Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Marilyn Walker Ruben Arellano Jessica Born
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) CBT is a form of treatment that combines the elements of Behavior Therapy (BT) and Cognitive Therapy (CT) • BT examines the way your actions affect your mental health • CT looks at the way your thoughts about yourself and others do the same thing When used together as part of a combined treatment, CBT examines the way your thoughts, behaviors, and emotions influence each other and your overall mental health
History of CBT• Pioneered by Dr. Aaron T. Beck in the 1960’s while he was a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania• Dr. Beck designed and carried out experiments to test psychoanalytic concepts of depression• He found that depressed patients experienced streams of negative thoughts and named these cognitions “automatic thoughts”
A New Concept of Depression “Automatic Thoughts”• Critical thoughts that you frequently think and say to yourself.• Thoughts which sabotage your success & happiness• Thoughts which make you feel sad or anxious• Can occur consciously or without any awareness that you’re thinking them. “I don’t deserve anything good happening to me.” “Why bother trying, I’m just going to fail.”
Common Distortions• Overgeneralization: Making broad negative conclusions about life based on limited situations• Minimization and magnification: Discounting the positive and enlarging the negative• Arbitrary inferences: Making negative conclusions based on little evidence• Selective abstractions: Focusing on one negative detail instead of the larger picture• Personalization: Identifying yourself as the cause of a negative event, whether it’s true or not
Goals of CBT• To challenge clients to confront their faulty beliefs with contradictory evidence that they gather and evaluate• Help clients seek out their dogmatic beliefs and minimize them• Help clients become aware of automatic thoughts and learn to change them
Albert Ellis -REBT• Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy• REBT views humans beings as ‘responsibly hedonistic’ in the sense that they strive to remain alive and to achieve some degree of happiness. However, it also holds that humans are prone to adopting irrational beliefs and behaviors which stands in the way of them achieving their goals and purposes. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
REBT QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.• Stresses thinking, judging, deciding, analyzing, doing - all done by the client.• REBT assumes that emotions and our behaviors interact and have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationship.• Highly didactic, very direct, and feels that thinking is as important as feeling.• Teaches us that our emotions stem mainly from our beliefs, evaluations, interpretations, and reactions to real life situations. QuickTimeª and a QuickTimeª and a QuickTimeª and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
Beck’s Cognitive Triad As relating to Depression• Clients have negative views of themselves• Selective Abstraction(world we live in is a bad place)• Clients see no good in their future QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
The A-B-C Theory of Personality The theory believes: A. That there is an Activating Event B. Belief client believes C. Consequences (for our actions) 3 Phases of Behavioral Change QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. 1. Self-observation 2. Starting a new dialogue 3. Learning new skills
CBT Use for LCDC and Clients1. Can reduce the availability to drug or trigger mechanism.2. Promotes non use of drug with a positive and negative consequences risk.3. Helps with a relapse plan.4. Helps identify thoughts about the substance. QuickTimeª and a QuickTimeª and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
QuickTimeª and a decompressorare needed to see this picture. Donald Meichenbaums CBM • Developed CBM technique (dysfunctional self-talk) • Emphasis is on acquiring coping skills • Believes distressing emotions are typically the results of maladaptive thoughts QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Criticisms of CBT• Seems to confuse symptoms of depression with cognitive causes• Negative views of traumatic experience are normal and this therapy focuses on reframing reality rather than changing it• Positive self-evaulations can be more destructive• Doesn’t answer the question of why an individual chooses ‘self- blaming’ bias opposed to ‘self-serving’ bias QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
R e fe re n ce sS u n , K . ( M arch , 2 , 2 009). F ou r D raw b ack s of Cogn i ti ve T h e rap y. Ps ych ology T od ay. R e tri e ve d from h ttp ://w w w .p s ych ologytod ay.com /b log/th e -ju s tiM i lle r, Ge rald i n e A. ( 2 005 ). Learningthe Language of A ddiction Counseling, 2nd ed. N e w York , N Y: Joh n Wi le y & S on s .Wood , Je ffre y C. Ps y.D . an d Wood , M i n n i e R N ,N P. ( 2 008). Therapy 10 A B rief Look atModern Psychotherapy 1: Techniques &HowThey Can Help. Oak lan d , CA: N e w H arb i n ge r Pu b li cati on s , I n c.h ttp ://w w w .b e ck i n s ti tu te .org