about 4-5 MW of power from waste heat alone. The total electricity demand in UCIL is around 6.6 MW per day. If possible, waste heat recovery can contribute to 50% of the total electricity demand [UCIL Maintenance Report 2017].
  • 33. Conclusion  Development and deployment of renewable energy resources; solar, wind, micro hydro, biomass etc.  Optimum and Efficient use of resources and conservation of energy  More researches on electrical power and potential renewable energy solutions must be applied to improve of life of Nepalese people. Cement industry needs to prioritise from among the numerous suggested actions and choose a set of energy efficiency measures that suit well with its business strategy and corporate philosophy. An understanding of the barriers is a vital first step in developing programs and policies to promote further implementation of energy efficiency opportunities. Also, once the barriers have been identified and are understood, it is essential to develop effective programs and policies to overcome the obstacle to adoption. Such programs an This research reviewed the literature of energy efficiency improvements practices around the globe. Nepal could be benefited if this practice would implement in all of the cement industries of Nepal. In Nepal’s cement industries, we found that average consumption of electrical and thermal energy is higher in one unit of production. Emission is also soaring which could be reduced by adopting newly advanced efficient technologies.
  • 34. Thank You Very Much for Listening!!! Any Question??? Ramhari Poudyal PhD candidate Swansea University, UK Electrical & Electronic Engineering Department 847043@swanse.ac.uk rhpoudyal@gmail.com